Introduction Of Computer Hardware Computer Science Essay

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Hardware is the general term used to describe physical artifacts of a technology. Computer hardware is one part of the personal computer (PC). Multiple physical component of computer hardware made up a personal computer. Computer hardware is not frequently changed, modified or removed from a computer. Computer hardware is being stored in hardware devices such as read only memory (ROM), which is not readily changed. Computer can't function without hardware.

There are many types of hardware found in a computer. For example: Motherboard, it is the central circuit board forming up an electronic system complex. Central Processing Unit (CPU), CPU is the main component in a digital computer which interprets instruction and process data in computer programs. Floppy disk and hard disk function as a data storage device.

The motherboard is a main component found in the casing of Central Processing Unit (CPU). A motherboard is also called main board, logic board and system board. A motherboard is a large rectangular board with integrated circuitry which connects the rest of the parts of the computer and any peripherals via the ports or expansion slots. A motherboard holds many crucial components of the system while providing connectors for other peripherals. Most of the computer motherboard produced today is designed for IBM-compatible computers.

A motherboard is the logical foundation of the computer. Everything which makes a computer must be attached on a motherboard. Motherboard provides the connections that connect the Central Processing Unit (CPU) to storage device, from Random Access Memory (RAM) to printer ports. A motherboard functions as a big communication highway. Purpose of a motherboard is to provide platform for all component and peripheral to plug in together and the motherboard will relay information between them and enable connections to all components and peripherals so that they will be able to communicate with each other.

Components That Attach to the Motherboard

A motherboard houses the BIOS (Basic Input/Output System). Components that attached directly to a motherboard are the memory, Central Processing Unit (CPU), graphic cards, sound cards, disk drives, hard - drives, and some various external and peripherals.

Different Types of Motherboard

There are many types of motherboard nowadays because of the improvement of technology are getting better and better. Examples of motherboard are such as AT, ATX, Mini-ATX, Micro-ATX, LPX, NLX and BTX. There are 4 most popular and common types of motherboard among different types of motherboard. 4 most common and popular motherboard are ATX, AT, BTX and Mini-ATX

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History of Different Motherboards


Above is an AT motherboard (Advance Technology motherboard). The AT form factor referred to the dimension and layout of the motherboard for IBM AT (International Business Machines). IBM AT becomes popular and widely copied design in computer market of the 1980s. AT motherboard is designed in 12X13" form factor. Many computers still used AT in 1990s. AT form factor had largely supplanted by ATX (Advance Technology Extended motherboard).


Above is an ATX motherboard (Advance Technology Extended motherboard). ATX motherboard had supersede and took over the AT motherboard completely as a default form factor for new system. ATX motherboard is designed and developed by Intel in 1995 to improve on previous designed motherboard such as AT form factor. Development of ATX motherboard had improved the standardization and interchangeability of parts. With the improvement offered and lower price, ATX motherboard had completely took over AT motherboard within few years.


Above is a BTX motherboard (Balanced Technology Extended motherboard). BTX motherboard is developed to replace the aging ATX motherboard form factor in late 2004 and early 2005. BTX motherboard is designed to alleviate some of the issues and problem that arose and faced from using some new technologies which often demand and produce more heat and power on motherboard. BTX motherboard is proposed by Intel and first implements by Gateway.Inc, and followed by Dell and MPC. A development of BTX retail products by Intel had been canceled in September 2006 and a proprietary form factor is now used by many companies.


Above is a Mini-ATX motherboard (Mini Advance Technology Extended motherboard). A Mini-ATX is 15X15cm or 5.9X5.9 inches in size. Mini-ATX motherboard form factor is developed by AOpen.Inc. Mini-ATX motherboard is designed with MoDT (Mobil on Desktop Technology) function. MoDT adapt mobile CPU for lower power requirement and reduce the heat generation.


Recommended Type of Motherboard

After doing some research on different types of motherboards, I personally recommend using a BTX motherboard. BTX motherboard was designed and developed to replace the ATX motherboard. BTX motherboard is designed to alleviate some of the issues and problem that arose and faced from using some new technologies which often demand and produce more heat and power on motherboard. Although ATX motherboard solved many problems that exist in the AT design but however, there is still a problem faced by ATX motherboard. Heat generation is the main problem faced by usage of ATX motherboard. Every component inside the computer produces heat. With the increasing of the popularity of faster processors and stuffing of more transistors into a smaller space, heat becomes a problem that could not be overlooked. When components in the computer are overheating, it will damage the computer and also damage some of the components inside the computer. Therefore, Intel had introduced the BTX motherboard in 2003 as a new standard in the motherboard design to solve the problems faced while using ATX motherboard. The design of BTX motherboard system is to direct the coolest air into the processor, north bridge and graphics card location first. The heatsink of the CPU draws air from front of the case and exhausts it from the back. The design of the BTX motherboard has solve the problem faced while using ATX motherboard and so I prefer using a BTX motherboard then a ATX motherboard.


Different types of motherboard have different ability and function but all of the functions are almost the same. Human have studied and develop more and more new motherboard in the technology world. The improvement in technology will bring us a better life and helps make things easier, examples like we may use internet nowadays to communicate with the whole world without going to the place, this may help us save plenty of time. Technologies nowadays are still improving and I believe that there will be more types of motherboards and computer hardware develop and produce while time passes.

References and Appendixes

Website References referred date : 23/5/2010 referred date : 23/5/2010 referred date: 25/5/2010