Internet Surfing For The Blind Computer Science Essay

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The right of blind people to access the Internet is simply ignored in many countries because Web pages have been designed for normal people. The reason for this phenomenon is simple - many Web page designers do not test the accessibility of their designs with disabled persons in mind. The accessibility problem has grown significantly because more business and government agencies are relying on the Internet to disperse information and services and The Internet’s ability to transmit multimedia content overcoming time and space constraints has created exciting and unforeseen opportunities in commerce, communication, education, science, politics, international relations, and many other fields. The Internet has played a major role in stimulating the global economy and has a profound impact on the quality of life for its users. However, a digital divide exists. People with disabilities are often left out of this Internet revolution.

As a result, many blind people are not enjoying the benefits of the Internet and the improvement in the quality of life that Internet use can bring. In order for visually impaired persons to surf the Internet, it is necessary to develop a special human-computer interface system.

A device includes a speech input device. A speech recognition processor connected to the speech input device receives speech input. The device includes a computer readable medium coupled to the speech recognition processor. A command table stored on the computer readable medium includes commands corresponding to a control on a manual input interface. The speech recognition processor compares the speech input to the commands in the command table and generates instructions if the speech input matches a command in the command table. A programmable controller is coupled to the speech recognition processor and is configured to receive instructions and to convert the instructions into control signals. The device includes a standard interface connector coupled to the programmable controller. The programmable controller sends the control signals through the standard interface connector.

Proposed System Design

As the Overview of the system shows, the basis of system is that resident program read HTML pages downloaded via Web Browser, with the help of dictionary files and knowledge bases. Produce human speech. Human speech used by visually impaired person to guide their interaction with the browser. They in turn can provide their input through the use of special input device such as microphone.

Specifically resident programs have the following function:

Interaction with the Internet browser

Selectively reading part of the text in Web pages and producing human speech;

Receiving signals from special input unit and emulating a corresponding mouse signal to the browser.

2.1 Technology applied

To make Vocal Surf functional, the following technology are Employed, in additional to object oriented programming technique.

Microsoft sound application programming interface (SAPI).

Sound Wave Manipulation.

Component Object Modeling (COM).

2.2 Mechanism Implemented: The following diagram illustrate architecture of generation of audio engine

The voice driven interface essentially accepts spoken word as input. The input signal are then compared against set of predefine command. if there is appropriate match, the corresponding command is output to the command processor. engine also handle auxiliary function such as confirmation of command where appropriate, speed control and URL dictation.

The text-to speech engine is responsible for producing the only output for the system back to the user. Output is in the form of spoken text or sound for ordinary icon. The input can be either text stream consisting of actual information to be read out as the content of page or an instruction to play sound as an ordinary icon.

The other major component is an HTML translator. When user request an HTML document, the content of document must first be parsed and translated to a form which is suitable for use in audio. This include removal of unwanted tags and information. the translator also summarizes information about document such as the title and position of various structure for use with document.

The command processor sits between HTML translator and interface. The command processor is responsible for acting on the voice. The processor retrieve HTML document from WWW. And feeds them to the HTML translator algorithm. It also control the navigation between web pages and the functionality associated with navigation(bookmark, history list).this component also processes all the other system and housekeeping commands associate the program. The stream of marked text is speech synthesis/audio engine is output.

2.3 Functionality and Functionality Table:

All communication from the user to the system is made by issuing voice commands. such commands are arrange into object known as menus, depending upon the functionality requirement/availability, different menus are available at different points in the program execution.

A grammar set is defined to recognize speech commands; some of the rules are administrative control. To name few administrative control are

<exits/quit program |application| telebrouse >

Speak <faster/slower>

Where I m?

What is my home page

The other rules are used to control navigation. It is anticipated that they are the most frequently used command. The navigation is supported in various ways:

Within the same page (intra page navigation)

Browsing a new web page

Bookmark, history list, document structure or to follow a hyperlink in the web page.

Following grammars display the nature of these rules:

Start browsing by <location/bookmark/homepage>

Maintain bookmark.

Start reading<all/again>

Load<location/bookmark/homepage>

Go to history list

Jump <forward/backward

x< structure>>

Next/previous structure

A structure is one of paragraph, link, anchor, level 1/2/3 heading, list page or table. and x represent positive integer value.

2.4 Testing

The strategy adopted in testing Vocal Surf included Internal testing and User testing.

Internal testing of Vocal Surf consists of three phases:

1) Unit Testing

2) Module Testing

3) System Testing

Internal Testing carried out by research staff and User testing carried out by user.

Potential Application:-

For Young Children:- Children under 9 years are generally have problem accessing the internet as they do not possess a large vocabulary. Although they have normal vision and a large spoken vocabulary, they cannot read many words the Web pages. However, with the help of our Vocal Surf prototype. Young children can surf the internet as they can understand the contents of Web Page via human speech. System may find application in primary school.

For Older Person: For older Persons. Screen reading for long period of a time is very tiring, hence older people also got benefits from proposed system.

Hand Free Browsing: If input handler module is replace with voice recognition in the system, people with disabilities in their hands would be able to use system for a web Browsing. This change also benefit normal people who want to access Web when their hands are tied up doing something else.

Conclusion

Visually impaired person and blind can derive great benefits from vocal surf; it will make them independent as a member of wider society. Maximizing the use of computers as portal to the internet and its services will improve their opportunities in education and their access to information, vastly improving their quality of life.

A HCI system such as Vocal Surf would also broaden the profile of the Web using population. enabling as more children and elderly people will become internet users in the future

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