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Interaction Styles are the different ways of interaction between human and Computer. Human Computer Interaction is the process which is divided in many parts such as study, planning, and design of the interaction between users and computer (any electronic devices) [1 -robot]. Onj the user's side, interactive system technology is constrained or limited by the nature of human communication organs and abilities; on the computer side, it is constrained by input/output devices and methods that we can invent. Therefore, we have a challenge to design a system or device which can exploit the various characteristics of humans.
Presently human computer interaction in many different interaction styles are found in public areas, but now there is a need of products that are easy to understand and intuitive to navigate, how it can be used in daily lives using different interaction styles and using the technology. There exists a significant need for advancement in investigating the areas of emotion of human with respect to computers. [2 - facial]. Need of study in interaction styles is required such as PDA's, smart phones and pocket PC's have recently become commonplace in business environment and to make mobile interactions realistic so that users are able to work more effectively [3 -3G]. New methods of interaction styles are now in huge demand by users such as Interaction using Facial Expression [2 - facial], and interaction based on gestures [4 - gestures].
Categories of Interaction Style
Interaction Style can be performed in many ways such as three-dimensional interfaces, gestures based interface, virtual 3D interaction based on 3G, and communication with robots.
Three dimensional interfaces
It can be used for providing virtual 3D interfaces between human and computer based on 3G where, for example, wireless mobile communication such as mobile phones, PDA's and etc. can provide good graphics, network bandwidth and multimedia technology with respect to comfort level and satisfaction of users . To satisfy these demands of customers and to provide the effective and user-centered human-computer interaction mode for users and improving various kinds of terminal performances, 3G mobile terminal design for virtual human-computer interaction is explored . A cube is shown in 3D geometry and JSR 184 a standard M3G (Mobile 3D Graphics) is used defining a compact 3D interface for java mobile application program [5 - 3G refere]. This Cube is places according to certain conditions in 3D environment and finally when camera shoots a picture of 3D cube along the reverse direction of z-axis. Every vertex of cube, contain color information depending on pixel. Thus if color is allocated than there are two possible option using M3G. First, use same color in all vertexes and Second, to add color between 2 vertexes .
Gesture-Based Hybrid Interaction Style
Another major category in Interaction Style is interaction through gestures used to recognize and enhance interactions between human beings and augmented environments . It is a hybrid approach of interaction because it is a combination of several complementary techniques such as optical and non-optical sensing technology, virtual and real worlds, fuzzy and ML methods, wearable and pervasive computing paradigms and brute force. This process contains Natural Interaction Style as the computers capability to exploit the perceptive abilities which is prerogative of human-human communication . Interaction with virtual objects is shown for example, person is sitting on sofa, wants to watch movie from the sofa and chooses to enlarge screen and put it on ceiling. To do so he grabs the virtual screen corners and stretches her arms until the ceiling tuning the screen position, size and orientation . Similarly, Virtual access to real objects can be implemented . A prototype is implemented using brute force algorithms for simple gesture recognitions and in future to recognize more complex gestures in real-time, fuzzy approach can be used .
Interaction Style based on Communication with Robots
This interaction style is difficult to investigate because of complexity of interaction process. In this process the interactions of single users were analyzed according to the objective success by means of turn error rate (TER) . The participants are instructed to make the robot solve a number of tasks via on-screen conversation agent depending on child instruction and non-child instruction. This is done to evaluate human-robot communication with different instructions and subjective and objective dialogue success measures .
Interaction Style based on Photorealistic Facial Model for Inter-process Communication.
Modal for communication between two systems with the facial model speaking on both computer screens, when user wants to communicate with each other is performed. This modal is based on design of facial animations . In this method, input is the words spoken by human and then system automatically generates the reply for the given input in terms of acoustic speech that is synchronized with lips, jaw, eye brow movements of human like computer agent that is displayed on the computer screen as an output . There are many potential applications with this modal such as teleconferencing, computer games, human-human communication and distance learning . This process is done to create accurate real-time animated speech from input text. Also it is capable of producing animated speech using minimum amount of resources .
Concerns about Interaction Styles
Research in Interaction Styles and techniques is highly interdisciplinary. Majorly it comes in the discipline structure of Computer Science and Psychology, but it also includes disciplines such as Sociology, Anthropology, Graphic Design, and Electrical and Mechanical Engineering. Thus, funding given by the department leads the way in establishing the proposed Interaction Style in there field. Another problem is that the Interaction Styles need expensive equipment. Since they are new to market, it is very costly in early period. Such as Three-dimensional tracking, virtual reality, eye movements, and directional audio are all good examples but are very expensive.
However, one possible way to mitigate this problem is through sharing, and supporting new infrastructure among researchers. The central shop could allow economical sharing of the relevant expertise from other fields .
Application and Use
As the most users are entering the world of electronic gadgets, smart phones, PDA's etc., the demand of interaction style is changing according to need of people and development. Thus there is huge market in Robotics, Communication Models, and Facial Recognition structures. Interaction Styles can be performed to make things look better. Provide means to express commands to a computer directly. It can make things more clear, simple and obvious to the users how to use the application. Helps users understand the underlying conceptual model. Therefore, it can be very innovative and enable the realm of computers and their applications to be made more accessible to a greater diversity of users.
Research has shown that interaction styles majorly depend on two kinds on underlying factors human-computer interaction and psychological interaction. Interaction Styles has very important place in designing any model because it contains attributes which best supports the user needs and situation. However, using only one method can identify some Interaction problems and may not work, so in order to ensure productivity and success leading to faster and more natural communication, enabling better quality and efficiency, working conditions of users, we need to provide interaction style with richer and more natural means of communication.