Inter Organization Case Study Computer Science Essay

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This chapter will discuss about the literature review of the project. The discussions are divided into 4 parts, namely; inter-organization case study, current system analysis, comparison between existing systems and literature review on the technology used. The summary is made at the end of the chapter. The result of the literature review adds reference towards the methodology of this system development which will be discussed in the next chapter.

Restaurant is the primary place of customers to get their meal. It is important that their meals, mainly food and drinks, are handled in a professional manner. Every restaurant varies in its appearance and offerings, for example, ordering system. Some restaurants still take order manually while some are already using mobile devices especially tablets. The usage of tablets in ordering system has not only enhances the efficiency of the restaurant to deliver its services, it will deliver better experience for the customer and indirectly boost the reputation of the restaurant.

2.3 Current system analysis

2.3.1 Ordering system (Station 1, Skudai)

Station 1 café is located at Taman Universiti, Skudai, Johor. There are 50 tables to deliver its services to the customers. Below are the brief descriptions on how the restaurant operates:


Figure Customers are given a menu in each table in Station 1, Skudai Customers make order

The customers in Station 1, Skudai would take a look at the menu to select the type of food and drinks. When they have decided, they will call the waiter to take their order manually, using paper and pen. Staffs register order

The staff would register their order in an ordering station, which uses a computer with a touch panel. The order would be registered towards the counter for billing.

2.3.2 Ordering system (Sakae Sushi, Johor Bahru)

According to, SAKAE Sushi Malaysia, a Japanese sushi chain of Sakae Holdings Limited with over 50 outlets worldwide has launched Malaysia's first iPad digital ordering platform. It has been reported that there have been an increase of 30-40% in sales & efficiency.Below are the brief description on how the restaurant operates:


Figure iPad implementation is Sakae Sushi,Johor Bahru Customers make order

Every table in the restaurant are placed with a tablet, none other than Apple's iPad. The iPad resembles as the menu for customers together with promotions and other information. Customers can make order directly using the iPad. Order registration

The Apple's iPad is using a digital ordering platform, which is integrated directly towards the kitchen display and the Point-of-Sale (POS) system, the continuous operation within the ordering and billing cycle.


2.4 Comparison between existing systems

Below are the comparisons of the existing system:

Table 2.4.1 Comparison of Station 1, Skudai and Sake Sushi, Johor Bahru.


Station 1, Skudai

Sakae Sushi, Johor Bahru




User Interface




Human + Tablets







2.4.1 Software

Software is essential in the system. It is a primary structure in the ordering system. The software is needed to provide security such as access control and data integrity as well as mobile operating system, Google's Android, to enable mobile devices like tablets to work within the system.

The above places compared also used software in its' ordering system but for Station 1, Skudai, customers are not exposed to the software. Thus, it is important to include this feature in my proposed project.

2.4.2 User Interface

User interface is the front-line of the system. This is the place where customers are able to engage directly towards the system. As for Station 1, Skudai, customers are not exposed to the user interface of its software. It is the primary use for the staff. The current manual system is indeed has low advantage if compare to Sakae Sushi's iPad implementation.

In my project, a friendly user interface will be implemented as I researched that this feature boosts customer experience.

2.4.3 Communication

Having a good communication is very vital in a restaurant. For Station 1, Skudai, waiter/waitress is the only type of communication engaged by the customer. It is common that problem will occur especially in taking order in a very crowded environment.

Sakae Sushi, Johor Bahru, meanwhile, combines both waiter/waitress and mobile devices in its' ordering system. Such system reduces the prone to making wrong order, which indirectly boosts the quality of services of the restaurant.

So for my proposed project, it is important to implement good communication of devices between human and mobile devices.

2.4.4 Security

Security is important for both restaurants. This is to protect the restaurants' resources in terms of financial status, billing and ordering.

Security is a main feature in my proposed project to provide data integrity and confidentiality of the system.

2.4.5 Database

Database is an important feature to store the data of customer's order and billing. Both restaurants included this feature and it will be included in my proposed project.

2.5 Literature review on technology used

Based on the comparison, there are several technologies identified for my proposed project and implemented. However, some basic requirements for the computer are needed before developing the system shown below:

Table Basic requirements for computer.

Basic Requirement


Operating system

32/64 bit.


Necessary plug-ins must be installed for the working environment of the tools that would be used and will be discussed later in this chapter.

Random Access Memory

At least 2GB. RAM is important for having enough available memory to perform tasks on the tools.


At least 30GB. The storage must be sufficient to save the works done for the system development and documentation for future reference.

2.5.1 Android Technology

Below are several android technologies used to develop the system: Android Software Development Kit (SDK)

The Android SDK provides the API libraries and developer tools necessary to build, test, and debug apps for Android before loading it into the real device [1]. Java programming language is used for the application development [2]. Java Development Kit (JDK)

JDK is a product of Oracle Corporation which consists of a set of tools for developing, debugging, and monitoring Java applications [3]. JDK is important to write Java applets and application. It includes the Java Runtime Environment, the Java compiler and the Java APIs which are fundamental for the starting phase of the application development [4]. Eclipse

Eclipse is software development environment consists of a base work space and a plug-in system for environment customization. The language that usually used is Java. It is an open-source software. Android Development Tools (ADT)

Android Development Tools (ADT) is a plugin for the Eclipse IDE which is designed in an integrated environment to build Android applications [6]. ADT also enable Eclipse to set up new Android projects, create user interface (UI) for application, use Android Framework API to add packages, debug applications using Android SDK tools, and export .apk files [6]. Developing with ADT is recommended due to the guided project setup, tools integration, custom XML editors, and debug output pane [6]. Android Emulator

Android Emulator is a virtual mobile device that runs on a computer [7]. It is important to test the applications virtually before integrate it in the real device. Android Emulator enables user to select a variety of device to be simulated. It simulates actual software and hardware features of the device selected by user.

2.5.2 Web Technology

Below are several web technologies used to develop the system: HTML5

HTML5 is a markup language for presenting structured content for the World Wide Web (WWW) and a core technology of the Internet [8]. HTML5 aims to support for the latest multimedia while keeping It readable by humans, and can be computed by computers and other devices (tablet, mobile phones) [8]. jQuery

jQuery is a multi-browser JavaScript library designed to simplify HTML [9]. It was designed to simplify various tasks by writing less code with features like event-handling and DOM manipulation [10]. The jQuery library allows the creation of powerful dynamic web pages and web applications using modular approach [9]. For example, both desktops and mobile phones are able to see the content of a website but with different style. Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is used for presentation semantics (the look and formatting) in HTML as it is a style sheet language [11].  It contains style rules that are applied to elements in a Web page [12]. It is a fundamental language used to create dynamic formatting upon a web page nowadays. It is often done via a web-editor like Adobe Dreamweaver.

2.6 Chapter summary

This chapter describes the literature review of the proposed system. The literature review is important to find information in order to develop a better ordering management system. This chapter has provided an overview of the system to be developed.

In terms of features, there are several retrieved from the current existing system, enhancing the system implemented by Station 1, Skudai. The next chapter will discuss about the methodology of the system development.