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Unilever is an Anglo-Dutch multinational corporation that owns many of the world's consumer product brands in foods, beverages, cleaning agents and personal care products. Unilever N.V. has its head office in Rotterdam, while Unilever PLC has its head office in the Unilever House in the City of London and its registered office in Port Sunlight,
Unilever is a dual-listed company consisting of Unilever NV in Rotterdam, The Netherlands and Unilever PLC in London, United Kingdom. This arrangement is similar to those of Reed Elsevier and Royal Dutch Shell prior to their unified structures. Both Unilever companies have the same directors and effectively operate as a single business. The current non-executive Chairman of Unilever N.V. and PLC is Michael Treschow while Paul Polman is Group Chief Executive.
Unilever's main competitors include Danone, Henkel, Kraft Foods, Nestlé, PepsiCo, Procter & Gamble, Reckitt Benckiser, Sara Lee and S.C. Johnson & Son.
Unilever owns more than 400 brands as a result of acquisitions; however, the company focuses on what are called the "billion-dollar brands", 13 brands which each achieve annual sales in excess of â‚¬1 billion. Unilever's top 25 brands account for more than 70% of sales. The brands fall almost entirely into two categories: Food and Beverages, and Home and Personal Care.
Unilever is the world's biggest ice cream manufacturer, with an annual turnover of â‚¬5 billion. Except for Popsicle, Klondike, Ocean Spray ice cream, Slim Fast ice cream, Breyers, Starbucks and Ben & Jerry's, all of its ice cream business is done under the "Heartbrand" brand umbrella, so called because of its heart-shaped logo. Unilever currently operates eleven ice cream factories in Europe; the biggest include factories at Heppenheim in Germany, Caivano in Italy, St. Dizier in France, Gloucester in the United Kingdom and Santa Iria da Azóia in Portugal.
In 2005, Glidat Strauss received special permission from Unilever to export their brand of ice cream to the United States because of the strict kosher certification the products in Israel have. Under terms of the agreement, Strauss ice cream and krembo may be sold only in kosher supermarkets and import shops. It is distributed in North America by Dairy Delight, a subsidiary of Norman's Dairy.
Prior to the heart logo, each country could choose its own logo, although the most common one consisted of a blue circle with the local brand's name over a background of red and white stripes; second most common old logo, used by Wall's in the UK and other countries, was a yellow logo with Wall's in blue text.
Unilever generally manufactures the same ice-cream with the same names, with rare occasions of regional availability, under different brands. Some of these ice-creams include Carte D'Or, Cornetto, Magnum, Solero and Viennetta.
To make their transactions easier and better.
To secure their data and files in proper storage.
It has a wide capacity of memory and speeds up the computer programs due its high processor.
To help them to introduce their products through internet so that their customers will be informed immediately.
I choose Windows 2000 Datacenter Server to meet the exact standards of the company to avoid the problems on the application.
INSTALLATION OF WINDOWS 2000 DATACENTER SERVER
1. Start the computer from the CD.
2. You can press F6 if you need to install additional SCSI adapters or other mass-storage devices.
3. Setup will load all the needed files and drivers.
4. Select To Setup W2K Now. If you want, and if you have a previous installation of the OS, you can try to fix it by pressing R. If not, just press ENTER.
5. Press C to continue.
6. Read and accept the licensing agreement and press F8.
7. Select or create the partition on which you will install Windows 2000. Depending upon your existing disk configuration choose one of the following:
â€¢ If the hard disk is not yet partitioned, you can create and size the partition on which you will install Windows 2000. Press C.
â€¢ If the hard disk is new and you want to create a partition that will span the entire hard disk's size - press Enter.
â€¢ If the hard disk is already partitioned, but has enough unpartitioned disk space, you can create an additional partition in the unpartitioned space.
â€¢ If the hard disk already has a partition that is large enough, you can install Windows 2000 on that partition. If the partition has an existing operating system, you will overwrite that operating system if you accept the default installation path. However, files other than the operating system files, such as program files and data files, will not be overwritten.
â€¢ If the hard disk has an existing partition, you can delete it to create more unpartitioned space for the new partition. Deleting an existing partition erases all data on that partition.
If you select a new partition during Setup, create and size only the partition on which you will install Windows 2000. After installation, use Disk Management to partition the remaining space on the hard disk.
8. Select a file system for the installation partition. After you create the partition on which you will install W2K, you can use Setup to select the file system with which to format the partition. W2K supports the NTFS file system in addition to the file allocation table (FAT) and FAT32 file systems. Windows Server 2003, Windows XP Professional, Windows 2000, and Windows NT are the only Microsoft operating systems that you can use to gain access to data on a local hard disk that is formatted with NTFS. If you plan to gain access to files that are on a local W2K partition with the Microsoft Windows 95 or Windows 98 operating systems, you should format the partition with a FAT or FAT32 file system. We will use NTFS.
Setup will then begin copying necessary files from the installation point (CD, local I386 or network share).
10. Note: If you began the installation process from an MS-DOS floppy, make sure you have and run SMARTDRV from the floppy, otherwise the copying process will probably last more than an hour, perhaps even more. With SMARTDRV (or if setup was run by booting from CD) the copying will probably last a few minutes, no more than 5 max.
11. The computer will restart in graphical mode, and the installation will continue.
The GUI-based portion of the Setup program
The setup process reboots and loads a GUI mode phase.
It will then begin to load device drivers based upon what it finds on your computer. You don't need to do anything at this stage.
If your computer stops responding during this phase (the progress bar is stuck almost half-way, and there is no disk activity) - shut down your computer and begin removing hardware such as PCI and ISA cards. If it works for you then later try to figure out how to make that specific piece of hardware work (it's probably not in the HCL).
Click Customize to change regional settings, if necessary.
â€¢ Current System Locale - Affects how programs display dates, times, currency, and numbers. Choose the locale that matches your location, for example, French (Canada).
â€¢ Current Keyboard Layout - Accommodates the special characters and symbols used in different languages. Your keyboard layout determines which characters appear when you press keys on the keyboard.
If you don't need to make any changes just press Next.
If you do need to make changes press Customize and add your System Locale etc.
2. Type your name and organization.
3. Type the product key.
If you'd like to skip this step in the future, please read Install Windows 2000 Without Supplying the CD Key.
4. Enter the appropriate license type and number of purchased licenses.
Type the computer name and a password for the local Administrator account. The local Administrator account resides in the SAM of the computer, not in Active Directory. If you will be installing in a domain, you need either a pre-assigned computer name for which a domain account has been created, or the right to create a computer account within the domain.
Choose which components to install or remove from the system.
7. Select the date, time, and time zone settings.
Setup will now install the networking components.
After a few seconds you will receive the Networking Settings window. BTW, if you have a NIC that is not in the HCL (see the What's the HCL? page) and W2K cannot detect it, or if you don't have a NIC at all, setup will skip this step and you will immediately go to the final phase of the setup process.
Press Next to accept the Typical settings option if you have one of the following situations:
â€¢ You have a functional DHCP on your network.
â€¢ You have a computer running Internet Connection Sharing (ICS).
â€¢ You're in a workgroup environment and do not plan to have any other servers or Active Directory at all, and all other workgroup members are configured in the same manner.
Otherwise select Custom Settings and press Next to customize your network settings.
Highlight the TCP/IP selection and press Properties.
In the General tab enter the required information. You must specify the IP address of the computer, and if you don't know what the Subnet Mask entry should be - you can simply place your mouse pointer over the empty area in the Subnet Mask box and click it. The OS will automatically select the value it thinks is good for the IP address you provided.
Lamer note: In the above screenshot I've configured the computer with a valid IP address for MY network, along with the Default Gateway and the address of MY DNS server. Your settings may differ.
If you don't know what these values mean, or if you don't know what to write in them, press cancel and select the Typical Settings option. You can easily change these values later.
10. In the Workgroup or Domain window enter the name of your workgroup or domain.
â€¢ A workgroup is a small group of computers on a network that enables users to work together and does not support centralized administration.
â€¢ A domain is a logical grouping of computers on a network that has a central security database for storing security information. Centralized security and administration are important for computers in a domain because they enable an administrator to easily manage computers that are geographically distant from each other. A domain is administered as a unit with common rules and procedures. Each domain has a unique name, and each computer within a domain has a unique name.
If you're a stand-alone computer, or if you don't know what to enter, or if you don't have the sufficient rights to join a domain - leave the default entry selected and press Next.
If you want to join a domain (NT 4.0 domain of W2K/2003 Active Directory domain) enter the domain's name in the "Yes, make this computer a member of the following domain" box.
To successfully join a domain you need the following:
â€¢ The person performing the installation must have a user account in Active Directory. This account does not need to be the domain Administrator account.
â€¢ The computer must have an existing computer account in the Active Directory database of the domain that the computer is joining, and the computer must be named exactly as its domain account is named.
â€¢ The person performing the installation must have appropriate permission to create a domain account for the computer during installation.
Also, you need to have connectivity to the domain's domain controllers (only to the PDC if on an NT 4.0 domain) and a fully functional DNS server (only in AD domains). Read the Joining a Domain in Windows XP Pro and Requirements when Joining a Domain pages for more on this issue.
Enter the Active Directory domain name (in the form of xxx.yyy, for example: DPETRI.NET) or the NetBIOS name of the NT 4.0 domain (in the form of xxx, for example: DPETRI). Press Next.
Note: Providing a wrong username or password will cause this phase to fail.
11. Next the setup process will finish copying files and configuring the setup. You do not need to do anything.
After the copying and configuring phase is finished, if Windows Server 2003 finds that you have a badly configured screen resolution it will advise you to change it and ask you if you see the new settings right.
Setup finishes and displays the finish window. Unfortunately, you must press Finish in order to reboot...
14. Windows 2000 reboots and you should get the CTRL-ALT-DEL window.
15. Congratulation! You have successfully installed Windows 2000 Datacenter Server.
Microsoft Management Console (MMC)
A framework for hosting administrative tools, called consoles. A console may contain tools, folders or other containers, World Wide Web pages, and other administrative items. These items are displayed in the left pane of the console, called a console tree. A console has one or more windows that can provide views of the console tree.
The main MMC window provides commands and tools for authoring consoles. The authoring features of MMC and the console tree itself may be hidden when a console is in User Mode.
To open MMC, click Start, and then click Run. In the Open box, type mmc.
For information about using MMC, on the Action menu, click Help.
For more information, click Related Topics.
You can use Microsoft Management Console (MMC) to create, save, and open administrative tools (called MMC consoles) that manage the hardware, software, and network components of your Windows system. MMC can be run on the various Windows 9x and Windows NT operating systems.
MMC does not perform administrative functions, but hosts tools that do. The primary type of tool you can add to a console is called a snap-in. Other items that you can add include ActiveX controls, links to Web pages, folders, task pad views, and tasks.
There are two general ways that you can use MMC: in user mode, working with existing MMC consoles to administer a system, or in author mode, creating new consoles or modifying existing MMC consoles. For more information about the differences between user and author mode, see Console access options.
Opens Microsoft Management Console (MMC). Using the mmc command-line options, you can open a specific MMC console, open MMC in author mode, or specify that the 32-bit or 64-bit version of MMC is opened.
Microsoft Management Console
You can use Microsoft Management Console to host administrative tools that administer networks, computers, services, and other system components.
To start using Microsoft Management Console, do any of the following:
â€¢ Open Microsoft Management Console.
â€¢ Open Microsoft Management Console Help.
Using the Windows 2000 Task Scheduler
Task Scheduler is a component of Microsoft Windows that provides the ability to schedule the launch of programs or scripts at pre-defined times or after specified time intervals. It was first introduced in the Windows 95 Plus! pack as System Agent but was renamed to Task Scheduler in Windows 98. The Windows Event Log service must be running before the Task Scheduler starts up.
Using Task Scheduler, you can schedule any script, program, or document to run at a time that's most convenient for you. Task Scheduler starts each time you start Windows 2000 and runs in the background.
Running Task Scheduler
Open Control Panel, and double click Task Scheduler.
Double click the Add Scheduled Task icon.
Click Next button.
Select a program you want Windows to run.
Type a name for this task, then select a time when will it perform and click next to continue.
Enter a username and password for the task to use if it needs to log on to the server. Click Next.
You can set additional options by selecting Open Advanced Properties For This Task When I Click Finish.
If you do select this check box, when you click Next, the Advanced properties page appears. The Settings tab, shown in Figure E, allows you to configure the task even further. You can choose to terminate the task if it takes longer than a specific time to run, to start the task only if the computer has been idle for a specific amount of time, to stop the task if the computer ceases to be idle, to not start the task if the computer is on battery power, or to stop the task if battery mode begins. You can also choose to wake your computer to run a task if the computer starts running on battery power.
The Advanced properties page allows you to set additional options for the task.
Once you have configured and scheduled a task, it will appear in the Scheduled Tasks list.
Control Panel is full of specialized tools that are used to change the way Windows looks and behaves.
The Control Panel is a part of the Microsoft Windows graphical user interface which allows users to view and manipulate basic system settings and controls via applets, such as adding hardware, adding and removing software, controlling user accounts, and changing accessibility options. Additional applets can be provided by third party software.
To open Control Panel, click Start and then click Control Panel. If your computer is set up in Classic view using the more familiar Start menu, click Start, point to Settings, and then click Control Panel.
To see all Control Panel icons in Classic View
In the upper left of the Control Panel window, click Switch to Classic View. To change back, click Switch to Category View.
If you choose a view, and then close the Control Panel, next time you open Control Panel it maintains the last view that you selected.
To access all Control Panel items from the Start Menu
1. Click Start, click Control Panel, click Appearance and Themes, and then click Taskbar and Start Menu
2. Click the Start Menu tab, select Start menu, and then click Customize.
3. Click the Advanced tab.
4. Under Start menu settings, select the Open submenus when I pause on them with my mouse check box.
5. In the Start menu items list, under Control Panel, select Display as a menu. Click OK.
Control Panel items on Start< Menu
CONVERTING FAT TO NTFS
FAT32 and NTFS:
FAT32 and NTFS are file systems that may be used on a Microsoft Windows hard disk partition. NTFS provides a number of improvements over FAT32, including:
Second copy of boot sector for improved reliability
Improved performance on large volumes
Improved efficiency in disk space utilization
Improved fault tolerance
Converting FAT Disk to NTFS in Windows 2000
Back up data in the partition or drive that you want to convert, to another drive or partition or another computer system or PC or any other storage media.
In Windows XP:
Click <Start> -> <Run>
Enter "cmd" into the text field labeled "Open".
Click <OK> button
If you want to convert drive D (D:), enter the command "vol d:" in the command window, to find the volume label for the D: partition
Then enter the command "convert d: /fs:ntfs" to convert the D: partition from FAT32 to NTFS
When prompted, enter the volume label for the partition
2 TYPES OF DISK STORAGE IN WINDOWS 2000
Basic Disk Storage
Basic storage uses normal partition tables supported by MS-DOS, Microsoft Windows 95, Microsoft Windows 98, Microsoft Windows Millennium Edition (Me), Microsoft Windows NT, Microsoft Windows 2000, and Windows XP. A disk initialized for basic storage is called a basicdisk. A basic disk contains basic volumes, such as primary partitions, extended partitions, and logical drives.
Additionally, basic volumes include multidisk volumes that are created by using Windows NT 4.0 or earlier, such as volume sets, stripe sets, mirror sets, and stripe sets with parity. Windows XP does not support these multidisk basic volumes. Any volume sets, stripe sets, mirror sets, or stripe sets with parity must be backed up and deleted or converted to dynamic disks before you install Windows XP Professional.
Dynamic Disk Storage
Dynamic storage is supported in Windows 2000 and Windows XP Professional. A disk initialized for dynamic storage is called a dynamic disk. A dynamic disk contains dynamic volumes, such as simple volumes, spanned volumes, striped volumes, mirrored volumes, and RAID-5 volumes.
Primary Partition - A partition that is used to start an operating system, although you can use primary partitions that don't contain the operating system. Look at the color coded key at the bottom of Fig. 01 and you'll see that Primary partitions are denoted by the dark blue color.
There can be up to a maximum of four primary partitions on a single basic disk.
The Primary partitions do not have to come before Extended partitions as shown on Disk 0.
A drive is not required to have any Primary partitions as shown by Disk 1
CD-ROM 1, while it does contain a blank CD, is not shown as containing a partition because there is no data contained on the CD.
CREATE USER AND GROUPS
User accounts are used to authenticate, authorize or deny access to resources for, and audit the activity of individual users on your network. A group account is a collection of user accounts that you can use to assign a set of permissions and rights to multiple users simultaneously. A group can also contain contacts, computers, and other groups. You can create user accounts and group accounts in Active Directory to manage domain users. You can also create user accounts and group accounts on a local computer to manage users specific to that computer.
Some of the most common tasks are creating user accounts in Active Directory, creating group accounts in Active Directory, creating user accounts on a local computer, and creating groups on a local computer. You can also use the command line to create user and group accounts in Managing Active Directory from the command line or on a Managing local groups from the command line.
To create a user account in Active Directory
Open Active Directory Users and Computers.
In the console tree, right-click the folder in which you want to add a user account.
Active Directory Users and Computers/domain node/folder
Point to New, and then click User.
In First name, type the user's first name.
In Initials, type the user's initials.
In Last name, type the user's last name.
Modify Full name to add initials or reverse order of first and last names.
In User logon name, type the user logon name, click the UPN suffix in the drop-down list, and then click Next.
If the user will use a different name to log on to computers running Windows 95, Windows 98, or Windows NT, then you can change the user logon name as it appears in User logon name (pre-Windows 2000) to the different name.
In Password and Confirm password, type the user's password, and then select the appropriate password options.
To create a group account in Active Directory
Open Active Directory Users and Computers.
In the console tree, right-click the folder in which you want to add a new group.
Active Directory Users and Computers/domain node/folder
Point to New, and then click Group.
Type the name of the new group.
By default, the name you type is also entered as the pre-Windows 2000 name of the new group.
In Group scope, click one of the options.
In Group type, click one of the options.
To create a user account on a local computer
Open Computer Management.
In the console tree, click Users.
Computer Management/System Tools/Local Users and Groups/Users
On the Action menu, click New User.
Type the appropriate information in the dialog box.
Select or clear the check boxes for:
User must change password at next logon
User cannot change password
Password never expires
Account is disabled
Click Create, and then click Close.
To create a group on a local computer
Open Computer Management.
In the console tree, click Groups.
Computer Management/System Tools/Local Users and Groups/Groups
On the Action menu, click New Group.
In Group name, type a name for the new group.
In Description, type a description of the new group.
To add one or more users to a new group, click Add.
In the Select Users, Computers, or Groups dialog box, do the following:
To add a user or group account to this group, under Enter the object names to select, type the name of the user account or group account that you want to add, and then click OK.
To add a computer account to this group, click Object Types, select the Computers check box, and then click OK. Under Enter the object names to select, type the name of the computer account that you want to add, and then click OK.
In the New Group dialog box, click Create, and then click Close.
Group policies are used by administrators to configure and control user environment settings. Group Policy Objects (GPOs) are used to configure group policies which are applied to sites, domains, and organizational units (OUs). Group policy may be blocked or set so it cannot be overridden. The default is for sub objects to inherit the policy of their parents. There is a maximum of 1000 applicable group policies.
Group policies are linked to domains, organizational units, or sites in Active Directory. A policy must be linked to a container object in Active Directory to be effective. They are stored in any domain for storage but can be linked to other domains to make them effective there also. The policy must be linked to the container (site, domain, or OU) that it is stored in to be effective in that container. One policy object can be linked to several containers. Several policy objects can be linked to one container.
Group Policy Settings
Group policy settings only work for Windows 2000 computers. Settings that do the following may be applied with group policy:
Manage user environments - Wallpaper and other settings.
Manage scripts - Logon/logoff and startup/shutdown scripts.
Manage security - Event log settings, account policies, and more.
Manage software deployment - Applications may be automatically installed when the client computer starts.
Redirect folders - Folders on a local computer may be redirected to a network share.
CHANGE LOCAL SECURITY POLICY
To edit the standard security policy of a Windows computer you can use the Local Security Settings tool or the Group Policy Editor tool. The Local Security Settings tool will show you only items related to the security of that computer while the Group Policy Editor tool will show you additional items you can configure such as user and software settings.
To open the Local Security Policy click on Start, Programs and then Administrative Tools. Then you will have a Local Security Policy icon within the Administrative Tools group. If you don't have the Administrative Tools groups showing then right click your taskbar and choose Properties. From there click on the Start Menu tab and then the Customize button. If you use the Classic start menu check the box that says Display Administrative Tools. If you use the regular start menu then click on the Advanced tab scroll down to System Administrative Tools and check Display on the All Programs menu and the Start menu. Now you will have an Administrative Tools option under your Programs menu. Now you can click on Local Security Policy.
You will see several sections related to different areas of the security policy.
Account Policies is where you can set password policies such as the minimum password length and how long before passwords expire. You can also setup account lockout policies which can lock out a user if they enter the wrong password too many times.
Local Policies is where you setup things such as auditing for logins, file access, policy changes and other type of events that can be logged. There is also a section for user rights assignments which allows you to fine tune what administrative tasks your users can perform. In the Security Options section you can grant or deny various rights such as the ability to rename the administrator account and restricting access to devices such as the CDROM.
Public Key Policies is used to specify how to manage certificates and certificate life cycles. This security setting specifies whether certificates are automatically enrolled, renewed when they are expired, and removed when they are revoked.
Software Restriction Policy is used as a way to identify software and control its ability to run on local computers. The two security levels are Disallowed and Unrestricted.
IP Security Polices (IPSEC) is a framework for a set of protocols for security at the network layer of network communication. It is used to support secure exchange of packets at the IP layer and is widely used in Virtual Private Networks (VPNs). Windows has 3 built in IPSEC polices. Client, Secure Server and Server. Client (Respond Only) is used to negotiate with servers that request security but its not necessary to use security if none is present. Secure Server (Require Security) does not allow unsecured communication with untrusted clients. Server (Request Security) always requests security but allows unsecured communication with clients that do not respond to request.
Access control is a system which enables an authority to control access to areas and resources in a given physical facility or computer-based information system. An access control system, within the field of physical security, is generally seen as the second layer in the security of a physical structure.
Access control is, in reality, an everyday phenomenon. A lock on a car door is essentially a form of access control. A PIN on an ATMsystem at a bank is another means of access control. Bouncers standing in front of a night club is perhaps a more primitive mode of access control (given the evident lack of information technology involved). The possession of access control is of prime importance when persons seek to secure important, confidential, or sensitive information and equipment.
An access token is an object encapsulating the security descriptor of a process. Attached to a process, a security descriptor identifies the owner of the object (in this case, the process) and ACLs that specifies accessing rights allowed or denied to the owner of the object. While a token is used to represent only the security information, it is technically free-form and can enclose any data. The access token is used by Windows when the process or thread tries to interact with objects whose security descriptors enforce access control (securable objects). An access token is represented by the system object of type Token. Because a token is a regular system object, access to a token itself can be controlled by attaching a security descriptor, but it is generally never done in practice.
The Access token is generated by the logon service when a user logs on to the system and the credentials provided by the user are authenticated against the authentication database, by specifying the rights the user has in the security descriptor enclosed by the token. The token is attached to every process created by the user session (processes whose owner is the user). Whenever such a process accesses any resource which has access control enabled, Windows looks up in the security descriptor in the access token whether the user owning the process is eligible to access the data, and if so, what operations (read, write/modify etc.) the user is allowed to do. If the accessing operation is allowed in the context of the user, Windows allows the process to continue with the operation, else it is denied access.
CREATING LEGAL WARNING
You can create a funny message or legal warnings for others just before logon to your computer. This is very useful if you want to give a message to new user about the use of computer. Edit the value of registry keys to create a banner message.
Click Start button then type regedit in Run option then press Enter for next.
Here locate the location to:
HKeyLocalMachine \ SOFTWARE \ Microsoft \ Windows \ CurrentVersion \ Win Logon
Here in right side panel, right click to create a new string value LegalNoticeCaption and give it a value you want to see in the menu bar
Now again right click to create a new string value called LegalNoticeText and change the value you want to see in the dialog box
Now close the registry editor and restart your computer after any changes to go into effect.
A network protocol defines rules and conventions for communication between network devices. Protocols for computer networking all generally use packet switching techniques to send and receive messages in the form of packets.
Network protocols include mechanisms for devices to identify and make connections with each other, as well as formatting rules that specify how data is packaged into messages sent and received. Some protocols also support message acknowledgement and data compression designed for reliable and/or high-performance network communication. Hundreds of different computer network protocols have been developed each designed for specific purposes and environments.
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
The Internet Protocol Suite is the set of communications protocols used for the Internet and other similar networks. It is commonly also known as TCP/IP, named from two of the most important protocols in it: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), which were the first two networking protocols defined in this standard. Modern IP networking represents a synthesis of several developments that began to evolve in the 1960s and 1970s, namely the Internet and local area networks, which emerged during the 1980s, together with the advent of the World Wide Web in the early 1990s.
The Internet Protocol Suite, like many protocol suites, is constructed as a set of layers. Each layer solves a set of problems involving the transmission of data. In particular, the layers define the operational scope of the protocols within.
Often a component of a layer provides a well-defined services to the upper layer protocols and may be using services from the lower layers. Upper layers are logically closer to the user and deal with more abstract data, relying on lower layer protocols to translate data into forms that can eventually be physically transmitted.
The TCP/IP model consists of four layers (RFC 1122). From lowest to highest, these are the Link Layer, the Internet Layer, the Transport Layer, and the Application Layer.
LINK WITH NETWARE AND SECURITY
Accessing Netware with Security
1. Open the Control Panel select and click Network and Dial-Up Connections
2. Double-click the Local Area Connection icon,
3. Then click the Local Area Connection Status Window's Properties button.
Click the Install... button. The Select Network Component type dialog will appear.
4. Select Client then click Add.
5. Select Network Client window will then appear. Select Client Service for
NetWare and click OK.
6. The Select NetWare Logon window will appear. If you are not sure, simply
click Cancel, and select Yes afterward to allow for later reconfiguration.
7. If the computer asked you to reboot, click No. You will then be returned to the
Local Area Connection Properties.
8. Next, Click on NWLink IPX/SPX Compatible Transport and then on the
Properties button. The NWLink IPX/SPX Properties dialog will appear (Figure 5)
9. Set the frame type to Ethernet II and then click OK. You will be returned to
the Local Area Connection Properties.
10. Uncheck the NWLink NetBIOS selection in the Local Area Connection
Properties window (Figure 8.6). Click Close to close the Local Area Connection
Properties window, and reboot your computer if prompted
Remote Access Control
Remote Access Services (RAS) refers to any combination of hardware and software to enable the remote access tools or information that typically reside on a network of IT devices. A RAS server is a specialized computer which aggregates multiple communication channels together. Because these channels are bidirectional, two models emerge: Multiple entities connecting to a single resource, and a single entity connecting to multiple resources. Both of these models are widely used. Both physical and virtual resources can be provided through a RAS server: centralized computing can provide multiple users access to a remote virtual operating system. Access Providers often use RAS servers to terminate physical connections to their customers, for example customers who get Internet through some form of modem.
Use Remote Access Service (RAS) to create client applications. These applications display RAS common dialog boxes, manage remote access connections and devices, and manipulate phone-book entries. RAS also provides the next generation of server functionality for the Remote Access Service (RAS) for Windows. The RRAS server functionality follows and builds upon the Remote Access Service (RAS).
The Remote Access Service is applicable in any computing environment that uses a Wide Area Network (WAN) link or a Virtual Private Network (VPN). RAS makes it possible to connect a remote client computer to a network server over a WAN link or a VPN. The remote computer then functions on the server's LAN as though the remote computer was connected to the LAN directly. The RAS API enables programmers to access the features of RAS programmatically.
Create a Local Printer
To make a local printer available in a Remote Desktop session:
1. Click Start, point to All Programs, point to Accessories, point to Communications, and then click Remote Desktop Connection.
2. Click Options in the Remote Desktop Connection dialog box.
3. Click the Local Resources tab.
4. Click Printers in the Local Devices box.
5. Click Connect.
After you establish the remote connection and log on to the remote computer, the local printer that is connected to the client becomes the default printer for any programs that are running on the remote desktop. If the client has more than one printer attached to it, the default printer for the computer becomes the default printer on the remote desktop; however, all local printers are available.
Note that when you click Connect, the settings that you specify in the Remote Desktop Connection dialog box are used as the default settings for all new connections. On the General tab in the Remote Desktop Connection dialog box, you can save a collection of settings to a Remote Desktop file. When you do this, you can create different groups of settings for connections to different remote desktops.
Creating Network Printer
1. Click on the Start button, then click Control Panel, then click Printers and Faxes, then click Add Printer.
2. A new Add Printer Wizard window opens. Click Next to start.
3. Select Local printer attached to this computer. Make sure Automatically detect and install my Plug and Play printer is NOT checked. Then click Next to continue.
4. We will create a new port for your network printer. Select Create a new port.
5. Beside Type of Port, click on the down arrow, and then click on Standard TCP/IP Port. Then click Next to continue.
6. A new Add Printer Port Wizard will open. Click Next to continue.
7. You must now type your printer's IP Address in the Printer Name or IP Address field.
8. The Port Name will automatically be filled when you enter the IP Address. Do not change the Port Name. Then click Next.
9. IF YOU DID NOT HAVE PROBLEMS, Windows XP will scan the network to find your printer's IP Address. This may take a few seconds. Select Finish to continue.
10. You must now select the printer's manufacturer and model. Windows XP will automatically select the detected manufacturer and printer driver. Normally, you will not have to change this selection.
11. OPTIONAL: If your printer is listed but you have more than one printer model to choose from, please select the model with PS, if available.
12. IF your network printer is NOT automatically detected, select the Windows Update button to find the proper software drivers.
13. You will be prompted to confirm the selected printer driver. Make sure Keep existing driver is selected, and then click Next to continue.
14. You will be prompted to assign the printer a Name. You can use the default name, or add more info to indicate the printer location, such as My Office, Hallway, Foyer, Room 222, etc.
15. Select Yes if you want to use the printer as the default printer. Click Next to continue.
16. You will be prompted to share the network printer. Do NOT share the network printer. Click Next to continue.
17. You will be prompted to print a test page. Select Yes, then click Next.
18. Check your network printer to make sure your page printed. Select Yes when prompted to confirm a successful test page.
19. Click on the Finish button to complete the Add Printer Wizard.
Creating Alert Objects
To create an alert
Create an Alert object.
Set the Name property.
Set the response type for the alert by setting the value of the Severity property or the Message ID property.
Set any optional properties you want. For example, set the Database Name property to limit the alert's action to a specific database, or use the Add Notification method to add operators to the alert.
Add the Alert object to the Alerts collection of a connected Job Server object.
To alter an existing alert
Get an Alert object from the Alerts collection of a connected Job Server object.
Use the Begin Alter method to mark the beginning of the changes.
Set the Alert object properties to reflect changes in alert behaviors.
Use the Do Alter method to submit the alert changes to SQL Server.