Input And Output Elements Computer Science Essay

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A computer system needs different type's elements to function properly. This report is about computer laboratory literature which will gives you a better view about computer components and how they work together.

There are different type's elements that need to run a computer system. Some of them are very important elements such as processor, memory, input/output and support elements. The details of how they work will be found later on this report. And the important of these functions is very high as without any one of them leads to poor performance. And understanding of these vital components is very crucial.

Von Neumann model explores the importance of how the system works from the input to the output and the stages between the output and input which leads to the final desired action. And throughout this report, it explains the importance and how these components work to achieve the desired action.


The processor or the CPU (Central Processing Unit) is often called the brain of the computer. The processor carries out the instructions in a program and controls all the work in the computer. There are four main elements inside CPU which are the Control unit (CU), Arithmetic logic unit (ALU), and Registers

Control Unit: Control unit control the flow of the information through the processor. This component receives, decodes, stores the result and manages the implementation of the data that flows through the CPU. It decides what actions it has to take and ensure that the data is sent to the appropriate components in the computer.

Arithmetic Logic Unit: Arithmetic Logic Unit is the part of CPU where all calculations are made. ALU performs the mathematical functions of addition, subtraction, multiplications, division and the logic operations. These include timing, number system and instructions.

Registers: Registers is basically controlled by control unit and a necessary part of the CPU. Registers are temporary memory where it used to keep the data and other information while the program is running. Another type of registry is to accumulate, which is responsible for storing the next value that will be processed by the CPU.

Data flow diagram works

Insert the information by input device like mouse, keyboard etc and it goes to processor

The processor processes the information and sends it to memory.

Then the memory stores the information as temporary(ram) and again sends back to processor

Then the processor send the information as output through monitor, printer, etc


Memory is where you can store your data so that your computer can access them quickly when they need. There are two different types of memory which is primary memory and secondary memory. Where the primary memory is volatile and the secondary memory is non-volatile.

Random Access Memory: Primary memory is often referred to RAM which is Random Access Memory. RAM is the internal memory to the computer. All applications and documents you work with are stored in RAM, which is much faster than hard disk. The information is stored in RAM so that the computer can access them very quickly when they need.

Read Only Memory: Read Only Memory (ROM) is another primary memory to keep the information so that computer can access them quickly. ROM holds only the information that can be read not writing on it. A good example for ROM is the computer BIOS.

Cache: Cache is another memory in primary memory. It's called the high speed memory because the computer accesses them more quickly than from RAM. CPU uses the memory to store instructions that are used very often and requires running programs.

Secondary memory is where the information or the data is stored as permanent. Hard disk, USB flash drive, Memory cards, CDs and DVD drives are different types of secondary memory.

Hard Disk: Hard disk is a computer component where you can save large amount of data and other information that you need on it. You may also be used as a backup device. It is also called as Non-Volatile memory. There are three main hard drive controllers which is SATA, IDE and EIDE.

Pen drives: Pen drives are also portable devices. The other name for the Pen drive is USB flash drive. Pen drives are typically removable and rewritable. Pen drive also used to store media files, document files and software. Pen drive directly connects to the USB port onto the motherboard. Also comes with the different sizes from 256MB to 32GB and more.

Memory card: Memory card are used to store various types of electronic data. The other name for memory card is flash memory card. The standard memory card is capable of storing a wide range of data files such as media files, audio and video clips, images and text documents.

Input and Output Elements

Input Elements

Input device is to capture data and translate it into a machine-readable format so that can be processed. It can send the data into computer via any input devices such as keyboard, mouse and microphone.

Keyboard: Keyboard is used to enter the letters, numbers or any command into the computer to perform. Keyboards are mainly connected via PS/2 or USB cable behind the computer case.

Mouse: Mouse is used to achieve the desired action; the movement of the mouse directly match to the movement on the screen which enables to cursor to click on an icon and pictorial symbol on a screen.

Microphone: Microphone is another input which allows desired actions to occur. When the person speaks through a microphone the computer understands these actions by changing the spoken words in to binary code.

Output Elements

Output devices are the devices which are used to get the information out via any output device such as network interface card, graphics card and printer.

Network Interface Card: A network card is an expansion card which installs into a computer and enables that computer to physically connect to a local or wide area network. The most common form of network card in current use is the Ethernet card. Other types of network cards include wireless network. The NIC (Network Interface Card) has a permanent media access control (MAC) address which is used in order to tell what card data is for. The NIC converts between the parallel data format of the computer's internal data bus and the serial data stream on the network.

Graphics Card: Graphics Card (also video card) is a piece of hardware installed on the computer motherboard that is responsible for representing the image on the computer's display screen. Video cards are most commonly connected to the AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port), PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) or PCI Express expansion slot on the motherboard. One of the main features of a graphic card is the ability to draw 3D graphics.

Printer: A printer prints whatever is on the monitor onto the paper as a hard copy. Printers can print words, numbers or any graphics image. Printers are connected onto the motherboard via parallel cable or through USB connection.

Support Elements


Motherboard allows all the computer parts to communicate to each other and it also the primary hardware component inside a computer system.

Some of the main components of motherboard are:

CPU Chip: The CPU is Central Processing Unit which controls all the calculations and decisions inside the PC. The CPU has all the control over the work is running on PC.

RAM: Random Access Memory provides the working area for the CPU. Its keep all the temporary memory of the running programs and stores the data or information's as temporary.

Floppy Controller: Is the hardware responsible for interfacing the floppy drives on your computer. It manages the flow of information from floppy to system processor.

IDE Controller: Integrated Drive Electronics is a connection for your hard drive or CD/DVD drive. It has the responsibility for controlling the hard drive.

PCI Slot: PCI slot can be used for components such as Ethernet cards, sound cards and modems. The PCI bus is used to connect I/O devices to the main logic of the computer.

Power Supply Plug In: This is the component that supplies power to the other components of the computer. It communicates with other parts of the computer and supplies the power to it.

Case: Computer case is one of the important elements to keep the all elements inside safe. The computer case gives protection for the elements inside and it also keep the airflow running smooth so that the computer doesn't get hot.

Power supply

Power supply is the component that supplies power to make the computer and components work. It provides different voltage that is necessary for different computers to operate properly. The power supply needs to produce enough voltage to allow the motherboard and other component to work correctly. There are two different types of power; internal (Alternating current) and external (Direct current).

The power supply also referred as switching power supplies. The power supplies pull the required amount of electricity and convert the AC input current to DC voltages.

Fan and heat sink or cooling

It's a physical device to keep the processor cool from the heating up. Keeping the processor at the right temperature is a major part of PC performance. Without these components, the performance will not be efficient also it may damage or even crash the system. The fan extracts the hot air from the case and keeps the components from heating up all the time. Heat sink is another device which sits over the CPU and keeps the CPU cooled down. The CPU is the one of the most important chip and the CPU must work properly to make the system more efficient. Some components generate a lot of heat and these can affect other chips closer to them. An example would be video cards.


After reading how these functions work and how they turn the desired actions into reality is astonishing. And one cannot deny the importance of these components in relation to the performance. And it's vital these work to their maximum so that the performance is not affected. Also special mention to the motherboard, processor and memory as these are the most vital elements which is basic for the computer to operate.