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The management function performance is necessary for an organization to develop and operation. The management practice is as old as organizations that thing means, indeed, a special oldness that has begun at the same time with the human communities' social life organization.
One of the necessary conditions for Romania to align the human resource management to the requirements and existing standards on the EU market is represented by the rapid integration of the newest trends in information technology domain.
Undoubtedly, the human resources department dedicated applications market has been dominated by applications for wage domain. However, an extending trend of these solutions has been registered recently, transforming them from simple salaries 'computing' into full human resource management dedicated applications.
In this article the author intends to achieve a Web site for human resource management in a public institution.
Human Resource Management represents the special part of the organization general management that deals the personnel issues in an integrated, global, interdisciplinary and professional vision and that consists in ensuring the organization objectives fulfilment by recruitment, selection, development and proper human resources use so that to capitalize the professional and creative potential of all members.
Job analysis is the process that determines the tasks, activities, competences and specific responsibilities of a job and personnel type recommended for it.
Job description and specification
Recruitment and selection decisions
Job assessment: wage decision
Competences area establishing
Fig.1. Using information from job analysis.
Job analysis consists in:
- Job Description which is a list of tasks, activities, competences, responsibilities, formal relations and working conditions of a job;
- Job Specification that represents the list of "human and professional requirements" necessary to the job employment, namely: knowledge, skills, experience and personal attitudes (skills, personality characteristics, aspirations, etc.).
The job analysis steps are:
Step 1: Specifying the information use, the data type that must be obtained and the techniques that will be used for this purpose.
Step 2: Ensuring the required information acquisition. They are used for this step the following elements:
- Organization charts;
- Process diagrams;
- Job description (if exist, it can be a good starting point from which to prepare an updated job description).
Step 3: Selection of the representative positions for analysis. This is necessary when there are several similar positions.
Step 4: The job analysis, which leads to obtaining information on activities within the job, working conditions and human requirements necessary to perform the activities. This step involves using one or more job analysis techniques.
Step 5: Verification of information obtained through direct discussions with the person occupying the analyzed position or with his hierarchical manager. On that occasion, the permission from the job occupant is obtained or activities description changes are made.
Step 6: Job descriptions and specifications developing, as a result of the achieved analysis.
2. Information Technology for Human Resource Management
Objects are key elements of object-oriented programming and represent real or abstract individual entities with a well-defined role within a system. An object has an identity, state and behaviour. Everything that objects know (state) and can achieve (behaviour) is expressed by means of sets of properties (or attributes) and operations (or methods). Thus, an object state is given by its property values at a time. Operations are procedures or functions that allow you to change these values and implement the object behaviour.
Object-oriented applications are composed of many objects that interact and communicate among themselves via messages. A message is a request addressed to an object for executing a certain operation. The message is composed of three distinct elements: the object identity which the message is sent to, the name of the operation which would be executed and a list of parameters necessary for the operation execution. The three piece of information are enough for an object that receives a message to be able to perform the desired operation. Therefore, the messages transmission mechanism allows communication between objects in the different contexts (or processes) or on different computing systems.
Objects interfaces define their type. Objects that have the same interface belong to the same type. Since the interface is a subset of operations that defines the object behaviour, it also called externally observable behaviour.
Identify a set of objects that have common properties and behaviours is called classification. Class is another basic concept of the object-oriented programming and represents an abstraction of common elements (properties and operations) shared by many objects and describes their implementation.
Objects are concrete representations of classes and the creating process of an object based on the definition of a class is called Instantiation.
A good human resource management can not be ensured only by holding them in a database (Fig. 2).
The company objective achieving is dependent on the human resources performances that contain both the personnel quality and the human resources well organization in a database.
Reward and assessing
Formation and training system
Promoting and motivation
Fig.2. Human resources management.
The Caché object model adheres to the ODMG Standard from the Object Data Management Group. The basic operations for Caché Objects are based on object classes (which are defined in the Caché Studio or directly to the Class Definition Language (CDL)) and the subsequent compilation of these to produce runtime executables. Caché supports all principles of modern object technology for creating, storing, loading, and manipulating object instances.
Caché Server Pages (CSP) is a set of technologies built in Caché that offer the achievement possibility and the rapid development of web applications.
Dynamic web pages (CSP files) contain HTML or XML, so that can be created or modified using any text editor or any tool for creating Web pages available on the market. Applications can be designed as if it were a series of static web pages. Navigating through these pages is automatically solved by Caché.
CSP uses two methods for building web applications:
Creating classes derived from % CSP.Page class, which generates HTML statements in response to HTTP received requests;
Using HTML files, which are automatically converted to CSP classes.
These two techniques can be combined to achieve applications with maximum flexibility and for each of them Caché Studio can be used as programming environment.
3. Design of website for human resource management
Caché is a web application consisting of:
a set of web pages that define what the user actually sees;
application code which is responsible for handling user's requests, processing the logic part of the application and storing and retrieving data;
data that are stored on the server and include relatively static information.
Caché allows the classes definition in two ways:
using Caché Studio tool;
using the Class Definition Language (CDL).
For application on human resources management, Caché Studio tool was used. This is a standard Windows application that uses a number of windows to display and enable different aspects editing. The main components of the Caché Studio user interface are:
the classes / routines / CSP files editor;
Project view that displays the content of the current project tree structure;
Fig.3. Human resource management application classes.
The application includes nine classes: Angajat, AngajareSalariat, Departament, PregÄƒtire, IstoricSalariu, ReÅ£inere, ReÅ£ineriSalariat, Prima and PrimeSalariat.
Angajat class contains five properties: Mark, Name, Phone, Address, Date of Birth and two indexes related to the two properties, called MarkIndex and NameIndex.
After describing the nine classes, information shall be filled in the database, the easiest method of adding data in a database being the use of a web form.
The application contains nine data input forms, one corresponding to each class, namely: FormularAngajat, FormularAngajareSalariat, FormularDepartament, FormularPregatire, FormularIstoricSalariu, FormularRetinere, FormularRetineriSalariat, FormularPrima and FormularPrimeSalariat.
Fig.3. Employee input form.
To view the information from the application classes, the following CSP files were created: AfisareAngajati.csp for displaying the CAS Prahova employees and their personal data, DepartamentAngajati.csp for displaying employees distributed by departments, PregatireAngajati.csp for displaying professional training of employees, SalariuIncadrareAngajati.csp for displaying employees' salary, PrimeAngajati.csp for showing raises granted to employees and RetineAngajati.csp to show employee related deductions.
For example, the author has chosen AfisareAngajati.csp web page, the other display pages being created similarly.
The page AfisareAngajati.csp has been created in Macromedia Dreamweaver to display the information stored in the Angajat class. This page was customized by placing the title "Prahova County CAS Employees" at the top of the page that was formatted using the Properties box. On this page a table has been inserted to organize the list of employees as well.
Fig.4. AfisareAngajati.csp page.
A CSP file that contains two frames has been created for performing a search in the application. In the web application for human resources management the following searches were made: search of employees' professional training by mark, search of employee by department code, search of employment wage by mark, search of employee's deduction by deductions code and search of employees' bonus by bonus code.
The following csp files have been created for searching the employees' training by mark: AfisarePregatire.csp that shows the training of the Prahova CAS employees', CautareAngajat.csp that enables selection of the mark on which the training is shown and Cautare2.csp that brings together the two previous pages.
Cautare2.csp page contains in the two frames that are displayed in dynamic lines (TopFrame and Mainframe) the information from pages CautareAngajati.csp and AfisareAngajati.csp.
Fig.5. Cautare2.csp Page.
In the CautareAngajati.csp page was added a form that contains a button called Cautare and a list of values (called "select") which was used to choose the selection criteria. After enabling the Search button, in the Mainframe the AfisarePregatire.csp page is shown. The "select" list values are generated by the MarcaAngajat query defined in Employee class. Each list item has a value represented by object ID and a text represented by Marca property. Further, a code fragment of the CautareAngajati.csp page is presented:
AfisarePregatire.csp page contains a table with two rows and five columns that shows data on employees of CAS Prahova sorted by marc property using the Listaangajati <csp:query> tag that contains the result of Angajati query execution defined in Angajati class. For exemplification, a fragment from the AfisareAngajati.csp page code it is presented:
AfisarePregatire.csp page that is loaded when the Cauta button from the CautareAngajati.csp page form is enabled contains a dynamic query defined in SQL using the <script> special tag and the object %request.
For displaying the employee professional training, a table with two rows and four columns has been build, including dynamic query results. Next, a snippet from the AfisareAngajati.csp page code is presented:
Human Resource Management web application consists of 40 CSP files that can be used: to add elements in the application, to display personal information of employees, their professional training, departments they are working in, employment salary, bonuses and deductions applied and to search the training or employment wage by mark employees', the related employees upon the department code and, also, the bonuses and deductions applied with employees upon bonuses or deductions code.
In this article the author aims to treat the human resource management issue in a public institution.
Human resources management system, created using the postrelational Caché database management system (DBMS) allows real-time update and query information about these activities, achieves data management, employees' management in the organizational structure, monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of employee performance.
The application has the following advantages:
provide easy access to web pages, being compatible with all major Web servers;
increase performance and efficiency leaving logic processing to the powerful Caché Date servers;
design quickly web applications, their components being reusable so that developers can work with familiar tools;
promote collaborative web design;
achieve operations in the browser through feedback from the database without waiting for the page to be loaded.