In The Previous Year Computer Science Essay

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In the previous year, processors were used in computing were of 8-bit, 16-bit or 32 bit. The most popular processor, Intel's Pentium 4 is of 32-bit. In the year 2004, the 64 bit processors became popular were started to use in severs. During the year 1991, MIPS technology produced the first 64 bit processor. In 1991, processor marketing giants Intel releases its own instruction set, along with IA-64 architecture. Later on during 2001, Intel releases its itanium processor, aiming high-end servers. But it was not of so worth and became flop. So Intel introduces 64 bit processing system and named it as Itanium 2, in 2002. in 2003, Advanced Micro Devices(AMD) releases its 64-bit processor, Opteron and Athlon 64 series. This was a huge success in the history of processors. Some super computer processor architecture of the 1970-80's used registers upto 64 bit wide. Though 32 bit is also in use for normal utilization in early 1990s, when the continual reduction in the cost of memory led to installations in the cost of memory to installations with quantities of RAM approaching 4 GB and the use of virtual memory spaces exceeding the 4 gigabytes ceiling became desirable for handling certain types of problems during the 1990 several low cost 64 bit microprocessor were used in consumer electronics and embedded applications. The Nintendo 64 and playstation 2 both had 64 bit microprocessor before its introduction in personal computers. High-end printers and network equipment, as well as industrial computers also used 64 bit microprocessors such as the quantum effect devices.

Introduction

The best and simple definition is enhancing the processing word in the architecture to 64 bit. The addressable memory increases from 4 GB. Data processing speed doesn't change yet the data processed in a clock cycle increases two times.

Computer architecture, their evolution, performance and usage are well documented in. Space flight system and associated designs and issues can be found in trends that affect. Computing has had a major impact on processor design evolution. Growing complexity of a processor design and worsening memory latency are two recent trends of important paradigm in the evolution of computer architecture is the advent of the Reduced Instruction set computers (RISC) and complex instruction set computer (CISC). The focus of this paper is on scalable RISC architecture. The usage of field programmable Gate arrays and reconfigurable systems constitutes yet another step in quick programming.

64 bit therefore refers to a processor with registers that stores 64 bit numbers. A generalization would be double the amount of data in a CPU can process per clock cycle. Users would note the performance increases because a 64 bit CPU can handle more memory and larger files. One of the attractive features of this processing system is the amount of the system can support. 64 bit architecture will allow systems to address up to 1 terabyte (1000 GB) of memory. In today's 32 bit desktop systems, you can have up to 4 GB RAM provided your motherboard can handle that much RAM which is spelt between the applications and the operating system.

Need of 64 bit processor

As company offers greater power, reliability and scalability. First and foremost, 64 bit machine can address more directly without using complex indexing or register-addressing schemes. Because internal memory is several orders of magnitude faster than storage, combining a 64 bit processing architecture with more RAM. Lets a processor pull more data into memory and operate on it directly, increasing performance manifold.

SUSE

Linux has already announced that the latest version of its advanced Enterprise operating system the 64 bit SUSE Linux enterprise server 7 for IBM server series. The ^$ bit version expands the possibilities of SUSE Linux enterprise server 7 for IBM's S/390 and the series.

RED HAT

The company is focusing on selling its operating system and services to large corporate. AS part of its focus on big business customers, RED HAT will release its advanced server product in April 2002. This will be a higher performance and a more reliable solution to offer customers an easy migration from UNIX to LINUX.

NETWARE

Novell says it will ship a 64 bit edition of its internet caching system before it rolls out a 64 bit network operating system with file ,print and directory services. Novell might end up not using the NETWARE name for any of its new modular 64 bit offering.

Benefits of 64 bit processor

  1. Allowing applications to store vast amount of data in main memory.
  2. Allowing complex calculations with a high-level precision.
  3. Manipulating data and executing instructions in chunks that are twice as a large as in 32 bit computing.

Scalability

The most scalable windows server available are based on 64 bit technology provided scalable solutions that allows server consolidation and virtualization and reduce operating expenses and total cost of ownership (TCO).

Security

Features such as Data Execution Prevention (DEP) and patch guard improve security by helping to prevent malicious code from executing on a server.

Reliability

Based on the same code base as window server 32 bit editions, the windows server x64 editions offer the time-tested reliability of the windows server platform while providing a platform for both your new, high-performance native x64 applications and the legacy 32 bit applications that are still critical today.

This depicts the efficiency of 64 bit processor.

64 bit hardware

Although 64 it processing capability has been used in specialized application for decades, only in the last several years. It has been widely available for Intel-based computers. The majority of new servers that are being sold now are 64 bit servers; however, most of the computers that are currently used as windows-based servers still use 32 bit architecture. The prevalence of 32 bit servers puts some limitations on the speed, reliability, scalability of applications that require a lot of resources, such as Office Sharepoint Server 2007.

In the computer architecture, the term 64 bit most frequently refers to the design of the central processing unit (CPU), but can also relate to the size of the external data bus of the computer. Among other benefits, a 64 bit CPU can calculate individual tasks two times faster as a 32 bit model and can address significantly more random access memory (RAM) than the 4 gigabyte (GB) limit imposed by 32 bit processors. A server that has both a 64 bit CPU and a 64 bit data bus is better ale to process and manage the large database files associated with office sharepoint server 2007.

Not all 64 bit computers are the same. Intel's Itanium series of 64 bit processors uses a proprietary design that is not compatible with Microsoft sharepoint products and technologies. Be sure to check the processor type when you acquire hardware for use in a office share point server 2007 farm.

64 bit software

The benefits of 64 bit hardware can only be fully obtained if the software that you install is designed to use all the features of the hardware. Software intended for 32 bit computers, although compatible, will generate few, if any, of the desired benefits when it is installed on a 64 bit computer. Office sharepoint server 2007 and all its prerequisite operating system and database software have installation options for 64 bit computers. Windows server 2003 ad windows server 2008 offers 64 bit versions of the standard and enterprise editions. If you are a volume-listening customer who wants to upgrade to 64 bit, the switch from 32 bit to 64 bit or Itanium edition is free. Te standard edition supports up to 32 GB of RAM on 1-way servers. The enterprise edition offers better supports for large databases and up to 2 terabytes of RAM on 1-way to 8-way servers.

Advantages of 64 bit hardware and software

  • memory addressability
  • physical memory

32 bit system architecture can directly address only a 4 GB address space. A 64 bit system architecture that is running a 64 bit edition of window server can support up to 1024 GB of both physical and addressable memory.

Virtual memory

The 64 bit edition of windows server can address 16 terabytes of virtual memory by using a flat addressing model .virtual memory is divided equally between virtual address space for applications and the operating system. Even 32 bit application can benefit from increased virtual memory address space when they are running in a 64 bit environment. For example, although a 32 bit applications is still restricted to 4 GB of virtual memory, it is no longer has to share that memory space with the operating system. As a result, it receives an effective increase in available virtual memory.

Continuous Memory

Poor performance in 32 bit system is often not the result of a lack of available memory. But unavailability of large enough blocks of continuous memory in typical office share point server 2007 deployment, windows, internet information services (IIS), common language runtime (CLR), ASP.NET, sharepoint products and technologies, SSPs and MDACs can all claim a potion of server's available virtual memory and can leave a 32 bit address space quite fragmented . When the CLR or sharepoint services request new memory blocks, it can be difficult to find a 64-MB segment in the crowded 32-bit address space. A 64-bit system offers practically unlimited address space for user mode processes

Better Parallel Processing

A server that is using 32-bit architecture is limited to 32 CPUs. Improvements in parallel processing and bus architectures enable 64-bit environments to support as many as64 processors and provide almost linear scalability with each additional processor.

Faster bus architecture

64 bit architecture provides more and wider general-purpose register, which contribute to greater overall application speed when there are more registers, there is less need to write persistent data to memory and then have to read it back just a few instructions later. Function calls are also faster in a 64 bit environment because as many as four arguments at a time can be passed in register to a function.

More secure

The 64 bit processor of windows server offer the following enhanced security features:

Buffer overflow protection

A buffer overflow occurs when a data buffers is congested with more data than it is designed to handle. In 64 bit edition of windows server, the first parameters of a procedure call are passed in registers. As a result, it is likely that the buffer will overflow, because the correct values have to be set up in registers and in the variables and the addresses have to be aligned on the stack.

Data Execution Protection

The 64 bit processor made by AMD and Intel include hardware support for data execution prevention. Windows server uses DEP to prevent malicious code from being able to execute, even when a buffer occurs. Even without a processor that supports DEP, windows Server can detect code that is running in memory locations where it should not be.

Patch guard

Microsoft patch guard technology prevents non-Microsoft programs from patching the windows kernel. This technology prevents kernel mode drivers from extending or replacing kernel services, including system service dispatch tables, the interrupt descriptor table (IDT), and the global descriptor table (GDT). Third party software is also prevented from allocating kernel stacks or patching any part of the kernel.

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