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In recent years the prevalent area of research is in the field of MANET because of the challenges they pose to protocols. MANET is a new technology in which users communicate without any fixed physical infrastructure. So, MANET is also referred to as an infrastructure-less network. MANET has become a fastest growing network as it is cheap, small and because of its powerful devices. An ad-hoc network is self-organizing and adaptive. Devices in mobile ad-hoc network should be able to detect the presence of other devices and perform necessary set-up to facilitate communication and sharing of data and service. Ad-hoc networking allows the devices to maintain connections to the network as well as easily adding and removing devices to and from the network.
In MANET, set of applications is diverse which ranges from large-scale, mobile and highly dynamic network to small static networks which are constrained by power sources. Besides the legacy applications that enter into an ad hoc context from the traditional based infrastructure environment, new services will be generated for the new environment which includes: Sensor Networks, Military Battlefield, Medical Service and Personal Area Network. The most important concern is the security in Mobile Ad Hoc Network for its basic functionality. By ensuring that the security issues have been met, the integrity and confidentiality of the data and also the availability of network services can be achieved. Because of some of the features of MANET like lack of central monitoring and management, cooperative algorithms, open medium, changing its topology dynamically and no clear defense mechanism MANET suffer from security attacks. The battle field situation for the MANET have been changed by these factors against the security threats
The thesis contributes to the subject area of problems and prospects of Mobile Ad Hoc Network. It is mainly focussed on the study and analysis of security issues and security solutions of MANET, especially for those selecting sensitive applications, have to meet the following design goals while addressing the above challenges. MANET is more vulnerable than wired network due to mobile nodes, threats from compromised nodes inside the network, limited physical security, dynamic topology, scalability and lack of centralized management. Because of these vulnerabilities, MANET is more prone to malicious attacks. The primary focus of this work is to provide a survey on various types of attacks that affect the MANET behaviour due to any reason.
MANET is an active area of research and also an emerging field. These networks find application in various scenarios like disaster relief to military services and task forces to emergency operations. In such scenarios providing security is very critical. The limitation of the MANET is the limited resource capability: bandwidth, power backup and computational capacity. The security of MAENT is difficult due to dynamically changing topology, absence of infrastructure, vulnerability of channels and nodes. Also, for monitoring the network operations no central authority is present. So the security schemes for wire networks cannot be used in MANET, Which would make them more vulnerable to attacks.
To secure a wireless ad-hoc network is a very challenging issue. To develop good security solution the first step is to understand the possible forms of attacks. For secured transmission of information the security of communication in MANET is very important. MANET becomes more vulnerable to cyber/digital attacks than the wired network due to the absence of a central co-ordination mechanism and shared wireless medium.
The primary objective of this work can be summarized as follows:
To study the existing mobile ad-hoc network and its services in different scenarios;
To study the performance of ad-hoc routing protocols and its behaviour;
To study and focus on the analysis of the Routing Misbehaviour in MANET and its consequences;
To analyse the effects of black hole attacks, flooding attacks and wormhole attacks in the light of network load, throughput and end-to-end delay in MANET;
To simulate black hole attacks, flooding attacks and wormhole attacks using different Reactive Routing Protocols;
To compare the results of different Reactive Protocols to analyse which of these protocols are more vulnerable to these attacks; and
To suggest previously proposed plans for counter measurement of these attacks.
We have applied a quantitative approach towards the study. In four distinct phases we have designed this work, each phase having its own importance. We started our work by a state of the art, identification of the problem and then the selection of the problem area. After identification of the problem, we have done a literature survey in a detailed manner, focusing on the security issues of MANET: Black Hole Attack, Flooding Attack, Selfish node Attack and Wormhole. This literature review was followed by a simulation modelling. The results were gathered, analysed and conclusions were drawn on the basis of the results obtained from the simulation.
Design of this entire study was divided into four stages, as follows:
Problem Identification and Selection.
Problem Identification and Selection
State of Art
Fig 1.1: Research Methodology
Stage I: Problem Identification and Selection
The selection of the proper problem and its identification at the outset is the most important phase. After a detailed study on the different areas of the MANET protocol and their effect on the network, we arrived at a conclusion on the identified problem. Our aim was to find the basic reasons for the poor performance of MANET protocols in case of security attack. We aimed at focusing different attacks (black hole attack, flooding attack, and wormhole attack) as our area of interest and its effect on the network.
Stage II: Literature Study
A review of the state of the art was made after the identification of the problem. To expertise on MANET and its security issues, the most important thing is to understand its basics. A literature survey was conducted in order to gain solid background for the analysis of various protocols. Different simulation tools and their functionalities were studied. In fact, this literature study enabled us to understand in detail the MANET and the attacks involved in MANET i.e. black hole attacks, flooding attack, and wormhole attack. We found out that very little attention has been given to analyse these attacks for both reactive and proactive protocols and its impact over the network in both types of protocols. The problem was formulated; we divided the problem into different keywords so as to search for research materials to get firm background knowledge about the problem.
Stage III: Building Simulation
In order to analyse the problem we simulated the problem with a model of the system i.e. mimicry of the real and actual system. We simulated and developed discrete-event simulation, where we created different scenarios according to the requirements of the problems. These scenarios were simulated by introducing malicious node like black hole node, selfish node, wormhole node etc., in the simulated network. The results were gathered and analysed in the fourth step of research design.
Stage IV: Result Analysis
The most important stage is the last stage. Under attack (i.e. in presence of different attacks) the behavior of the system was analyzed and also it was compared to a system without any attack (i.e. normal working protocol). All the results obtained from simulation were analysed carefully and the simulation was run several times for different time intervals in order to get a stabilized reading. Once the systems were stabilized, the results were analysed and on the basis of analysis, conclusions were drawn.
Studied different MANET routing protocols and its behaviour and analysed the performance between them.
Comparative study on different routing protocols i.e. proactive and reactive routing protocol under various scenarios.
Developed a modified routing protocol to detect and prevent black hole attack.
Analysed the routing protocol to detect flooding attack.
Developed a modified routing protocol to detect and prevent wormhole attack.
Finally showed performance comparison of different attacks under proposed model & existing model.
The rest of the thesis is organized as follows ââ‚¬"
Chapter 2: Problems of MANET: An Overview. This chapter presents the survey and analysis of the MANET vulnerabilities, security threats that an ad-hoc network faces and presents the security objective that need to be achieved.
Chapter 3: Analysis of Routing Protocols Behaviour. This chapter presents the characterization study of MANETââ‚¬â„¢s environment with respect to various routing protocols. Also, the chapter investigates the routing protocols corresponding to packet delivery ratio, routing overhead, throughput and average end-to-end delay.
Chapter 4: A Solution to Black Hole Attack. This chapter focuses on thorough investigation of black hole attack on MANET and proposes a solution which is capable of detecting & removing black hole node(s) in the MANET at the beginning. Later, this chapter provides a simulation study that illustrates the effects of black hole attack on network performance.
Chapter 5: Simulation Study of Flooding Attack in the Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks. This chapter presents an algorithmic approach to focus on analysing and improving the security of DSR. The aim of this chapter is to provide security against flooding attacks.
Chapter 6: A Solution to Wormhole Attack: This chapter presents a modified version of DSR protocol named WDSR under wormhole attack in MANET and also discusses the comparative analysis of wormhole attack for both protocols i.e. DSR and WDSR is taken into account. This chapter also demonstrates the impact of wormhole attack and the performance issues of MANET are evaluated by finding out which protocol is more vulnerable to the attack and how much is the impact of the attack on both protocols.
Chapter 7: Comparative Analysis of Routing Attacks in Ad-Hoc Network: This chapter presents a comparative analysis of black hole attack, wormhole attack and flooding attack using the modified DSR protocol with the functionality of attack detection without affecting overall performance of the network.
Chapter 8: Conclusions: Finally, this chapter presents the conclusions. Summary of the works and contributions are outlined along with a discussion of need for further research.