Improve Integration Of Mobile Web Applications Computer Science Essay

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3G technology is a latest third generation mobile communication system developed after Generation one analogue cellular technology and generation two digital PCS technology by a variety of hand unit developers and cellular network providers according to International Telecommunication Union (ITU) standard. Moreover 3G technology is a gateway for an individual's internet enabled mobile device, typically a smart phone to access wireless broadband information service and its data at the assured higher speed.

The 3rd generation partnership project (3GPP) plays a dynamic role in promoting, developing and establishing the group of 3G technologies such as WiMAX, GSM and EDGE as the aim of raising the benefit of the technology to the users.

3G networks features latent transfer speeds of up to 3 Mbps. 3G's enhanced data transfer rates are perfect for accessing information from the Internet while receiving and sending bulky, multimedia files. 3G devices are akin to net books and could hold broadband applications such as video conferencing, getting streaming video, sending and receiving faxes also right away downloading e-mail messages along with attachments, playing multi player games, navigating mapping and to perform various internet based tasks.

3G consists of quite a few technologies to access the cellular signals carried from the tall towers. Most common protocols are as follows:

Universal Mobile Telecommunication Service (UMTS)

Wideband Code-Division Multiple Access (WCDMA)

High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA)

Evolution Data Maximized (EVDO)

Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)

The weaker cellular signal from the cellular tower or if reaching lower network coverage area can affect the transfer speed and may lead to loss of data and loss of connection. And 3G phones are comparatively most expensive.

Mobile Web Applications

Mobile handsets become essential elements in our daily life. The supremacy of the hand held devices become infinite when they are linked to the World Wide Web. The sensible data can be carried to the user any time at any place.

Mobile web applications, also known as Mobile apps are the internet applications that execute on smart handsets and various internets enabled mobile devices. The users are connected to web services normally accessed on computers and made them to conveniently use internet on their mobile devices by the support of mobile web applications. Normally a mobile application can act as a portable instant messaging client, email client, an internet book marking utility and various other mobile based utilities.

Mobile applications are designed with the use of WBMP, WML and WML Script with a server conventionally. JSP, PHP, ASP and other applications are used to develop dynamic WML applications. The Cellular phones, Palm pilots, Auto PCs, Pocket PCs and Two way pagers are from the mobile devices family and only some of them are compatible with HTML, some of them are compatible with WML and few of them are designed to support both WML and HTML. Therefore the mobile apps should be built in both limited HTML and WML to gratify all the hand held devices. The Microsoft offers a mobile component which lets building applications intended for portable devices to access web pages. Building a mobile application is just easy as like ASP.Net application. And AJAX also plays a main role in this.

Sample coding

<link rel="stylesheet" href="primary.css" type="text/css" />

<script type="text/javascript">

if (navigator.userAgent.indexOf('iPhone') != -1) {

document.write('<link rel="stylesheet" href="iphone.css" type="text/css" />');

} else if (navigator.userAgent.indexOf('Android') != -1) {

document.write('<link rel="stylesheet" href="android.css" type="text/css" />');

} else {

document.write('<link rel="stylesheet" href="desktop.css" type="text/css" />');



At present, Mobile Web browsing faces usability and interoperability exertions. Usability issues are raised by the tiny physical dimension of the mobile form factor (narrow screens and user input/operating restrictions). An interoperability issue starts from the platform fragmentation of mobile devices, operating systems and browsers. As a solution for this the Mobile Web Initiative is introduced. The Mobile Web Initiative's goal is "to make browsing the Web from mobile devices a reality".

System classifications:


In terms of software engineering, a mobile web application is a program which can be accessed through a mobile web browser over a wireless network such as mobile broadband or cellular signal. This represents that a software application which is coded in a browser compatible language and or hosted in a browser inhibited atmosphere in order to render executable application. These applications lies on 'Application layer' which is seventh layer of OSI reference Model and remains as forth layer in DoD model.

Web based mobile applications can be classified in to two different models. The first one is AJAX based Rich Internet Applications (RIAs) as like Google Docs. The second one is Widgets which is a downloadable application on to mobile looks and acts as habitual apps although deployed by web technologies counting CSS, JavaScript and HTML. Widgets depend and use browsers or engines as like WebWag, Plusmo or Widgets on web APIs. Even though AJAX RIAs consists superior latent since it holds limited friction, unneeded download and sensitive context switching amid associated goals.

Operating System

An operating system which controls a mobile device can be called as A Mobile Operating System, Mobile OS, a Mobile Platform or a Handheld Operating System. These lies on similar theory of desktop and laptop computer controlling operating systems such as Windows, Linux and Solaris. Yet presently they are fairly simpler while dealing much with the wireless editions of broadband, local connection, different input methods and mobile multimedia formats.

Present Smart phones are built in with the operating systems such as Linux, Maemo, WebOS, , iPhone OS, Symbian OS, RIMs BlackBerry OS, Android, Windows Mobile, Palm OS. Within this the Web OS, Maemo and Android are built using LinuX. The iPhone OS made with BSD and NEXT STEP OSes related to UNIX.

Symbian OS - used in Nokia, BenQ, Fujitsu, LG, Mitsubishi, Motorola, Samsung, Sharp, and Sony Ericsson.

RIM BlackBerry OS - used in Black Berry phones with full multimedia support

iPhone OS - from Apple Inc. The iPhone uses an operating system called iPhone OS, which is consequent from Mac OS X.

Windows Mobile - from Microsoft. Used in windows mobile

Android - from Google Inc. Android is an Open Source, Linux-derived platform made by Google

Linux - operating system it is used by Motorola, NEC, NTT DoCoMo, Panasonic, Samsung, and Vodafone

Palm webOS - from used on Palm tops as bada from Samsung Electronics

Maemo - from Nokia for smartphones and Internet Tablets.


The hardware in 3G can be the mobile devices that are used to access the wireless internet or broadband which are capable to run several web apps with the use of their operating systems. The hardware functions at the first layer of the OSI reference Model called Physical Layer and from the Network interface layer of DoD Model. The operating system bridges the application and the hardware and controls its functions.

A wireless mobile device also can be called as a handheld computer, a handheld device, a cell phone device or a palm top is a miniature computing device. Normally this includes a display touch screen and a tiny keyboard. PDAs and Smart are trendy conservative computers which provide assistance for the requirements with carrying facility. In Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), the input and the outputs are united in a touch enabled screen interface. There is another kind of device which expands the functionality for a business person by providing integrated data capture devices such as RFID, Smart card readers and Barcode readers is called Enterprise Digital Assistant.

There are huge amount of mobile device manufactures in the world and the following are most popular devices among them:

Black berry from RIM, iPhone by Apple Inc, Windows Mobile by Microsoft, Android from Google, Nokia Smart phones by Nokia, the Palmtop, Smart phones from Sony Ericsson, BenQ, Fujitsu, LG, Mitsubishi, Motorola, Nokia, Samsung, Sharp and several other companies.

Black Berry iPhone Palm PDA

System Requirements:

Functional Requirements

"A declaration of services that the system should grant, how the system should react to particular inputs and how the system should behave in particular situations."


The proposed system should deliver a good display or output and provide a good browsing experience. Pages should be well aligned and context and overview should be kept remain in the limited size of the screen. Also should be able to offer a mental image of the website supported by implementing a reliable style.


Compared to a computer built with a keyboard, handheld device input is habitually hard since they are designed with tiny and limited keys in the keypad without a pointing device in general. At mobile internet typing lengthy URLs are difficult. The forms are tough to fill in since the input and screen are restricted. As some of the devices offers back buttons and the functionality is present, user might unaware of it and leads hard error recovery and broken connections.

Cost and Bandwidth

Cellular networks are slower than the static web connections leading to long loading time for huge content while costing money. As the devices only supports for a few types of contents user may follow a wrong link and retrieve an unusable content. The web pages can hold unnecessary content such as large images and advertisements. This may cause poor usability and added cost.

User goals

The interests of a mobile user and a PC user may vary as in the urge of getting immediate goals and pointing out exact part of the information they needed. These kinds of users never intend to retrieve or browse lengthy content as the devices are commonly unsuitable since convenient access is restricted.


While a site is browsed by portable device than the computer, various commercial models are functioning. Not all the mechanisms will work on any devices that are normally used for an advertising presentation and its device dependent.

Delivery context

The service providers and application developers may wish to deliver a good practical experience in the scope of which their service has the prime demand. But it is believed best carry out to offer as reasonable knowledge as is probable specified device restrictions and to include access from any kind of device, excluding where this is essential since of device limitation.

Non Functional Requirements

"Constraints on the services or functions offered by the system such as timing constraints, constraints on the development process, standards, etc."

Thematic consistency

Content must be available on a variety of devices which are independent from access mechanism and presentation capability variations while ensuring consistent experience when browsing a URL content from different devices.

Exploit device capabilities

Develop websites which aims the default delivery perspective, where a proper device usage capabilities to afford a best client experience on added capable devices.


Testing phase is carried out at actual devices as like in emulators. Even though the manufacturers offer emulators, practically they act different from the devices. So the testing must be carried out on multiple devices and on exact software versions.

Resource URLs

It is better to maintain the URL as short as possible since it will be difficult to type a long name by a mobile device. Considerably the users may desire to follow alternative methods of gaining URLs if available as like hyperlink follow, barcode, WAP push and Bluetooth. But maintaining a short URL will reduce a chance of error and offer customer satisfaction when only the typing is the option.

Navigation Bar

Offers only a lesser navigation on the page top.

Balanced structure

Providing multiple links to choose by the user to get in to the requested content.

Target identification of links

Obviously identify the objective of every link. Mobile users may undergo undue delay and expenditure as an effect of following links. It is vital to recognize where a link directs so users can assess of whether following it will be of significance to them.

Image maps

Usage of image maps should be carefully decided by considering the compatibility of the device.

Refreshing, redirection and pop-up

Appearance of Pop up windows and other windows without user notification and change of current window without informing the user, frequent auto refreshing of the pages and automatic redirections should be avoided.

Externally linked resources

Keep the number of externally linked resources to a minimum where each resource needs a separate request across the network and increases the time.

Page content and layout

Make sure that content is appropriate for apply in a mobile with clear and simple language. Restrict content to what the user has requested. Split pages keen on practical but narrow size section. Restrict scrolling to a single direction. ensure that content is clear when using background images.

Page definition

Offer compact and expressive title with limited space for page where it is used as a book mark in the device. Frames should be avoided since they are not compatible with many mobiles and problematic. Alternate text should be added for non-text items. More of page definition requirements are as like scripts, fonts, cookies, styles and encoding as simpler is the better.

User input

Present pre-chosen default values where feasible and minimize number of keystrokes. Name all form controls.

Domain Requirements

"Requirements that come from the application domain of the system that reflect the characteristics of that domain"

Cost - mobile network connection is usually charged for every data quantity

Memory - considerably reduced effective storage and memory is existing on device

Text input -Text input is slow and burdensome on a handheld device

Bandwidth - mobile radio access regularly provides lower bandwidth.

Capabilities - size of the memory and screen size

Input - more constrained input capability

Processing power - extensively less processing power is available on devices

Battery - Battery capacity is very limited in hand held devices

Technical Approach:

World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C) "Mobile Web Initiative" (MWI) is incorporated amid 3GWeb, aiming at building the internet ready for next generation wireless and mobile networks simplified as 'MobileOK'

The W3Cs 3GWeb Project consists of following primary objectives:

1. Improve Usability of European Mobile Web Platform

2. Improve Interoperability of European Mobile Web Platform

3. Improve Integration of Mobile Web Applications with Networks

And following (technical approach) work packages (WPs):

WP1: Outreach

WP2: Training

WP3: Quality Assurance

WP4: Web Characterization

WP5: Project Management

According to approach 'Outreach' (WP1) the "Mobile Web Initiative" ideas can be easily spread to the European Spectators by conducting seminars, press releases, posters, brochures and presentation by W3Cs members. This attracts the awareness of the mobile content providers while affecting the 1st key objective aimed on producing easy usable contents. The effectiveness is trailed using collection of press clipping results.

The 'Training' (WP2) effects the 2nd and 3rd key objectives by training the European mobile content providers to develop compatible applications according to a standard and collaborating web designers and technologist also with the plans to include TV services in the mobile in the future. Moreover, this sector leads to training programs and finding solutions with the integration of networks.

'Quality Assurance' (WP3) encourages the testing phase while effecting all 3 key objectives. This ensures that the mobile contents are following a standard and shares the development cost of testing within the mobile society. The memory and CPU utilization is carefully handled to avoid negative impact along with the battery life and wireless transmission. The 'MobileOk' has been assured through this.

'Web Characterization' (WP4) highly effects the 1st key objective and the others by addressing the problems and impacts caused due to various characteristics of mobile networks. The roaming security issue is considered on E- Commerce and E- Government.

'Project Management' (WP5) assuring successful management and recruitment of staff for the project by effecting 2nd and 3rd key objectives while founding clear expectations for deliverables, reporting and presenting. This also helps to achieve the 1st objective as well.


This report has been written in the aim of 'how to integrate web application on a different 3G technologies'. By this the importance of partnership among Designers of future network technology and Web technologists is pointed out. The goal was to improve the present integration of mobile apps with wireless networks.

Initially the overview, benefits, usage background, disadvantages and advantages of 3rd Generation technology and Mobile applications are analysed in the introduction section by referring various sources of knowledge based systems.

Thereafter, in the System Classification section, the 3G mobile system is evaluated based on three sub systems such as Applications, Platform and Hardware. This explains about mobiles applications, the mobile operating systems and the handheld hardware devices. In here, the internet reference is used to retrieve information.

In the System Requirement section, the Domain, Functional and Non functional requirements of a mobile network system is scrutinized. Many requirements and solutions are found after a deep analysis of the whole system.

The technical approach sector consist the aims, objectives and work packages of World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) to improve the 3G network by integrating web apps and networks as said above. In here, the relationship and impacts between the work packages and objectives are evaluated in order to support the plan "MobileOK".

According to W3C, the 3G internet is incorporated with its "Mobile Web Initiative" (MWI), intending to prepare the Web for the next generation cellular and wireless networks. This will sustain interoperable mobile internet access and may turn into a primary factor in growing utilization of mobile data services.

It is expected to be able to bring the favorite web contents to the user's mobile device as in the similar way of 'fixed line' internet which can bring even the TV services to the device.

Trusted handheld web access will be a basic for great achievement of mobile IP networks (as of W3Cs 'MobileOK') similarly as the capacity of reliably make a voice call made the successful GSM networks.