Implementation Of Hci Device Computer Science Essay

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There are many factors that are concerned during the implementation of HCI device. Factors like user consideration, health and safety and model of users at which they are targeted. These factors must be identified and solved and put appropriate information regarding these factors. Like health and safety, if the users need particular position, specific temperature, proper lighting and if there is any chances of electric shocks, that should have caution signs.

Task 1: Discuss factors concerning the implementation of an HCI (e.g. Health and Safety, cost implementation, model of users, information consideration, and user considerations.

The key factors that should be addressed are as follows:

Health and safety

Health and safety is very important in the implementation of HCI systems. The developers need to keep the health and safety at the minimum level and if there is a health and safety concern/risk, they need to have clear steps so that people are aware and are able to identify the health and safety risks. Developers in the UK need to satisfy the BSI standard for health and safety BS OHSAS 18001 in the implementation of HCI. The amount for health and safety devices and procedures has been increased over the past years. If there are any risks involved there should be clear signs and notifications to the users.

"Perhaps we do not immediately think of computer use as hazardous activity but we should bear in mind possible consequences of our designs on the health and safety of users. Leaving aside the obvious safety risks of poorly designed safety critical systems, there are a number of factors that may affect the use of more general computers"

(Alan Dix, Janet Finlay, Gregory Abowd, Russell Beale, 1998)

Physical position is most important in health and safety. Physical condition for the users to use the device should be right otherwise it is against health and safety rules

Electric shocks are also important during the implementation of HCI devices. If there are any risks of electric shock from devices then there should be clear signs.

Noise is also very important in the implementation of HCI devices. If there are any risks of noise in the devices, there should be tools available to reduce the hazard.

Lighting is also important in health and safety. There should be proper lighting to use particular devices

Cost implications

Cost implications are important in the implementation of HCI computer systems. Cost implications need to be checked carefully before implementation, ensure that the particular HCI system is worth acquiring and it will boost the sales of the business. If customers are not comfortable in using the new computer system and find it difficult in interacting with it then they might go somewhere else leaving the business to suffer. Training of staff will be needed and how the technology functions will reflect the extra costs to the business. Main areas of cost implications are training cost, hardware and software cost, control cost, support cost and after sale cost.

Information consideration

It is very important to discuss about the information a HCI will provide to the business. Developers of the HCI must provide and specify the target audience and include the information which is relevant to their needs. For example the organisation website should conduct a market research to understand better the target audience and information which will be provided. A computer sales business may include information about services, technology and sales etc

User Consideration

Putting a face on the product - Probably the most critical elements to the success of any system is answering on behalf of the "end"-user…

End users are the individuals who will be using the final device. During the implementation of the HCI, the developers of the system need to address the factors concerning the end users. End users don't always have the same knowledge and abilities about the HCI they are going to use. for example in some cases the users might need training to access some parts of the system and make it more understandable to read the content.

"In particular, all users should be comfortable able to see critical displays. For long period of use, the user should be seated for comfort and stability. Seating should provide back support, if required to stand, the user should have room to move around in order to reach all controls"

(Dix, A.J, Finlay, J.E Abowd. Beale, R 1998)

Any HCI device will not achieve its required results unless it addresses all the important factors it needs to. There are various national and international standards and rules which should be followed and implemented.

Models of users

Conceptual models

Conceptual models (models that are conceptual) range in type from the more concrete, such as the mental image of a familiar physical object, to the formal generality and abstractness of mathematical models which do not appear to the mind as an image. Users outline conceptual models of the systems. They are utilized to show behaviour in the interface. When users come across new machines, they start to construct conceptual models to represent their function and behaviour. These internal models offer ways by which people can understand the world around them.

Cognitive models

Cognitive models try to represent the users as they interrelate with the system, modelling aspect of their understanding, knowledge and objective

"The presentation of the cognitive models falls into hierarchical representation of the user's task and goal structure, linguistic and grammatical models, and physical and device -level models"

(Dix, A.J, et al., 1998)


The end users are the individuals who will use the finished product on regular basis, and in this sense they are the final arbiters about whether a design meets their needs and requirements.

You need to give your own opinion if the selected HCI can meet the targeted user needs and if any adjustment you can suggest to improve the HCI model.

A - Select a HCI and identify user groups and environment at which they are targeted, and justify the reasons of selecting that particular user group or environment (how to meet their needs-solve specific problems)

I am selecting smart phone Apple as a Human computer Interface.

iPhone is a smart phone made by Apple that combines an iPod, a tablet PC, a digital camera and a cellular phone. The device includes Internet browsing and networking capabilities.

iPhone is extremely thin (only 11.6 millimetres thick) but wider and longer than many comparable devices. The display area is a 3.5-inch wide screen multi-touch interface with unusually high resolution (160 pixels per inch). Unlike most other smart phones, iPhone does not use a hardware keyboard or a stylus. To navigate, a user uses multiple taps and drags to navigate through a mobile version of Apple's OS X operating system. Like iPod, iPhone synchronizes data with a user's personal computer, using iTunes as client software and Apple's proprietary USB port. iPhone is compatible with Microsoft's Windows operating systems, including Vista.

iPhone's networking features include:

Automatic detection of WiFi networks.

Support for the 802.11b and 802.11g standards.

The use of quad band GSM and SIM cards to access cellular networks.

EDGE support for high-speed data transfer where available.

Bluetooth connectivity for short range networking with peripherals, other iPhones and PCs.

Target audience


iPhone targets people aged between 18-35 which mainly includes the youth population covering students and young working professionals.


An iPhone user looks for features such as stylish appearance, user friendly technology, sensitive touch, countless applications, multimedia, etc that appeal to his/her senses. The major driving force towards buying an iPhone is the brand name itself. A person feels privileged using an iPhone. Such a person is usually image conscious (he is very conscious of his status or image in society, amongst his friends and peer group), fashionable (likes to stay stylish and in tune with changing trends), tech-savvy (likes to own gadgets with latest technology), attention seeker (he likes to flaunt) and is usually an extrovert (likes enjoys socialising).


Talking to a few iPhone users, we realised that certain traits were common to most of them. By far, these people like to spend lavishly and choose to buy branded products only. They like to socialize and indulge in gregarious activities.


Family, friends and the peer group are the main influencers. Most users were able to get a first-hand experience using an iPhone that belonged to either their friends or family members that led them to purchase one themselves. It was also found that dealers did not play a significant role in influencing the buyers.




1) Brand recognition

2) Loyal Customer Base

3) Pioneer in Innovation

4) Aesthetic Design

5) Premium Image



1) Less Compatible

2) Limited Distribution

3) Not an Open Source

4) Limited Variants

B ) - describe in detail how the above selected HCI model is used by the defined user group.

An iPhone can shoot video (though this was not a standard feature until the iPhone 3GS), take photos, play music, send and receive email, browse the web, send texts, and receive visual voicemail. Other functions-games, reference, GPS navigation, social networking,


The first four versions of the iPhone must be synchronized with a personal computer and iTunes. An iPhone user needs a Mac or a Windows-based computer and an iTunes account. This sets it apart from the majority of smartphones on the market, since other phones don't require a computer to set up and use the phone. The release of iOS 5 changes this requirement, allowing those without computers to own the iPhone.


The iPhone connects to Apple's App store, which offers thousands of applications for use on the iPhone. Programmers must use a special set of developer tools to make the apps, and many have at least a small fee for use. Other operating systems don't require the use of propriety software for application development. Despite this requirement and the stipulation that Apple approve the program, as of the time of publication the iPhone has the widest selection of applications available and is the only phone with advanced video editing capabilities.


The iPhone has different hardware from other Smartphone. The reported battery life is one of the longest of any Smartphone on the market, as of the time of publication. The iPhone's screen size is smaller than most other Smartphone, but it has an extremely high pixel density, giving it one of the sharpest resolutions available. The iPhone incorporates built-in storage with different hard-drive sizes available, but it doesn't incorporate a memory card slot for additional storage space. A slot for external memory is a common feature on other Smartphone.

The iPhone has a minimal hardware user interface, featuring five buttons. The only physical menu button is situated directly below the display, and is called the "Home button" because it closes the active app and navigates to the home screen of the interface. The home button is denoted not by a house, as on many other similar devices, but a rounded square, reminiscent of the shape of icons on the home screen.


Although part of the iPhone's cost is subsidized when a service contract is signed, the iPhone is more expensive than other Smartphone on the market. Part of this is because the iPhone was the first Smartphone released and other companies decided to compete with the device based on price. However, most Apple products have a higher retail cost than similar products released from other manufacturers. In addition to the cost to purchase the device, Smartphone users pay a premium for data service. This increases the monthly cost of operating the phone, but is the only way to take advantage of many of the features.

iPhone completely rebuilds the iPhone on a framework of new features and design, addressing its major previous shortcomings. It's absolutely the best phone, and it easily secures its place in the top tier of the smartphone universe.

Iphone mobile phones target users which need to communicate on the go; they provide better communication than their competitors. Marketing, delivery and stock control are three important departments of any business which provide services to its users. The main disadvantage of iphone is that due to having many features it comes as confusing to the user, iphone however have various manuals and have simplified ways of understanding the device.

Security for users is the main attraction to iphone users. Apple's mix of strong encryption for all data stored on such devices combined with hardware-controlled PIN entry requirements that make brute-force attacks difficult. The iPhone runs the iOS operating system, or OS. Other smart phone operating systems include Android, Blackberry, Symbian and Windows. The IOS runs solely on the iPhone, while other operating systems, such as Android, are available on multiple brands of cell phones.

The IOS includes multitasking, folders and tethering that allows other devices to share the phone's Internet connection, but similar features are available with other mobile operating systems as well. One difference is that although IOS can be "hacked," it doesn't allow the same level of customization and programming as the systems that run other Smartphone.


End users play an important role in the success and failure of a HCI device. Their requirements should be fulfilled in order to develop a successful product, factors such as cost implications should also be dealt with carefully as it investing in a product which has minimum demand in a market.