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2.1 Understanding the role of Technology. "Technology now affords a dramatic set of positive outcomes for humanity - massive change, positively brilliant entertainment, and a more compelling understanding of self. The appropriate manifestation and use of technological advancements can bring about powerful change with regards to the mind, body and soul. These benefits are made possible by advances alone. Nor will the benefits be realized by designers, and by a specific breed of designers: those creative designers who are both artists and engineers, and who are able to balance, over an extended period of time, technology and esthetics without over losing sight of the most important facet of design: humanity."
The term "interaction" was originally coined by Bill Moggridge, founder of IDEO and it describes the design of the behavior of products, its task flow and structure of information, making technology usable, understandable and pleasant for people to use.
Technology indeed plays a huge part of how people communicate with each other, and how we perceive reality and ourselves. We use technology, even more to communicate with each other.
2.2 Human-Computer Interaction (HCI)
In Japan, interaction design is highly developed and integrated in the design fields where electronic product and service experience is widely used and seamlessly integrated in our everyday life. Interaction design does seem to be mushrooming as a buzz word in both education and industry.
Based on a research (Design Droplet, 2010), Interaction design grew as an extension to the field of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and emerged as a discipline in the 1980's when computer technology started to be used in everyday objects, from washing machines to cars, giving them a level of interactivity which is not seen before. Today, the invention of microchip technology is widely used in almost every household device that we use. Many designers are trying to challenge and follow a "human-centered design process" and this has greatly increased the demand for Interaction Design. As more and more devices now have interactive capability, there is a growing need for designers who can harness these new possibilities, creating interactive products that are engaging to use.
2.4 Now & Future
In the past, interaction design meant solely screen-based digital interactivity. Today interaction design are to be cross-platform, multidisciplinary problem solvers. They see and work across the old disciplinary boundaries. Based on one of the prominent industrial design evens in the U.S.- IDSA DesignAbout: Interactive Edges (Schmidt, A, 2001), we cannot just think about products as isolated objects that are designed, produced and inserted into people's lives, nor can we think about products consisting of hardware design and software design. Hardware and software need to become one, and products need to be thought of as part of bigger system of objects and spaces. There are more proponents of this idea.
Sony Nextep Computer Concept for 2020 (Yanko Design, 2010) from designer Hiromi Kiriki is a computer which developed to be worn as a bracelet. The designer understands how user experience things, and challenge the possibility on how they could interact in the future, allowing people to wear Sony computers on their wrists. This computer concept is constructed out of a flexible OLED touch-screen, and it has a pull-out extra keyboard panels and social networking compatibility.D:\My Projects\KBU\Year 3\Dessertation\Info\images\nextep4.jpgD:\My Projects\KBU\Year 3\Dessertation\Info\images\nextep2.jpgIn 2020 we can wear computers on our wrist
D:\My Projects\KBU\Year 3\Dessertation\Info\images\nextep.jpgD:\My Projects\KBU\Year 3\Dessertation\Info\images\nextep3.jpg
Figure 3: Sony Nextep Computer Concept for 2020 from designer Hiromi Kiriki. This computer concept is constructed out of a flexible OLED touch-screen, and it has a pull-out extra keyboard panels and social networking compatibility.
In addition, Tim Brown, CEO of IDEO said that design is no longer just about aesthetic but it is more about innovation. In an article (Harvard Business Review, 2008) he addresses that with more of our basic needs being met, people have increasing expectations towards experiences that involve emotion satisfactions. Experiences are expected to be more complicated rather than simple with the design being combined with the use of products, services, spaces and information.
2.5.1 Human 5 Senses - sight, hearing, taste, touch and smell
Humans use five senses of sight, hearing, taste, touch and smell to communicate. But how does this apply to interaction design? Studies (Cone of experience - Dale, 1969) have shown that people generally remember:
- 10% of what they hear,
- 30% of what they read,
- 50% of what they see,
- 90% of what they do.C:\Documents and Settings\User\My Documents\PrintScreen Files\ScreenShot773.bmpC:\Documents and Settings\User\My Documents\PrintScreen Files\ScreenShot770.bmpC:\Documents and Settings\User\My Documents\PrintScreen Files\ScreenShot771.bmpC:\Documents and Settings\User\My Documents\PrintScreen Files\ScreenShot774.bmpC:\Documents and Settings\User\My Documents\PrintScreen Files\ScreenShot772.bmp
Figure 4 : Human 5 Senses - sight, hearing, taste, touch and smell
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Figure 5 : Dale's Cone of Experience (Refer Appendix A)
Today's ever-increasing homogeneity and visual clutter vying for our attention. The key is to differentiate. We could see design product/service that provides tactile, auditory, and visual feedback. Some just opt for the visual or perhaps auditory. Smell and taste, are highly interlinked and provide emotional information to people. Emotion is a huge part of the human experience, linking the user with the product itself.
A recent research (Lizhuang Ma, Matthias Rauterberg and Ryohei Nakatsu, 2007) found that a group of people present a Tea Table Mediator, a new ambient display system that fosters intimate group communication at the tea table. It provides a private display on the surface of a tea and gives a five senses convergence experience to promote small group intimate interaction during a tea party. They noticed that the tea also could satisfy some senses such as taste, smell and touch with temperature, which are difficult to serve conventional methods. The fusion of senses keeps users' interest. The holistic senses experience can enhance the emotional coziness. C:\Documents and Settings\User\My Documents\PrintScreen Files\ScreenShot763.bmp
Figure 6a : Conceptual figure of the prototype Figure 6b : A current prototype of Tea Table MediatorC:\Documents and Settings\User\My Documents\PrintScreen Files\ScreenShot776.bmp
Figure 7: The relation of 5 senses user interaction
(Refer Appendix C)
2.5.1 Design for the Disabled
Interaction design also focuses and on how the disabled people can use certain product by touching, hearing, smelling etc. When we entering lift, we often see Braille alphabet, raised dots, usually arranged in cells of up to 6 dots (Figure 8) on the lift button which allows a non-sighted person to read text by touch.
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Figure 8: Braille alphabet that is widely used by blind people to read and write
Blind CC and Tactile Ground Surface Indicator 9TGSI both show how people with vision impaired can interact with a product and provide tactile, auditory, feedback.
Figure 3: Blind CC designed by Kwon Ki Nam, is credit card for the blind which uses the cardholder's fingerprint - using fingerprint recognition software as their signature and the Braille on the display for transaction details.http://www.marazzigreen.com/media/pro/pro_1jpg.jpg
Figure 4: Tactile Ground Surface Indicator (TGSI) provide a tactile surface on public pathways & access routes that can be felt underfoot and recognized as a warning of impending pedestrian hazard, especially those with vision impaired, but also as an added safety precaution to all pedestrians.
2.5.2 Adopting Technology
Today, switches/buttons show a clear example of interaction between people with electro-mechanical products. Sensors can sense the temperature, movement, pressure, chemicals, moisture, force, stretch and strain, and others. Effectors provide output. Long popular as indicators, color-changing LED lights which give different moods or atmospheres to certain space. Audio is considered one of the interaction that connects human and space, where everything beeps and buzzes. Besides, motors, like the vibrator in cell phone, are effectors too. It provides motion and other physical which bring a physical quality to digital interaction. Touch-censored light make a simple and compelling combination.
The "Virtual Mirror" has been a huge draw at various trade shows in the past year. Virtual changing room and virtual shoe application are both great example of how technology helps to create interaction with user. Instead of viewing in a real mirror to check how a person look in new clothes or shoes, both allow user to virtually try on clothes without changing.
D:\My Projects\KBU\Year 2\Integrated Design Principles\Project 4 - Retail Shop\Interaction design\zugarashot.png http://www.ptgrey.com/newsletters/images/virtualmirror_shoes.jpg Virtual Mirror
FIGURE 1,2,3. Virtual Mirror installation in the adidas store, Champs Elysées, Paris.
Upper row: camera input. Lower row: output of Virtual Mirror with personalized shoes augmented into real scene.
With a combination of touch-screen and augmented-reality technology, both virtual changing room and virtual shoe application which are transformed to a single panel which reflects the user, allow user to select on any apparel simply by hand gestures and virtually try on clothes and shoes. Besides, if user need second opinion, he/she can take a photo of any selected outfit and have it sent to their mobile phone. This has brought the shopping experience to the next level.
We take a closer look at this Bloomberg project. Bloomberg is about communication and information. For Bloomberg showcase, they think everybody should process and play with data it in a very tangible and touchable way. A public space opposite Tokyo Station in the new heart of Maruonuchi which designed by Toshio Iwai is a great example of how technology help in creating connection between user and space. Iwai is one of the world's leading artists in interface design and has a knack for demystifying computers and data. A pure white element, like an icicle which suspended from the ceiling allows clouds of information to condense, where data magically forms. Ice of course is pure and cool, but ICE here also interpreted as Interactive Communication Experience.
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Figure 8: The infrared sensors behind the glass panel will detect your presence once you approach the ICE, and you can interact with the data. You don't have to touch the glass as the sensors can detect you from about 500mm away. A menu scrolls down the screen giving you 4 play options, a digital harp, a digital shadow, a digital wave and digital volley ball.
Breathing Room III is what looks like an enormous holographic matrix, in which visitors are invited to carefully walk through in darkness - until the timed lights are unexpectedly switched on bathing the entire room in ultra-bright light. The work is made up of 15 interconnecting photo-luminescent frames.
Figure 9: Breathing Room III is exhibited in the lower ground floor gallery of the White Cube, comprising 15 interconnecting photo-luminescent 'space frames'. (Refer Appendix D)
This interaction project is called as Breathing Room III which the work is made up of 15 interconnecting photo-luminescent frames. It looks like an enormous holographic matrix that invites visitors to explore the space and walk thorough in the darkness until the timed lights are unexpectedly switched on, lighten up the space with ultra-bright light.
According to the designer Antony Gormley, it is important to surprise people. He cheerfully admits that he was trying to jolt people, frighten them even, by suddenly turning on blinding and disorientating white lights as visitors daintily make their way through his latest work. Besides, Gormley mentioned that he was very excited about the show as it was the first time he shown a body of work that has such a close and clear articulation of one with the other.
Gormley has been casting himself for 30 years in his exploration of the human condition. "We are minds enclosed in bodies and our bodies are enclosed in architecture," he says. "The reconciliation of mind with architecture, which I hope also involves empathic feeling, is exactly what this whole show is about."
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