Health Database System Monitoring Computer Science Essay

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It is very important for a patient that suffers chronic illness to take cares and be aware of their body condition every day. Having treatment when needed or being extra cautious on taking care of the body are still not sufficient enough to keep a person that having chronic disease such as heart problem or diabetes from being exempted from losing his/her precious life.

That's why measurements have to be taken from their body daily too to keep track on body's health condition.

Self health sign measurement and monitor has become an important practice among patient with chronic disease nowadays. This practice does not only perform by the patient himself/herself but with his/her family members too.

At the early days, patients have to travel to the doctors or stays at the hospital in order to get their condition monitor and recorded. This happened when the medical equipments are still unaffordable. Furthermore, some require special skills are to operate too. With the growth of technology, medical measurement instruments have become more and more affordable and intelligent as well thus making self measurement as easy as possible.

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Tradition method of self monitor required patient to keep the report of monitor and only update to their panel doctor during the next visit or even post to the doctors. This method has proven to be able to help the doctor further understand a patient's body condition and changes that happened during the non-visiting period.

Room of improvement are still exist this medical practice. During the ICT era, web base medical update arises and helps to further enhance how the doctor interacts with patient. Medical data can be access and updated from anywhere with computers that comes with internet connection.

However, there are still many middle aged adults and elderly that are not familiar in using computer. Things become much more complicated when users have to update thru web interface rather than software. So utilization of web base monitoring systems weren't able to gain much popularity.

Smart phone with user-friendly interface begins to gains popularity among the society. And they come with advantages that normal computer don't have. Smart phone applications with a web base centralize server can be created to help patch the drawback that comes with computer based medical monitor system.

Project Overview

The system's server is built from scratch and will be similar to the existing web base medical monitoring system. The android application will be able to communicate with the server and perform functions similar to the web base systems. Combination of both help to overcome problems that are faced by the current computer based only medical system.

Currently, it is being develop based on three types of chronic disease namely, heart disease, diabetes and asthma. The systems functions are aims to help doctor to monitor their patients remotely while patients can updates their data not only using computers but with their smart phone which are always with them. The new systems are able to further extend the coverage of remote medical monitoring.

Doctors will able to monitor all of the patients from their office or home by using computers. They can view the medical records immediately once the patients have updated the data. Feedback can be given to the patients if needed. The whole treatment process will become much more convenient as results and feedback can be exchanged without the need of meeting up or even a computer for the patient.

Patients on the other hand will be able to send their medical data daily and immediate receive by the doctors. Besides to be able to update medicals records from home using computer, they are now able to perform the same routine by using android applications. Even without computer, they are still able to do the same as their phone is always with them. This happened when a patients is outstation such as having a vacations. They are able to receive feedback through their mobile phones too.

Objective

The main objective of the systems is to allow the patient to update their daily self measureable medical measurement data such as blood pressure, heart beat rates, blood sugar, respiratory rate, body weight, temperatures and even regular symptoms from a computer or the android mobile platform with internet connections. They are also able to receive feedback from the doctor on both platforms once the data have been reviewed.

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The server will be able to stores the data which is updated by the patients thru the web and the android platform. And also allow the doctors and patients to retrieve the information that are already stored inside. It also has a messaging system to allow doctors exchange feedback with the patients.

Scope of Project

This project will be mainly focus on the server side, which is setting up the server, database and design the web application (web-pages). Server will act as communication pathway between doctors and patients, database will act as storage for the web applications and it will serve as android's application server as well.

The Scope of project includes:

Research on suitable software/technology

Set up the HTTP server

Database design on how data should be organize and store

Web application interface design

Experiment on data exchange between the server and the android client

Brief Overview of Content

The report will be organize the following manner:

Chapter1-Introduction

Outline the project and give brief information regarding the purpose of the project.

Chapter2- Literature Review

Research regarding the project, including pros and cons of the available software and types of languages use for the coding.

Chapter3- Methodology

Covering systems design, all the steps and method use to develop the systems.

Chapter4-System Implementation & Challenges

Descriptions on user interface and final product. Discuss about challenges faced and solution to it.

Conclusion

Conclusion on whole project and discuss about future improvement and recommendation.

Literature Review

Cardiovascular Disease

Definition

The terms cardiovascular is derive from the word cardio and vascular. Cardio is deriving from the Greek word - "kardia" which refer as heart. Whereas, vascular in medicine means "related to blood vessels" that are part of the circulatory systems. Together, Heart disease or Cardiovascular diseases are the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins) [1].

General

Cardiovascular diseases are the number cause of death globally. According to study, estimated 17.1 million people died from cardiovascular diseases, representing 29% of total global death [2]. It is even predicted that the numbers will increase to 23.6 million by year 2030.

Cardiovascular diseases include:

Coronary heart disease - disease of the blood vessels supplying the heart muscle

Cerebrovascular disease - disease of the blood vessels supplying the brain

Peripheral arterial disease - disease of blood vessels supplying the arms and legs

Rheumatic heart disease - damage to the heart muscle and heart valves from rheumatic fever, caused by streptococcal bacteria

Congenital heart disease - malformations of heart structure existing at birth

Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism - blood clots in the leg veins, which can dislodge and move to the heart and lungs.

Risk factors

There are numerous factors that lead to heart disease and stroke. But the most important risk factors that cause the diseases are unhealthy diet, physical activities and smoking,

There are also intermediate risk factors that cause by unhealthy diets and physical activities. They may shown up as raise in blood pressure, obesity, raise in blood glucose and overweight.

Social and environments factors such as stress and poverty are also the few determinants of cardiovascular diseases.

Common symptoms

Symptoms of a cardiovascular disease can include: [3]

Discomfort, pressure, heaviness, or pain in the chest, arm, or below the breastbone

Discomfort radiating to the back, jaw, throat, or arm

Fullness, indigestion, or choking feeling (may feel like heartburn)

Sweating, nausea, vomiting, or dizziness

Extreme weakness, anxiety, or shortness of breath

Rapid or irregular heartbeats

Prevention and Cure

Heart disease and stroke can be avoided by practice healthy diet, regular activities such as sports and most importantly is to avoid smoking and second-hand smoke. Having healthy diet can be in a form of consuming fruits and vegetables and avoid of foods that are high in fat, sugar, and salt. It is also important to maintain a healthy body weight.

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Effectives and inexpensive medicine is available to treating almost all of the cardiovascular diseases. Patients that survive the heart attack are still at risk on dying by reoccurrence of the attack. But drugs can be use to lower the risk. Operations are performed to treat cardiovascular diseases. These operations includes coronary artery bypass, balloon angioplasty (where a small balloon-like device is threaded through an artery to open the blockage), valve repair and replacement, heart transplantation, and artificial heart operations. [4]

Diabetes

Definition

Diabetes is named for one of its distressing symptoms. The disease was known to the Greeks as diabts, a word derived from the verb diabainein made up of the prefix dia-  "across, apart," and the word bainein, "to walk, stand." The verb diabeinein meant "to stride, walk, or stand with legs asunder"; hence, its derivative diabts meant "one that straddles," or specifically "a compass, siphon." The sense "siphon" gave rise to the use of diabts as the name for a disease involving the discharge of excessive amounts of urine. Diabetes is first recorded in English, in the form diabete, in a medical text written around 1425.[5]

General

Figure 1 Diabetes

Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar/glucose. This happened when the body produces too little insulin, resistance to insulin and even both.

As 2000, almost 17 million peoples worldwide suffer from diabetes. That represented 2.8% of the population.[6] Diabetes occurs highly on young people during puberty, girls that age between 10 to 12 and boys that are age between 12 to 14 are highly are in a high chance of suffering from diabetes. Besides it also increase with age, most of the diabetes cases occurs with adults that are older than 55years old.

There are three main types of diabetes:

Type 1 - occurs when body stop/fail producing insulin.

Type 2 - happened when body fail to use or react to the insulin.

Gestational - happened to women that have high blood glucose during pregnancy.

Type 1 diabetes usually diagnose during childhood. Sibling of people or children of parents with type 1 diabetes are in the greater chance of suffering diabetes.[7] It is an autoimmune disease where insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas are destroyed. Therefore, it is not preventable. Exercise and diet are found unable to stop it. Clinical trials have been attempted but fail to find the solution to slow down the disease.

Type 2 diabetes usually develops after the age 30 and the most common type among all types of diabetes. Majority of type 2 diabetes have overweight problems, does not exercise regularly or having family members that suffer from the same type of diabetes.[7] The body of type 2 diabetes patient still produce insulin, but sensitivity react to the insulin have been reduce. Glucose are unable to enter the body's cell properly will cause build up of glucose in blood and cell for not getting enough of energy and growth.

Gestational diabetes happened only during pregnancy. Pregnancy hormones block the insulin from getting doing it's job. This lead to blood glucose level increase of the pregnant women. Pregnant women that suffer from gestational diabetes will have high chance to develop into type 2 diabetes

Risk factors

There aren't many know risk factors for type 1 diabetes, research have been conducted to explore new possible cause.

Some known risk factors include:[8]

A family history - people whose sibling and parents are suffer from type 1 diabetes.

Genetics - presence of certain genes that representing sign of developing type 1 diabetes.

Geography - incident of type 1 diabetes increase when people travel away from the earth equator.

Below are the common risk factors that occur among type 2 diabetes:[9]

Weight - the primary factor of type2 diabetes.

Inactivity - physical activities help to control body weights. The less active you are the higher chance of getting the disease.

Family history - risk increase with family members that have diabetes type 2

Race - certain race such as blacks, Hispanics, American Indians and Asian-Americans are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes.

Age - risk increase as age grow older.

Prediabetes - high sugar level that aren't high enough to be classify as type 2 diabetes.

Gestational diabetes - develop from diabetes during pregnancy

Gestational diabetes risk factors are as below:[10]

Age greater than 25

Family or personal health history - risk increase with prediabetes, having family members with type 2 diabetes, having Gestational diabetes on last pregnancy, deliver baby which weight more than 4.1KGs or had unexplained stillbirth.

Excess weight - having body mass index (BMI) of 30 or more.

Common Symptoms

Below are the typical symptoms of having diabetes disease: [11][12]

Frequent trips to the bathroom

Unquenchable Thirst

Losing Weight Without Trying

Weakness and Fatigue

Tingling or Numbness in Your Hands, Legs or Feet

Blurred Vision

Slow-Healing wounds

Prevention and Cure

Diabetes patients are require to have the following commitments when undergoing treatments:[13]

Taking insulin(type 1 diabetes)

Exercising regularly and maintaining a healthy weight

Eating healthy foods

Monitoring blood sugar

Patients with diabetes are require to measure their blood sugar level regularly because it is important to keep glucose level inside the blood as close to normal glucose level as possible (type 1 diabetes) or within the target range (type 2 diabetes). Patients are also required to work closely with doctors and carefully monitor the glucose level.

Asthma

Definition

Asthma is derive from Greek άσθμα, ásthma, "panting". It is a chronic disease that affects the airways of the lung causing difficulty in breathing. It is cause by allergic reaction or other form of hypersensitivity.

General

Figure 2 Asthma

Asthma has affected roughly 300 million people worldwide as year 2000. It 2009, it cause around 250,000 deaths globally.[14]

When asthma happened, bands of muscles that surround the airways tighten and narrowing the airways. This is known as bronchospasm. Swollen or inflamed also happened to the lining of the airways. Cells around the airways produce more mucus making it thicker than normal. These three factors cause the symptoms of asthma.

Asthma can be arrange into two categories namely, intermittent (come and goes) or persistent (lasting) types. Persistent type asthma can further separate by the severity according to the frequent of the occurrence from day to night. There are total of four categories, intermittent, mild persistent, moderate persistent and severe persistent.

A patient is classify as intermittent when symptoms occur during the day are less or equal to two times per week and symptoms during the night are less than or equal to two times in per month. Patients with mild persistent will have the occurrence of symptoms more than two times a week but not daily and around three to four times of occurrence during the night.

If the patient having the symptoms daily on the day time and more than once per week during the night (not nightly) then it will be place under moderate persistent level. For patient that are have frequent occurrence throughout the day and more than seven times of occurrence during the night, they will be place under severe persistent level.[15]

Risk Factors

There are numerous of way that can trigger the asthma symptoms. Many of them are related to environments, activities and medication. The commons triggers include:[16]

Infections (colds, viruses, flu, sinus infections)

Exercise

Weather (changes in temperature and/or humidity, cold air)

Tobacco smoke

Allergens (dust mites, pollens, pets, mold spores, cockroaches, and sometimes foods)

Irritants (strong odors from cleaning products, perfume, wood smoke, air pollution)

Strong emotions such as crying or laughing hard

Some medications

Common Symptoms

Early warning signs of symptoms are very important in recognizing the starts of asthma. These signs of symptoms are not severe enough to stop regular activities of a person. Failing to identify the symptoms will lead to worsen condition. Early warning signs include:[15]

Frequent cough, especially at night

Losing your breath easily or shortness of breath

Feeling very tired or weak when exercising

Wheezing or coughing after exercise

Feeling tired, easily upset, grouchy, or moody

Decreases or changes in a peak expiratory flow

Signs of a cold, upper respiratory infection, or allergies (sneezing, runny nose, cough, congestion, sore throat, and headache)

Trouble sleeping

If the sign continue get worsen a person might have difficulties in performing daily activities can be harder than usual. These including a) cough that won't go away (day and night), b) wheezing, c) tightness in the chest, d) shortness of breath and e) poor response to medicines (bronchodilators). [15]

If the conditions still remain untreated, the condition will become severe and the person will lose his/her ability to perform regular activities. Medical treatment should be given immediately. Failing in getting medical help in time might end up life threatening. The severe symptoms include: [15]

Severe wheezing (both when breathing in and out)

Coughing that won't stop

Very rapid breathing

Inability to catch your breath

Chest pain or pressure

Tightened neck and chest muscles (retractions)

Difficulty talking

Inability to fully exhale

Feelings of anxiety or panic

Pale, sweaty face

Blue lips or fingernails

Prevention and Cure

No medication is available to cure asthma. Medication is only able to relief, stop, control and prevent the asthma symptom. There are mainly two types of medication for asthma

Anti-inflammatories - reduce swelling and mucus production in the airways. Thus, reducing the sensitivity and become less likely to trigger asthma. Anti-inflammatories lead to fewer asthma symptoms, better airflow, less-sensitive airways, less airway damage and fewer asthma episodes.[16]

Bronchodilators - relax the muscle that are around the airways. It acts rapidly to open up airways from tighten muscle and leads to improving breathing. Mucus can be clear out from lungs, as mucus move freely it is much easier to be coughed out in easier manner.

Web Application

General

A web application refers to an application that is accessed over a network such as the Internet or an intranet. The term may also refer to a computer software application that is hosted in a browser-controlled environment such as a Java Applet or coded in a browser-supported language such as JavaScript and further combined with a browser-rendered markup language like HTML and is reliant on a common web browser to render the application executable.

It is being design to similar to a computer programs to help end user such as customers, members or employee to accomplish certain set of task. End user will be able to interact with the application thru the web browser such as Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Apple Safari and Google Chrome.

If long-term database storage is require by the web application, then it is known as "Web Database Application". Compare to web application, data won't be available after user end the browsing session or data won't be store on the server. Web database application requires the web application to work together with a database systems.

Static versus Dynamic

WebPages that only display information alone or being written only using Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) are static web page. User won't be able to interact with the page. The content will be remain the same for all the other user. This kind of page sometimes is known as "flat page". It can be view directly from the web browser without the need of web server/ host application.

Dynamic pages are able to display information accordingly with respond to user interaction, type of user, time and etc. However, static page language, HTML is still needed in order to create dynamic pages. Web database application is also another type of dynamic pages.

Example

Web applications are become increasingly popular nowadays. There are many types of web application that are available to user. They are mainly use to provide service by real world service provider such as banking, education academy, auction and etc.

www.maybank2u.com.my - Online Banking System

Mmlscyber.mmu.edu.my - MMU MultiMedia Learning Systems

www.lelong.com.my - Online purchasing and auctions

Apache Web Server

History

In early year of 1995, web server is created by the National Center for Super Computing Application (NCSA). It is the world no1 web server that time. After the primary developer left NCSA, the whole project began to stall.

At the same time, people who have started to use NCSA web server began to exchange patches for the server. Short while after, they realize that the patches need to be managed properly.[18] So the Apache group was born, the name for Apache were from " A PAtCHy Server".[17]

Today, Apache has become the world most popular web server according to the survey done by Netcraft.[19]

General

The function of the web server is to respond to the request received through the HTTP protocol. Upon receive a request, the server will then respond with specific resource. This is usually in terms of Web Server send back the content of the web pages when the user navigates to the webpage that is hosted on the server.

Figure 3 High level Conceptual Architecture

Apache uses modular approach in its architecture. The core of server is responsible for defining and following the steps in servicing a request and several modules that actually implement the different phase of handling the request. Anyone can add functionality into the server without disturbing the basic Core implementation.[19]

Figure 4 Architecture for Apache core

Apache Core interacting with all the other components that surround it. The Apache Core is comprised of many different little components that's handle the basic implementation of what a web server should be doing. The Apache core is made up as follow:[19]

http_protocol.c - handle routines that communicate directly with the client using the HTTP protocol.

http_main.c - responsible for server startup, contain loops for waiting and accept connections and in charge of managing the timeouts.

http_request.c - in charge of error handling and manage the flow of request processing and manage the order for module processes in the right order.

http_core.c - implement the most basic functionality

alloc.c - allocating resource pools and keeping track of them.

http_config.c - reading configuration files, manage information gathered from those files and support for virtual host.

Advantages

Apache offer a lot of advantages to the user, developers and web administrator. These are the reason that made Apache number one web server software in the world:[20]

Features - offer one of the most sophisticated features in the server market. Always able to implement the latest protocols used

Flexible - easily customizable due to the modular design methodology

Administration - server's configuration files are in ASCII and simple. Easily transferable making cloning server easy. Server can be control from command line making remote administration ease.

Extensible - modular that does not offer/exists in the Apache can be written and added by own.

Efficient - Apache is optimized thus run on minimal systems resource.

Portability - able to run across different platform including, UNIX, Windows, Mac and etc.

Open source - bugs are reported and patch quickly because source code are available to public. Making Apache more secure and stable.

Support - Large communities of Apache user, allow exchange of information and tips. A lot of learning resource can be easily find.

MySQL

General

Database Management Systems (DBMS) is a computer software install on computer meant for to controls the creation, maintenance and the use of database. DBMS makes sharing data among multiple users and applications possible. It makes data management more efficient and effective hence allow user to have a better access to more and better managed data. Database acts as memory storage for web database applications.

MySQL is one of the world most popular database software which was once being criticized for its lack of feature.[21] MySQL is DBMS with pluggable storage engine architecture, each user are able to select specialize storage engine suitable for the applications design. It isolates applications programmer and Database Administrator (DBA) from low-level implementation details at storage level.[22]

Figure 5 MySQL Architecture with Pluggable Storage Engines

Figure 6 Heterogeneous Level of MySQL

Basically the architecture of the MySQL can be divided into two main layers.[23]

Application Layer - provide connectivity to the outside world to the database server. Three components are available:

a) Administrators, b) Clients, and c) Query Users

Logical Layer - is further divided into four subsystems, Query processing, Transaction Management, Recovery Management and Storage Management.

Advantages

MySQL offers various advantages over other competitive DBMS software that are available in the market:

Platform - support many Operating Systems and works better than PostgreSQL in windows.

Speed - design initially for speed rather than completeness of functions. Very fast in both simple and complex SELECTs.

Stability - can withstand with high numbers of connections without crashing. Random disconnections and core dump are rare cases.

Security - have sophisticated access control. Permission on access can customize based on username, table name and client host name.

Locking and Concurrency - able to locking on table and row depends on storage engine used.

Support - large online communities are available provides free support, including developers.

Price - MySQL is free under the open source GPL license, and the fee for a commercial license is reasonable.

PHP & JavaScript

General

PHP is known as Hypertext Preprocessor. It is one of the scripting languages that can be embedded into the HTML files to create dynamic web content. Originally PHP is stands for Personal Home Page[24], which the programmer Rasmus Lerdorf created a set of Perl scripts to maintain his personal homepage. PHP is a server-side language, the code will be process at the HTTP server and result will be to client side and display as normal HTML. Content of the PHP script will not be available to the user. PHP is a object oriented language and it's syntax is similar to C language.

JavaScript is a client side language. Like PHP it is being embedded into the HTML files. The execution of the script is run on the client computer by the web browser. As a result, the script contents are available to the user. JavaScript are able to respond quickly to user actions and detect user actions such as mouse click and keystroke. Usually the script were use to write function to interact with Document Object Model (DOM) such as pop-up windows, validating values of input of web form and generating respond regarding to user's action.

Features

PHP have the good features that enable it to shines as one of the popular scripting language that is widely implemented on the web:[25]

Speed - Respond time of PHP is short due to its embedded nature.

Easy - easy to use due to syntax that are similar to C language.

Platform - Cross platforms, support Unix, Windows and Mac.

Support - php.net provide most intensive library and example for user to learn and explore. Large online communities are also ready to provide support.

Secure - PHP code is process on server side. Content of PHP cannot be seen by user.

Design to support database - works wells with MySQL server

Open source - source code of PHP is available to public, allow public to explore and customize its feature to suit personal need.

Due to abilities of the JavaScript, it can be use to enhance the browsing experience of the user. Simple pop-up can use to notify user on certain condition without need to proceed to another web page just to display the message. The abilities of JavaScript to able to monitor user input such as keystroke can help to further enhance on web processing especially on form submission. The script is use to verify the correctness of user input before the form is being submitted.

Conclusion

PHP and JavaScript can be use together in enhancing the whole web pages. PHP is use for web page execution especially in accessing and storing data. JavaScript, on the other hand is added to enhance the web browsing experience that almost act immediately according to user's interaction which PHP unable to cover with.

JpGraph

General

JpGraph is a library that enables graph plotting on PHP4 and PHP 5. It is aim to simplify dynamic graph generation using PHP scripting.[26] (Chapter 1. About the library). The library is release under two licenses QPL1,0 for non-professional version and JpGraph Professional license for the professional version.

The library hides unnecessary details and step for dynamic graph/images. It makes use of PHP available low level image draw function-GD library to create the end results. The GD library can create graphic such as lines, circle points and etc. But it don have features such as scaling, labeling and color.

Figure 7 JpGraph Architecture

Features

The library has the abilities to plot up to fourteen types of sub-graph types. And sets of features that enhance graph plotting, some of the features are:

Anti-aliasing for Pie charts.

More advanced formatting of graph titles including 3D Bevel effects.

Improvements on legend formatting. It is now possible to have several columns in the legend

Built in rotation of graphs

Full support for color alpha blending

Communication with Android

There are two methods found that can enable android phone to communicate with the server so data retrieval and sending from and to the MySQL server are made possible. Either one of these two methods will be implemented as the communication core for the whole android software.

JDBC API

JDBC is an API for the Java programming language that defines how a client may access a database. It provides methods for querying and updating data in a database. JDBC is oriented towards relational databases. A JDBC-to-ODBC bridge enables connections to any ODBC-accessible data source in the JVM host environment.

JDBC includes four components:

The JDBC API

The JDBCâ„¢ API provides programmatic access to relational data from the Javaâ„¢ programming language. Using the JDBC API, applications can execute SQL statements, retrieve results, and propagate changes back to an underlying data source. The JDBC API can also interact with multiple data sources in a distributed, heterogeneous environment.

JDBC Driver Manager

The JDBC DriverManager class defines objects which can connect Java applications to a JDBC driver. DriverManager has traditionally been the backbone of the JDBC architecture.

JDBC Test Suite

The JDBC driver test suite helps you to determine that JDBC drivers will run your program. These tests are not comprehensive or exhaustive, but they do exercise many of the important features in the JDBC API.

JDBC-ODBC Bridge

The Java Software bridge provides JDBC access via ODBC drivers. Note that you need to load ODBC binary code onto each client machine that uses this driver. As a result, the ODBC driver is most appropriate on a corporate network where client installations are not a major problem, or for application server code written in Java in a three-tier architecture.

Two-tier - In the two-tier model, a Java applet or application talks directly to the data source. This requires a JDBC driver that can communicate with the particular data source being accessed. A user's commands are delivered to the database or other data source, and the results of those statements are sent back to the user. The data source may be located on another machine to which the user is connected via a network. This is referred to as a client/server configuration, with the user's machine as the client, and the machine housing the data source as the server. The network can be an intranet, which, for example, connects employees within a corporation, or it can be the Internet.

Three-tier - Commands are sent to a "middle tier" of services, which then sends the commands to the data source. The data source processes the commands and sends the results back to the middle tier, which then sends them to the user. MIS directors find the three-tier model very attractive because the middle tier makes it possible to maintain control over access and the kinds of updates that can be made to corporate data. Another advantage is that it simplifies the deployment of applications. Finally, in many cases, the three-tier architecture can provide performance advantages.

HTTP protocol from the android system

The most spread method to connect to a remote MySQL database from an android device is to put some kind of service into the middle. Since MySQL is usually used together with PHP, the easiest and most obvious way to write a PHP script to manage the database and run this script using HTTP protocol from the android system.

Android (HTTP REQUEST)  PHP (SQL QUERY)  MySQL Server

Android (JSON TO STRING) PHP (DATA to JSON)  MySQL Server

Figure 8 Communication model between server and android

With this method, SQL Query is still being handled by the Web Administrator and not the android coder. Android developer does not need to learn SQL query and only need to understand about type of data is being transfer and what type of data should be passing to the PHP script.

Conclusion

HTTP protocol from the android system is a more preferable way to implement the system. JDBC provide a more direct method to send/get data to/from the database, however it will be more difficult to set up and putting strain on android developer for having to learn about the SQL query. On the other hand, connecting thru HTTP is much easier to set up and the SQL query is still managed by the web administrator. Android developers only need to have a good coordinate well with the web administrator and able to focus more on the android software development. Both languages will be remain separate hence easier to manage and debug as well.

Design Methodology

Design Progress

The follow chapter will explain on how the project is plan and implemented. The project is carried out through several stages.

Literature Review

After some discussion, focus will be place on three common chronic diseases. The three diseases are heart disease which is also known as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and asthma.

It began with study about the general info for the chronic diseases. How each of the disease is classified according to the severity of the particular illness. Study also been carried on how serious can the illness be and by how much the world population that are suffering with the illness. Info on how the illness can cause difficulties to human body is researched as well.

The research further conducted on all different types of risk factors that are known to be causing each of the illness to happen. Besides, common symptoms of every one of the disease are found as well.

Finally, the search end with possible cures and prevention measured that need to be taken. It is found that proper monitoring for patients that are found with these diseases is very important.

Then, another research is carried out in order to determined the requirement for properly implement the monitor systems. It is first start with searching the suitable software/technology to set up a server that is able to host the web application.

Then follow by the types of scripting language which will be use to create and enhance the application. Storage systems are also determined during the research.

Lastly, research also done to make sure selected software will be able to work and communicate properly with android software which will be run at the android platform.

System's Requirement