Hand Drawn Animation Is A Technique Computer Science Essay

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Claymation is a type of stop motion animation where non-hardening clay is used to create objects or characters sculpted from clay or other mouldable materials. This technique was used to create Pingu Penguin, Gumby and Pokey, Wallace and Gromit, and even in the movie such as Chicken Run.


Hand drawn animation is a technique where every frame is drawn by hand. Hand drawn animation is just like other types of animation, where artist usually start by creating a storyboard, which is a script written with images and also including words. Some of the examples include movies like Snow White and the Heaven, Mickey Mouse, The Simpsons Movie, Alice in Wonderland etc.https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcT5VshbgL_7citSHif1D9BDo29a3QqcK5tphq7zsIjghW5E_tls


Cutout animation is a technique used for creating animation using flat characters, props and backgrounds cut from materials such as paper, card board, or photos. The South Park series is one example, the first episodes were actually made with the help of actual paper cutouts.


Animating the movement of objects, text or characters is one of the most common purposes of animation. This is done frame by frame, by motion tweaking or frequently by using a combination of frame by frame and tweaking.


Masking in animation is mainly covering over part of the scene to insert something later. Masks can be used to selectively block an area in a layer. This can be used to create a number of different effects. It's usually done with the help of chromakey, but at present digital processing has provided with many other means to do it consistently.http://blog.tmimgcdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Mask-Transition-Animation.jpg


In the Morphing animation technique, one image is gradually turned into another through a seamless transition. Early movies used a technique called cross fading to produce this effect. This technique began to be replaced by computer animated morphing. Many advanced animation program can support some type of morphing feature.


Task 2 - Uses of animation [P2]


The use of animation in advertising is a new technology and marketing trends have affected the way it is used to sell products. Animation can give a feeling of realism and aliveness. Animation will always be able to help in explaining products accurately. There is no other means that can promote the product's qualities in the way animation is capable to achieve. TV makes the good use of animation to make products look entertaining. The most recent example is the compare the meerkat advertisement. The example of animation in advertising can also be found on the billboards of some well known areas of the world like London Piccadilly Circus, Las Vegas, New York Time Square etc.http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/01461/Aleksandr_1461407c.jpg


Animations are always used to demonstrate principles in a simple, effective and immediate way. Animation can enhance a learning experience and is particularly very useful for visual learners. It can be used in scientific visualisation where specific computer software is used to display the scientific data visually, with a view to gaining understanding of the data. The example for this would be the educational games in schools which not only keep the kids entertained but also they help them to learn things more quickly. The other example could be found in secondary schools where unsafe experimentation could be demonstrated with the help of animation. http://www.memory4teachers.co.uk/channels/presentations/ikitmovie/images/ikitmovie-education2.gif

Creative arts & entertainment

Animations can be used to represent the characters, structure and events that are only limited by imagination. Because of the animation, it is of one the greatest interest to the creative arts. Artists are increasingly including animation in their exhibition to present their work. Another best known use of computer animation is in the field of entertainment. Animations are used in cartoons, television shows and films. It is also widely used in video and computer games. Walt Disney was the first company to make a full length feature film with animation called Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-F4cHQkLk794/T8X0vgkF9vI/AAAAAAAAFkQ/YrzocWmVNOo/s1600/Snow+White+%2526+The+Seven+Dwarves+%25281937%2529+2009+Blu-ray+Poster.jpg


The simulations are used to model either the real life or imaginary situation. An exact model is created that operates to a set of rules, with a number of variables that can be changed. The best known simulations are games where the player is able to pilot a fighter plane or drive a racing car. They can also be used as a training tool, such as flight simulators for pilots. There are many examples of simulations that have been developed to show how events have happened that could not easily be captured at the time such as earthquakes, aircraft crashes or car accidents. The other example would be Google Earth where it simulates what the earth looks like from outer space and then zooms into the location you searched for.

http://airplanesimulation.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/airplane-simulation.jpg http://www.chianticup.it/logo-Google-earth.jpg

Task 3 - Animated GIFs [P3]

An animated GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) is an animation that is composed of several images known as frames that when played in a sequence to create the illusion of the movement. The animation is saved using the .gif file format. As these files are used in web pages, it is important to keep the file size small. This can be done by reducing the colour depth, or by reducing the number of frames in the animation. If the number of frames is reduced too much, the animation can become jerky. Therefore, a balance needs to be maintained between file size and quality. There are many software packages available to create animated GIFs, including Adobe Fireworks, Corel Animation Shop and Easy GIF Maker.

Advantages of animated GIFs

The main advantage of using a GIF is that you don't need any special software to run it, most web browsers or even Microsoft PowerPoint will be able to run a GIF animation without problems. The small file size of GIFs is also one of their strong points as they use something called lossless compression which means it makes the file as small as possible without losing any quality of the image. GIFs also support transparent backgrounds, so it can help to show a professional look to a website with an animation over a different background.

Disadvantages of animated GIFs

One of the biggest disadvantages to the GIF format is its inability to have a colour palette of more than 256 colours. This makes it unsuitable for creator to animate a high detail sequence of image. This means that animations have to remain simple. Another disadvantage of GIF Animations is that you cannot include sound with the animation. Once an animated GIF is saved then there is no way to go back and edit the image. The creator will have to start all over again to make minor changes to the animation.

Task 4 - Persistence of vision [M1]

Persistence of vision is a theory that suggests human eye keeps an image for a short period of time of what we see for approx 0.1 seconds. This theory attempts to explain how the human eye and brain can be tricked into seeing continuous motion when presented with a sequence of separate still images at the rate of 10 fps (frames per second) or greater. A form of visual memory is believed to be the cause of this phenomenon. This theory is not commonly accepted by some scientist and they believe this to be a myth.

It is very useful for animation because the human brain can store and retrieve the image slightly longer than the image staying on the screen and this can create an illusion of movement rather than seeing a series of different pictures.

Frames per second are a measure of how much information is used to store and display motion of video. Each frame is a still image which is displaying frames quickly to create the illusion of motion. The more frames of images are displayed per second then the smoother animation will appear.

Films run at 24 frames per second while the cartoons on TV run at anything over 10-12 frames per second therefore fewer images are needed and they can be created quickly. The more frames per second the more images are needed in the animation. The most common frame rates for video games are around 30 frames per second. It is a good rate for the human eye because it can process 30 images every second and the brain can see one continuous sequence. The frame rate for DVDs is about 24 frames per second and it is just about 25 frames per second for standard TVs. The more frames shown during one seconds, the fewer gaps the eyes and brain have to fill in and so the more continuous motion appears.

Task 5 - Format comparisons [M2]

Dynamic HTML

Dynamic HTML (DHTML) is a collection of technologies used to create dynamic website which includes HTML, JavaScript and CSS. This was introduced in late 1997 with the release of the Internet. The term dynamic refers to the ability of the user to interact with the content on the page from simple drop down menus and rollovers buttons to browser based games. But, due to the different ways browsers renders web languages, there were problems with DHTML. It has become less popular in recent times and its features are now usually created in CSS. The features of DHML can also be created in flash and this website becomes more popular. The advantage of using DHTML is that it loads really quickly. It uses most of the features already presented in the browsers, so that there is no need to download any sort of plug-in. the dynamic features provided by DHTML is very helpful for web designer to create website that can contain compact looks, faster downloads, better graphics effects, provides greater functionality and can hold much more content at the same time. The major limitation is that the editing software for that in market is very expensive. The coding for DHTML is long and difficult. Only some experts can write and edit them with good functionality. They don't support many different browser, code written for Chrome might not work properly in Internet Explorer. This is caused due to the different features they browsers offer.


Shockwave is also a multimedia player, focussed on 3D rendering and video streaming. It was developed by Macromedia in 1995 and then later it was bought by Adobe in 2005. It is more powerful than flash in that it is capable of offering many dynamic features that browsers cannot manage. It uses a .dcr file format created by Adobe Director. In the beginning version of Director were around before the Internet was important. It was originally designed to provide dynamic content for CD-ROMs. As the time passed, later versions have supported more features on the web. Shockwave is used for more complex multimedia work. The advantage of shockwave is that it is a vector based, so the graphics can cont…be scaled easily which can be zoomed in or it can fit onto different screen sizes. The animation will look very clear and will run smoothly. It also loads quickly as it was created to be small and light to display animations which could easily work on slower network connections. It offers a real easy and smooth compression and uses lossless data compression method. Shockwave gives a variety of transparent options to blend well with the website. The limitation of using Shockwave is its compatibility issues. The animation cannot be played unless the plug-in is installed on the computer. It loads more slowly than flash and fewer computers have its plug-in installed.


Realplayer is a cross platform multimedia player that can support both QuickTime and Windows Media file formats and has also has some additional features like playlist editor and CD burning capability. It was released in 1995 and it was one of the first ever streaming applications. The advantage of using Realplayer is that it allows the users to play any types of file format. It also allows the user to burn CDs and DVDs within the media player. Media can also be synced onto the portable devices such as MP3 players and iPod's by using Realplayer. It also provides playlist for arranging the music in jukebox style. A limitation however is that it runs really slow and requires a very advanced computer to run it smoothly. There is also a security issue with using Realplayer. It contains spyware which can infect the computer and can send information from the user's computer to the hackers. There is also a problem with ads that keeps coming randomly with popup.


Flash is a multimedia player that can play .swf file format. It allows content to be played across a wide range of computer and browser. It was originally designed to work with websites. It can load quickly and most of the computer systems have a Flash plug-in installed. Flash can be used to create animated elements within a website. It can also be used in advertising, and also for making games and content for mobile phones. Flash is also used animation and also as a teaching tool in education. The advantage of using flash is that it gives a website a lot more interactivity than there would be normally. It also allows them to cont…create the animation movie. Flash is also compatible with many browsers unlike any other animation format. Also the file sizes of the Flash are small because it uses a vector format. The main limitation is that the Flash on a website can take a very long time to load depending on the features used on the website. Another disadvantage is that Flash plug-ins needs to be installed to view the Flash content on the website.


QuickTime is a free media player which is developed by Apple Inc and was released in 1991. This comes installed with all the Apple computers and can also used on the Windows platform. It can support animation, sound, video and other types of media files. The advantage of using QuickTime is that it can automatically stream the video files even if the buffering is not completed. This allows the users to watch it much quickly than waiting for the buffering to finish. It can also support other types of media clips like animation, video and sound. QuickTime player is free to download and installed it on Mac OS or Windows OS. The limitation of QuickTime is that if you have slow internet connection, then the video quality will become poor and longer videos will take more time to load. QuickTime player cannot play the video in full screen, they can only be played with small screen and also they don't support many video formats.


Silverlight is web application framework developed by Microsoft in 2007. This is capable to integrate multimedia, computer graphics, animation and interactivity into a single runtime environment. This was originally released as a video streaming plug-in, and the newer version brought some additional interactivity features. Some of the features provided by the Silverlight are similar to Adobe Flash. The advantage of Silverlight is that it can provide support for applications based on Visual C#, .NET, Visual Basic and also JavaScript. The size of its plug-in is just about 1MB and it also has a browser plug-in. The limitation is that it needs plug-in which is not supported by every browser and computer. It doesn't use any type of compression method in images or texts which makes the file size larger. Another limitation is that Silverlight doesn't allow user to use webcam whereas the Flash can support the webcam.