Gps Locator And Navigator Android Computer Science Essay

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GPS LOCATOR AND NAVIGATOR ON ANDROID application finds location & navigates you to the nearest service. The user gets turn-by-turn directions to the nearest location of service for which he has asked. This application also shares current location of the user on facebook or by sms on given mobile numbers. It will advertise the most popular or needed place within that area. In this paper we propose an architecture of location based services which uses GPS on android. This application locates

and navigates user to the nearest place in categories like ATM, hotel, restaurant, hospital, etc.

Keywords: GPS (Global Positioning System), ATM(All Time Money),

2. INTRODUCTION

In this paper we raise the challenges and propose architecture to enable practical realization of location-based services. For the navigation of nearest desired location, we are using GPS on android.

GPS is used for navigation and provides continuous and timing information position of things anywhere in the world under any weather condition. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a constellation of satellites that orbit the earth twice a day, transmitting exact time and position (latitude, longitude and altitude) information and photos. Users can determine their location anywhere on the Earth by using GPS Technology. The complete system consists of 24 satellites orbiting about 12,000 miles above the Earth, and five ground stations to monitor and manage the satellite constellation. These satellites provide 24-hour-a-day coverage for both two-and three-dimensional positioning anywhere on Earth. In 1970s, US Department of Defense started using a GPS Navigation system, which continues to manage the system, to provide continuous, worldwide positioning and navigation data to US military forces around the globe. GPS basically provides two levels of service namely SPS (Standard Positioning Service) for civilian access and PPS (Precise Positioning Service) for exclusive military use with higher level of encryption. As already stated above, the basis of GPS Technology revolves around precise time and position information, which is being accomplished through atomic clocks and location data. Basically the satellites broadcast the time and their position. A GPS receiver receives these signals, listening to three or more satellites at once (it's also called tracking), to determine the users position on earth.

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Google Android, has the potential to take mobile computing several steps further. Android is intended to revolutionize the mobile market by bringing the internet to the cell phone and allowing its use in the same way as on the PC. Google's Android is a free, open source mobile software development platform and operating system that can be used across smart phones, devices, vendors, and networks.

Android is built on the open Linux Kernel. Furthermore, it utilizes a custom virtual machine that has been designed to optimize memory and hardware resources in a mobile environment. Android is open source it can be liberally extended to incorporate new cutting edge technologies as they emerge. The platform will continue to evolve as the developer community works together to build innovative mobile applications.

3.Background

In the last few years, the smart phones (Android, Black, berry and iPhone) have taken over the market of Nokia based Symbian Phones in India. And these smart phones come equipped with A-GPS functionality which provides the spatial coordinates of the user location. Android's Network Location Provider determines user location using cell tower and Wi-Fi signals, providing location information in a way that works indoor and outdoor, responds faster, and uses less battery power. Assisted GPS [6], also known as A-GPS or AGPS, improves the performance of standard GPS in devices connected to the wireless network. A-GPS enhances the

location granularity of cell phones (and other connected devices) in two ways:

ï‚· By helping in finding a faster "time to first fix"

(TTFF). A-GPS acquires and stores information about the location of satellites via the cellular network hence the information does not need to be downloaded via satellite.

ï‚· By helping position mobile device when GPS signals are not strong or not present. GPS satellite signals may be impeded by tall towers, and they do not penetrate building interiors well. A-GPS uses proximity to cellular towers to calculate location when GPS signals are unavailable.

4.SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE:

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Figure 1 Architecture of A-GPS System

Mostly suited for mobile devices, A-GPS takes assistance from GPRS and at times, the service provider network information, to pin-point the current location accurately. Moreover the amount of CPU and programming required for a GPS phone is reduced by diverting most of the work to the assistance server instead. A typical A-GPS enabled cell phone uses GPRS or other such Internet based data connection to build a contact with the assistance server for A-GPS. As this technique does not take into account the cell phone service provider network completely, we only pay for the GPRS usage charges and nothing else. The only down-side to this technology is that an A-GPS server cannot utilize any of the three standby satellites available for GPS connections. AGPS minimizes the amount of memory and hardware that must be integrated into mobile devices in order to provide GPS-quality device locating ability as required by mobile devices. This keeps the mobile device simple and allows longer battery time. GPS is real-time solution provider whereas AGPS is not. The network usage is required every time we move out of the service area. It is useful only for locating a particular place in small area. There is no privacy in GPS and A-GPS since the Assistance server knows the location of the

device. There needs to be communication over the wireless for processing of GPS information so this could be expensive.

5 Android architecture:

Android_architecture

Figure : Android architecture

Android is a Linux-based open source platform. It is backed by Google with the foundation of Open Handset Alliance includes 65 technical leader companies like HTC, Intel, Qualcomm, NVIDIA, T-Mobile, etc. The G1 the first Android-based phone was launched in 2008 by HTC. The Android Development Kit is available for Windows, Linux and Mac OS. Applications are developed in Android using a version of the Java programming language running on the Dalvik virtual machine.

6. Implementation and Methodology

Location-based service is another key functionality that gets used in smart phone applications. It is often combined with maps to give a good experience to the user about their location. Android support LBS Application Programming Interfaces (APIs). Location service allows finding out the device current location. The application can request for periodic update of the device location information. The application can also register a intent receiver for proximity alerts like when the device is entering and existing from an area ofgiven longitude, latitude and radius.

Android Location API

These are the different classes present under Location API package to retrieve the Location information of the user.

ï‚· LocationManager- The class provides access to the

location service. It also provides facility to get the best Location Provider as per the criteria.

ï‚· LocationProvider- It's an abstract super class for

location providers. A location provider provides periodic reports on the geographical location of the

device.

ï‚· LocationListener- This class provides callback

methods which are called when location gets changed. The listener object has to be registered with the location manager.

ï‚· Criteria- The class provides the application to choose suitable Location Provider by providing access to set of required properties of the LocationProvider. Android also provide an API to access the google maps. So with the help of the google maps and the location APIs the application can show required places to the user on the map.

2. Google Places API

On 10 May, 2011, at the Google I/O developer Conference in San Francisco, Google announced the opening up and general availability of the Google Places API.The Google Places API is a service that returns data about Places - defined within this Web Service as, spatial locations, or preferred points of interest - using HTTP requests. Place response specifies locations as latitude/longitude coordinates.

7. MATHMATICAL MODELLING:

An algorithm is Non-Deterministic when :

It uses external state such as user input, random value or stored disk data.

It operates in a way that is time sensitive.

The problem definition states that user input is required. Hence it satisfies the first criteria of non-determinism. So the project is Non deterministic.

Non-Deterministic machines that cannot solve problems in polynomial time are NP. So the project is NP.

MATHMATICAL MODELLING:

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S={IP,OP,S',U,F}

Where,

S=System

S'={ GPS, internet}

IP1={'Hotel', 'Hospital', 'ATM'.........n}

IP2=Current location of user{'longitude', 'latitude'}

U=Number of users { U1,U2,U3,.....,Un}

F= function

OP={'address', 'map', 'distance' ,'ph_no'}

F1(IP1,IP2) OP

S1'

S2'

.

.

.

Sn'

U1

U2

.

.

.

Un

One to One relationship

IP11

IP12

.

.

.

IP1m

U1

U2

.

.

.

Un

IP21

IP22

.

.

.

IP2n

As one user will have exactly one GPS receiver andinternet.

The user will give only one input(IP11...IP1m which is the categories provided among whose user wants information).He can not give multiple inputes at a time.IP2 is information about user i.e his current loaction,user cant not be present at more than one place at atime

IP21

IP22

.

.

.

IP2n

OP1

OP2

.

.

.

OPN

IP11

IP12

.

.

.

IP1m

User's input (input selected among categories) and his current location will be given to the application. The output will be all information about place for which user has asked.

7. CONCLUSION

Trial run results indicate that accurate projections of the current location were made, even after driving several kilometers through tunnels. The system accomplished this by reconciling data obtained from GPS and the compensated current location along the route. The maximum discrepancy between the actual current location and the compensated current location was found to be 15 m under normal driving conditions and 30 m when driving through tunnels, a condition that prevents GPS data reception.

Thus, errors of the present system, which supplies information to drivers in following vehicles in increments of 100 meters, are within an acceptable range. Work is currently underway to make it possible for GPS-based systems for Traffic Message Signs to be realized in mobile devices such as portable phones. Also under development are systems that will guide service vehicles from control stations.