Generation Of Complex Movement Patterns Computer Science Essay

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ABSTRACT

The generation of complex movement patterns, in particular, in cases where one needs to smoothly and accurately join trajectories in a dynamic way, is an important problem in robotics. This paper presents a novel joining method that is based on the modification of the original dynamic movement primitive formulation. The new method can reproduce the target trajectory with high accuracy regarding both the position and the velocity profile and produces smooth and natural transitions in position space, as well as in velocity space. The properties of the method are demonstrated by its application to simulated handwriting generation, which are also shown on a robot, where an adaptive algorithm is used to learn trajectories from human demonstration. These results demonstrate that the new method is a feasible alternative for joining of movement sequences, which has a high potential for all robotics applications where trajectory joining is required.

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 OVERVIEW

Humans are able to perform complex movement sequences, e.g., in a manual construction task, in a highly elegant and dynamic fashion. Robots begin to become as dexterous, too. However, the problem to accurately combine trajectories and control position and velocity, which exists in many dexterous robotics applications still leaves many questions open, in particular, when one wants to do this in a dynamic and perturbation-resistant way. We use human handwriting as our test bed. Although in handwriting accuracy at the joining point might not be so important, because of "co-articulation" (i.e.,) the next letter is started before the previous one is not completely finished, we have nonetheless chosen it as a useful and complex example. Consider, e.g., signatures.

1.1.1 OBJECTIVE

To Control Robotics car movement through Pen Tablet.

These tablets may also be used to capture data or handwritten signatures, control maximum movements through that touch pad device.

1.2 ARCHITECTURAL DIAGRAM

Proposed implement more flexible and user friendly robotics control system through user live signature or touch input form Touch Pad device.

RF RECEIVER

ROBOTICS DEVICE

RF TRANSMITTER

PREPARE ROBOTICS INSTRUCTION

VALIDATE USER SIGNATURE

RECEIVE SIGNATURE

TABLET DEVICE INPUT

FIGURE: 1.2 ARCHITECTURAL DIAGRAM

1.3 PROJECT SPECIFICATION

1.3.1 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS

Front End : .NET, Framework 2.0.

Language : C#.Net.

Back End : SQL Server 2000.

Operating System : Windows XP.

1.3.2 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS

Input Device : Tablet PC kit or Tool, Mouse, Keyboard.

Output Device : 15 inch Monitor.

PC : Minimum Pentium IV.

Robotics Device : Robotics kit with Transmitters and Receiver system.

Port : Serial Port.

CHAPTER 2

SYSTEM STUDY

2.1 STUDY OF THE EXISTING SYSTEM

Voice Based Robotics Movement.

Mobile Control Robotics Device using GPRS, GSM Technology.

Online and Offline Signature Verification application s for Banking Sector.

2.2 STUDY OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEM

Fast movement Control, user friendly control system.

Live Signature Input through Tablet PC Kit.

A novel method for DMP joining, which can solve this problem and lead to natural and smooth transitions.

Dynamic motion control in robotics requires the accurate production of trajectories and control their dynamic parameters.

2.3 SYSTEM DIAGRAM

ROBOTICS INSTRUCTION THROUGH WIRELESS CONNECTION

SIGNATURE APPLICATION

PEN TABLET INPUT DEVICE

FIGURE: 2.3 SYSTEM DIAGRAM

SUMMARIES OF THE FINDINGS

DIGITAL SIGNATURE

A digital signature or digital signature scheme is a mathematical scheme for demonstrating the authenticity of a digital message or document. A valid digital signature gives a recipient reason to believe that the message was created by a known sender, and that it was not altered in transit. Digital signatures are commonly used for software distribution, financial transactions, and in other cases where it is important to detect forgery and tampering. Digital signatures are often used to implement electronic signatures, a broader term that refers to any electronic data that carries the intent of a signature, but not all electronic signatures use digital signatures.

Digital signatures employ a type of asymmetric cryptography. For messages sent through an insecure channel, a properly implemented digital signature gives the receiver reason to believe the message was sent by the claimed sender. Digital signatures are equivalent to traditional handwritten signatures in many respects; properly implemented digital signatures are more difficult to forge than the handwritten type. Digital signature schemes in the sense used here are cryptographically based, and must be implemented properly to be effective. Digital signatures can also provide non-repudiation, meaning that the signer cannot successfully claim they did not sign a message, while also claiming their private key remains secret; further, some non-repudiation schemes offer a time stamp for the digital signature, so that even if the private key is exposed, the signature is valid nonetheless. Digitally signed messages may be anything representable as a bit string: examples include electronic mail, contracts, or a message sent via some other cryptographic protocol.

A digital signature scheme typically consists of three algorithms:

A key generation algorithm that selects a private key uniformly at random from a set of possible private keys. The algorithm outputs the private key and a corresponding public key.

A signing algorithm that, given a message and a private key, produces a signature.

A signature verifying algorithm that, given a message, public key and a signature, either accepts or rejects the message's claim to authenticity.

Two main properties are required. First, a signature generated from a fixed message and fixed private key should verify the authenticity of that message by using the corresponding public key. Secondly, it should be computationally infeasible to generate a valid signature for a party who does not possess the private key.

TABLET PC

A Tablet PC is a laptop PC equipped with a stylus or a touch screen. This form factor is intended to offer a more mobile PC; Tablet PCs may be used where notebooks are impractical or unwieldy, or do not provide the needed functionality. The term Tablet PC was made popular in a product announced in 2001 by Microsoft, where it was defined as a pen-enabled computer conforming to hardware specifications devised by Microsoft and running a licensed copy of "Windows XP Tablet PC Edition" operating system or a derivative thereof. Tablet PCs are personal computers where the owner is free to install any compatible application or operating system. Other tablet computer devices, such as eBook readers or PDAs, do not provide this option and are generally considered another category. The original Microsoft licensing specification required proximity sensing of the stylus, which Microsoft termed "hover".

2.4.2.1 ADVANTAGES

Lighter weight, lower power models can function similarly to dedicated reading devices like the Amazon Kindle. Touch environment makes navigation easier than conventional use of keyboard and mouse or touch pad in certain contexts such as image manipulation, or mouse oriented games.

Digital painting and image editing is enhanced and more realistic than painting or sketching with a mouse. The ability for easier or faster entering of diagrams, mathematical notations, and symbols. Allows, with the proper software, universal input, independent from different keyboard localizations. Some users find it more natural and fun to use a stylus to click on objects rather than a mouse or touchpad, which are not directly connected to the pointer on screen.

2.4.2.2 DISADVANTAGES

In higher cost, convertible tablet PCs can cost significantly more than their non-tablet counterparts although this premium has been predicted to fall. In Input speed, handwriting can be significantly slower than typing speeds.

With Screen and hinge damage risk, Tablet PCs are handled more than conventional laptops, yet are built on similar frames. A convertible tablet PC's screen hinge is often required to rotate around two axes, unlike a normal laptop screen, subsequently increasing the number of possible mechanical and electrical failure points.

2.4.3 ALGORITHM

• Adaptive algorithm is an algorithm that changes its behavior based on the resources available. For example, stable partition, using no additional memory is O(n log n) but given O(n) memory, it can be O(n) in time.

• As implemented by the DLL ( Dynamic Link Library) File stable partition is adaptive and so it acquires as much memory as it can get (up to what it would need at most) and applies the algorithm using that available memory. Another example is adaptive sort, whose behaviour changes upon the pre-sortedness of its input.

MODULES

• Touch screen control.

• Find angle of user sign or touch.

• Prepare binary instruction.

• Instruction Pass to Robotic Device.

• Button based robotics control.

LITERATURE REVIEW

DYNAMICAL MOVEMENT PRIMITIVES: LEARNING ATTRACTOR MODELS FOR MOTOR BEHAVIOURS

Nonlinear dynamical systems have been used in many disciplines to model complex behaviors, including biological motor control, robotics, perception, economics, traffic prediction, and neuroscience. While often the unexpected emergent behavior of nonlinear systems is the focus of investigations, it is of equal importance to create goal-directed behavior (e.g., stable locomotion from a system of coupled oscillators under perceptual guidance).

Modeling goal-directed behavior with nonlinear systems is, however, rather difficult due to the parameter sensitivity of these systems, their complex phase transitions in response to subtle parameter changes, and the difficulty of analyzing and predicting their long-term behavior; intuition and time-consuming parameter tuning play a major role. This letter presents and reviews dynamical movement primitives, a line of research for modeling attractor behaviors of autonomous nonlinear dynamical systems with the help of statistical learning techniques. The essence of our approach is to start with a simple dynamical system, such as a set of linear differential equations, and transform those into a weakly nonlinear system with prescribed attractor dynamics by means of a learnable autonomous forcing term. Both point attractors and limit cycle attractors of almost arbitrary complexity can be generated. We explain the design principle of our approach and evaluate its properties in several example applications in motor control and robotics.

A NOVEL TRAJECTORY GENERATION METHOD FOR ROBOT CONTROL

A novel trajectory generator based on Dynamic Movement Primitives (DMP). The key ideas from the original DMP formalism are extracted, reformulated and extended from a control theoretical viewpoint. This method can generate smooth trajectories, satisfy position- and velocity boundary conditions at start- and endpoint with high precision, and follow accurately geometrical paths as desired. Paths can be complex and processed as a whole, and smooth transitions can be generated automatically. Performance is analyzed for several cases and a comparison with a spline based trajectory generation method is provided. Results are comparable and, thus, this novel trajectory generating technology appears to be a viable alternative to the existing solutions not only for service robotics but possibly also in industry.

2.6.3 A DYNAMICAL SYSTEM APPROACH TO REAL TIME OBSTACLE AVOIDANCE

A novel approach to real-time obstacle avoidance based on dynamical systems (DS) that ensures impenetrability of multiple convex shaped objects. The proposed method can be applied to perform obstacle avoidance in Cartesian and Joint spaces and using both autonomous and non-autonomous DS-based controllers. Obstacle avoidance proceeds by modulating the original dynamics of the controller. The modulation is parameterizable and allows to determine a safety margin and to increase the robot's reactiveness in the face of uncertainty in the localization of the obstacle. The method is validated in simulation on different types of DS including locally and globally asymptotically stable DS, autonomous and non-autonomous DS, limit cycles, and unstable DS. Further, we verify it in several robot experiments on the 7 degrees of freedom Barrett WAM arm.

2.6.4 ONLINE TRAJECTORY GENERATION: BASIC CONCEPTS FOR INSTANTANEOUS REACTIONS TO UNFORESEEN EVENTS

A new method for motion trajectory generation of mechanical systems with multiple degrees of freedom (DOFs). The key feature of this new concept is that motion trajectories are generated online, i.e., within every control cycle, typically every millisecond. This enables systems to react instantaneously to unforeseen and unpredictable (sensor) events at any time instant and in any state of motion.

As a consequence, (multi)sensor integration in robotics, in particular the development of control systems enabling sensor-guided and sensor-guarded motions, becomes greatly simplified. We introduce a class of online trajectory-generation algorithms and present the mathematical basics of this new approach. The algorithms presented here consist of three steps: calculation of the minimum synchronization time for all DOFs, synchronization of all DOFs, and calculation of output values. The theory is followed by real-world experimental results indicating new possibilities in robot-motion control.

CHAPTER 3

SOFTWARE FEATURES

3.1 UNIFIED MODELING LANGUAGE

It is a language. It is not simply a notation for drawing diagrams. It is a complete language for capturing knowledge (semantics) about a subject and expressing knowledge (syntax) regarding the subject for the purpose of communication.

3.1.1 USES

used for both database and software modeling.

version 1.1 was adopted in November 1997 by the Object Management Group (OMG) as a standard language for object-oriented analysis and design.

Ivar Jacobson is known as the father of Use Cases.

3.2 BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS

3.2.1 THINGS

. Structural Things.

. Behavioral Things.

. Grouping Things.

. Annotational Things.

STRUCTURAL THINGS

Class

description of a set of objects that share the same attributes, operations, semantics & relationships.

Interface

represents externally visible behavior of the class or component.

collection of operations that specifies a service of the class or component.

Collaboration

Defines an interaction.

Society of roles and other elements that work together to provide a co-operate behavior that is greater than the sum of all the elements.

Use Case

Description of a set of sequence of actions that a system performs inorder to give an observable result.

Active Class

Type of class that initiates control activity.

Represents elements whose behavior is concurrent with other elements.

Component

Represents the physical packaging of logical elements such as classes, interfaces and collaborations.

Node

A physical element that exists at runtime.

Interaction

-- A set of messages exchanged among a set of objects within a particular

Context to accomplish a specific task.

State Machine

-- Specifies the sequence of states an object can undergo during its lifetime in

response to events.

3.2.2 RELATIONSHIPS

. Dependency - semantic relation.

. Association -structural relation.

. Aggregation.

. Generalization.

. Realization.

3.2.3 UML DIAGRAMS

. Use cases.

. Static structures (class and object diagrams).

. Behavior (state-chart, activity, sequence and collaboration diagrams).

. Implementation (component and deployment diagrams).

ADVANTAGES

• UML is effective for modeling large, complex software systems.• It is simple to learn for most developers, but provides advanced features for expert analysts, designers and architects. It can specify systems in an implementation-independent manner.

• 10-20% of the constructs are used 80-90% of the time. Use case modeling specifies the functional requirements of system in an object-oriented manner.

USECASE DIAGRAM

Use Case Diagrams describe the functionality of a system and users of the system.

Models the dynamic aspects of the system.

Actors represent users of a system, including human users and other systems.

Use Cases represent functionality or services provided by a system to users.

Dependency, generalization and association relationships.

GFA passing signal via router

FA Passing signal via GFA

HA receive the locality of MT

ID

HID

FA Analyze the MT

FA - Foreign Agent

HA - Home Agent

GFA - Gateway Foreign Agent

MT - Mobile Terminal

FIGURE: 3.2.3.1 USECASE DIAGRAM

INTERACTION DIAGRAM

Shows interactions - set of objects, their relationships and the messages dispatched among them.

Sequence Diagram.

Collaboration Diagram.

SEQUENCE DIAGRAM

• Sequence diagrams contain the Objects.• Messages represent communication between objects.• Lifelines represent the existence of an object over a period of time.

• Focus of control or Activations: represent the time during which an object is performing an operation.

COLLABORATION DIAGRAM

• Structural organization of the objects that send and receive messages and have collection of vertices and arcs. The links are adorned with the messages that the objects send and receive.

• Difference of Collaboration diagram from sequence diagram. Path indicates how one object is linked to another object. Sequence Number indicates the time order of a message.

MT

FA

GFA

Router

HA

End

Point

Mobility

FA - Foreign Agent

HA - Home Agent

GFA - Gateway Foreign Agent

MT - Mobile Terminal

Signaling

Packet Delivery

FIGURE: 3.2.3.2 SEQUENCE DIAGRAM

FA - Foreign Agent

HA - Home Agent

GFA - Gateway Foreign Agent

MT - Mobile Terminal

HA

End

Point

MT

Router

FA

GFA

Packet Delivery

Signaling

FIGURE: 3.2.3.3 COLLABORATION DIAGRAM

STATEFLOW DIAGRAM

• Modeling the dynamic aspects of the system.

• State chart diagram shows state machine emphasis the flow of control from state to state.

• State Machine behavior that specifies the sequence of states an object goes through during its lifetime in response to events, and its responses to those events.

These diagrams contain the following elements:

• States represent the situations during the life of an object in which it satisfies some condition, performs some activity, or waits for some event.

• Transitions represent relationship between the different states of an object.

MT Sending signal

Mobility

?

HA Receiving signal and Sending Packets

Passing Signal to Foreign Agent

FA Passing signals to Gateway Foreign Agent

No

Yes

Passing Signal to Home Agent

FA - Foreign Agent

HA - Home Agent

GFA - Gateway Foreign Agent

MT - Mobile Terminal

HA Passing Packets to the MT via GFA, FA

FIGURE :3.2.3.4 STATEFLOW DIAGRAM

CHAPTER 4

SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION

4.1 IMPLEMENTATION

Implementation is the stage of the project when the theoretical design is turned out into a working system. Thus it can be considered to be the most critical stage in achieving a successful new system and in giving the user, confidence that the new system will work and be effective.

The implementation stage involves careful planning, investigation of the existing system and it's constraints on implementation, designing of methods to achieve changeover and evaluation of changeover methods.

Implementation is the process of converting a new system design into operation. It is the phase that focuses on user training, site preparation and file conversion for installing a candidate system. The important factor that should be considered here is that the conversion should not disrupt the functioning of the organization.

CHAPTER 5

TESTING AND MAINTENANCE

5.1 USER ACCEPTANCE TESTING

User acceptance of a system is a key factor for the success of any system. The system under consideration was tested for user acceptance constantly, by keeping the users informed of the progress and incorporating changes, at the development time itself.

5.1.1 TEST FOR USER DB INFO

5.1.1.1 TEST CASE

To ensure that once admin enters into DM Management page the data should be available in next module operations (Learning, Verification ).

5.1.1.2 DESCRIPTION

Once the user enters in to the DB page, his/her details will be stored in data base with the following information's mandatory.

• First Name.

• Last Name.

• Voice.

5.1.2 TEST FOR ADMIN HOME

5.1.2.1 TESTCASE

To ensure that once admin enters into login page the data should be available in network systems.

5.1.2.2 DESCRIPTON

Once the user enters in to the login page, his/her details will be stored in data base with the following information's mandatory.

Test case id

Description

Test case data

Expected output

First name

Typing special char

.{)},..!@<#$%^&

(+=:';

Invalid name

Last Name

Typing special char

1=1, OR , U , anything

Invalid name

Voice

Typing special char

And Numbers

.{)},..!@<#$%^&

(+=:'; and numbers

Invalid Voice

TABLE: 5.1.2.2 - TESTCASE DESCRIPTION

CHAPTER 6

EXPECTED RESULTS

6.1 EXPECTED RESULT

It should allow all mandatory fields to enter if else error message should be generated. The below table will explains the test case of login table with all mandatory fields , descriptions , test case data and expected output against the correct one.

Test case id

Description

Test case data

Expected output

Username

Typing special char

.{)},..!@<#$%^&

(+=:';

Invalid username

Password

Typing special char

1=1, OR , U , anything

Invalid password

Aid

Typing special char

.{)},..!@<#$%^&(+=:';.

Invalid admin id

Fname

Typing special char

Other than alphabet

Invalid name

Lname

Typing special char

Other than alphabet

Invalid name

Sex

Without filling it

Empty

Select sex

Contact_mobile

Type alphabets and less than 10 digits

a-z,!@# and less than ten digits

Invalid mobile number

Email

Without filling it

Empty

Email address empty

Password

Without filling it

Empty

Password empty

TABLE: 6.1- TESTCASE VERIFICATION

6.2 FUTURE ENHANCEMENT

The project has covered almost all the requirements. Further requirements and improvements can easily be done since the coding is mainly structured or modular in nature. Changing the existing modules or adding new modules can append improvements. Further enhancements can be made to the application, so that the project functions very attractive and useful manner than the present one. In Future try to develop more efficient online robotics control.

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