This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
It is to achieve a vehicle privacy for location based services in vehicular Ad-hoc networks. VANET has mostly directed the attention to protect the network from adversary and attacks has need to be improved, trying to attain satisfactory level, for the driver and manufacturer to achieve safety of life. In my project I have proposed an Ad-hoc on demand multipath routing protocol is to find the multiple path to transfer the data from source node to destination node. A vehicle in VANET is considered to be an intelligent mobile node which is capable of communicating with its neighbours and other vehicles in the network. The main objective is to improve the security issues in VANET and the communication between the services provider (base station) and vehicles. The preliminary efforts of potential applications, possible attacks, broadcasting and relaying of messages in vanet are focused. The simulation result shows packet delay with respect to time.
Keywords-location-based services (LBSs), vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANET), Ad-hoc on demand distance vector routing protocol (AODV), Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET).
With vanet technological innovations, we have find Vehicular Communication (VC) has a solution to many problems to our modern day communication system in roads. VC shows the use of short range radios in each vehicle, which will allow various vehicles to vehicle communicate (V-V) and vehicle with road side infrastructure (V-I) communication . These vehicles will form an instantiation of ad-hoc networks in vehicles. vanet is a subset of Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks. The differences between the two networks is distinguished by the movement and self organization of nodes. Also the difference between these ad-hoc networks is that MANET nodes cannot recharge their battery power where as VANET nodes are able to recharge them frequently . VANET is mainly designed to provide safety related information, traffic management. Driving is one of the most incident factors of traffic safety, so there is a clear need to make it safer. An accurate weather description or early warnings of upcoming dangers (e.g. bottlenecks, accidents) which is highly useful for drivers . Simple and effective security mechanism is the major problem of deploying VANET in public. Without security, a Vehicular Ad- Hoc Network system is wide open to a number of attacks such as propagation of false warning messages as well as suppression of actual warning messages, thereby causing accidents. This makes security a factor of major concern in making such network, this is the first commercial application of ad-hoc network technology . Vehicles are the majority of all the nodes, which are capable of forming self organizing networks with no prior knowledge of each other, whose security level is very low and they are the most vulnerable part of the network which can be attacked easily.
The capacity of VANET technology is high with a wide range of applications being deployed in aid of consumers, commercial establishments such as toll plazas, entertainment companies as well as law enforcement authorities  the main challenge facing VANET is to decide upon the routing protocol that should be used to control the process of forwarding packets through nodes on the network, determining how to select the next-hop node to use to forward packets to their final destination , particularly in a sparse environment, depending on the presence of the unique characteristics of VANET. However, without securing these networks, damage to life and property can be done at a greater extent. This paper focuses on providing the overview of broad casting and relaying of messages in VANET and security problems.
The paper is organized as follows:
Section II presents a summary of routing protocols and simulation tool are explained.
Section III presents the simulation results
Section IV conclusion is discussed.
II. RELATED WORK
AD-HOC ON DEMAND DISTANCE VECTOR ROUTING PROTOCO (AODV) belongs to the class of Distance Vector routing protocols (DV). In a DV every node consider to be its neighbors and the costs to reach them. A node assign to be its own routing table, storing all nodes in the network, the distance and the next hop to them. If the node is not reachable, the distance to it is set to be infinity. Every node periodically sends to its whole routing table to its neighbours. So it can check if there is a useful route to another node using this neighbour as next hop. When a link breaks, a misbehavior called Count-To-Infinity may occur.
AODV is an ad-hoc on demand routing protocol with small delay. It means that routes are only established when needed to reduce traffic overhead. This protocol supports unicast, broadcast and also multicast without any further protocols. Count-To-Infinity and loop problems are solved by using sequence numbers and registering costs. In AODV every hop has constant cost of one. Not used routes age very quickly in order to accommodate the movement of the mobile nodes. Link breakages can locally be repaired very efficiently. It is distributed, hop-by-hop, deterministic, single path and state dependent.
AODV uses IP in a special way. It treats an IP address just as a unique identifier. This can easily be done by setting the Subnet mask to 255.255.255.255. But also aggregated networks are supported. They are implemented as subnets. Only one router in each of them is responsible to operate AODV for the whole subnet and serves as a default gateway. It has to maintain a sequence number for the whole subnet and to forward every packet. For integrating AODV in larger, heterogeneous networks one needs hierarchical routing on top of it.
The simulation tool used is NS-2 (Network simulator) it is an object-oriented, discrete event simulator. There are presently five schedulers available in the simulator, each of which is implemented by using a different data structure: a simple linked-list, heap, calendar queue (default) and a special type called ''real time''. The scheduler runs by selecting the next earliest event, executing it to completion, and returning to execute the next event. The units of time used by the scheduler are seconds. An event is handled by calling the appropriate Handler class. The most important Handler is Ns Object with Tcl Object as its twin in the OTcl world. They provide all the basic functions allowing objects to interact one with another. For this purpose the receive function group is mainly used. For handling OTcl statements in C++ Ns Objects provide the so-called command function. Ns Object is the parent class for some important classes as the Classifier, the Connector and the Trace File class .The program is written in two end they are Back end is C++ event scheduler Protocols mostly, Fast to run, more control and Front end is OTCL Creating scenarios, extensions to C++ protocol and it is fast to write and change.
III. SIMULATION RESULTS
Fig 3.1 Deployment of nodes
Fig 3.1 shows the orientation of nodes before the simulation with cluster of nodes as vehicles and services provider. Nodes are deployed over a simulation area. Each node spread the signal to its radio range. Nodes are used to gather information from its environment.
Fig 3.2 Transformation of data
Fig 3.2 shows the sending of information (packets) between the services provider (base station) and the Vehicles blue color represents the vehicles.
Fig 3.3 Loss of packets
Fig 3.3 shows during the communication between the services provider and vehicles there is Loss of information (packets) black color shows the loss of information.
Fig 3.4 shows the coverage area during the communication
Fig 3.4 shows the coverage area when data transformation between the nodes. When start simulating signals are spread around the surface.
Figure 3.5 Hackers Spoofing Information
Fig 3.5 shows that transformation of data, the hackers spoofing the information of the services provider, Red color node represent the hacker who hack the information between the services provider and vehicle.
Figure 3.6 packet delay
Fig 3.6 simulation shows the x graph for the packet transmission delay with respect to time x-axis represents time and y-axis represents packets and there is no delay propagation after 10 ms.
VANET technology is a great potential in road transport safety and other vehicular communication application in real scenario. Security is the major concerns in designing of vanet. It is an emerging technology, This technology is a fertile region for attackers, who will try to challenge the network with their malicious attacks. This gave a wide analysis for the current challenges and solutions preventing a dishonest node from cheating about its own position. I have shown the simulation result of packet delay for the broadcasting and relaying of messages from services provider to the vehicles in vanet . In this work ad-hoc on demand distance vector routing protocol is used for the data transmission from base station to the vehicles.
 Al Sakib Khan Pathan: A book: Security in
VANET ,April 2011.
 Rongxing "A Dynamic Privacy-Preserving Key
Management Scheme for Location-Based in
Services VANETs" IEEE IT, volume: 13, March
 Antonios Stampoulis , Zheng Chai: "A Survey
of Security in Vehicular Networks" May 2012.
 Francisco J. Martinez. "Emergency service in
Future intelligent transportation system in
VANET"IEEE, vol.10, October 2010.
 Haojin Zhu, "AEMA: An Aggregated Emergency
Message authentication Scheme for Enhancing the
Security of Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks" IEEE
conference, October 2008.
 HAOJIN ZHU, "Security in service-oriented
vehicular networks. Wireless communications
volume: 16, November 2009.
 Nabil Mohamed Drawil, "Inter vehicle-
communication-Assisted Localization" IEEE,
volume 11, September 2010.
 Lei Zhang, Qianhong Wu, "Transactions On
Vehicular Technology" IEEE, vol. 59, May 2010.
 Krishna Sampigethaya, Mingyan Li, "AMOEBA:
Robust Location Privacy Scheme for VANET".
IEEE Journal on Communications, vol. 2, October