Fundamentals Of Hardware Software And Operating Systems Computer Science Essay

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Many modern computer motherboard in a central printed circuit board and many of the important components of the system holds, while others provide connectors for peripherals. Motherboard is sometimes referred as main board, system board, and planner board. Including things from the motherboard are CPU, RAM, adapter card and processor.

Bases or slots in which one or more microprocessors can be established which the systems main memory DIMM slots as to be generally (installed modules containing DRAM chips)

A chipset for the CPU front side bus, an interface forms between the main memory and peripheral buses

Non-volatile memory chips (modern motherboards usually Flash ROM) containing system firmware or BIOS

A clock which produces synchronizes the various components of system clock signal generator

Slots for Expansion cards (chipset supported by buses to the system through these interfaces )

Power connectors, which receive power from the computer power supply and the CPU, chipset, main memory and expansion cards distributed.

AT and ATX specifications

AT-Style : The older form factor standard derived from PC-XT and PC-AT specifications

ATX-Style : A newer form factor standard that has been introduced to overcome problems found in the

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

CPU is the computer brain. CPU sometimes just referred as the central processor, but processors are commonly called, where most calculations take place. In terms of computing power, CPU of a computer system is the most important factor.

A CPU is following two special factors:

Arithmetic logic unit (ALU), which is mathematics, and appropriate action.

Control Unit (cubic), which extracts instructions from memory and decodes and their Implementation, ALU call on when needed.

CPU of the computer's interior. Modern CPUs underside small and square and more than one metal connectors or pins contain. CPU Socket a CPU is directly involved, to pin down on motherboard. Every motherboard only a specific type or range of CPU if you try to change the CPU or motherboard manufacturer before upgrading Specifications will need to check. Modern CPUs associated heat sink and a small fan directly above the CPU heat removal assistance.

Figure 1.2 Central Processing Unit (CPU)

Power Supply

A power supply includes a power distribution system as well as primary or may be secondary sources of energy such as:

A form of electrical power to another desired form and voltage conversion, usually a well-regulated lower voltage DC for electronic devices to convert AC line voltage involved. Low voltage, low power DC power supply unit's commonly household electronics such as computers and equipment they supply, are integrated with the other, for example, switch mode power supply, linear regulator, pure and inverter (electrical) view.


Chemical fuel cells and other forms of energy storage systems

Solar Energy

Generators or alternators

Figure 1.3 Power Supply

Memory Modules

A narrow printed circuit board that holds memory chips. DDR SDRAM is used in DIMM 184 pins, for the 240 pin DIMMs' DDR2 and DDR3 SDRAM. DDR, DDR2 and DDR3 DIMM are used. Laptops use small outline DIMMs (SODIMMs) while PCs use either nine-bit memory (eight bits and parity) or eight-bit memory & Macs use eight-bit memory without parity. Earlier SIMM & Rambus module were installed in pairs; a single DIMM while often can be used. However, machines that dual channel DDR SDRAM increases performance DIMMs installed in pairs of support. In memory unit, ROM is used to store BIOS information & RAM is temporary unit.

Figure 1.4 Memory Modules

Storage Devices

A storage device is a hardware device designed to store information. There are two types of storage devices used in computers, a primary storage device (internal) and a secondary storage device (external). Primary storage, primary memory, main storage, internal storage, main memory, and RAM (Random Access Memory) are called Main Memory and used as an Internal Memory Storage. Hard disks, Floppy disk, USB Flash disk, Memory Stick are also known as Portable disk drive.

Figure 1.5 Storage Devices

The following table summarizes the characteristics of the various kinds of data storage in the storage hierarchy.




Relative Cost ($)








Very Fast




Floppy Disk

Very Slow




Hard Disk


Very High

Very Low


Figure 1.6 Data storage in the storage hierarchy

Display Devices

CRT display is the most common form of visual display, through the gradual replacement of LCD and plasma displays. In CRT, an electron files a horizontal display sweep, one line at a time, gradually to the bottom of the screen. A synchronization (sync) signals to bring the file back to the line of the display. Type of scan (line-by-line) is a raster scan.

LCD monitor, use a liquid crystal display (LCD) technology. LCD technology and CRT technology is very different shapes. An LCD screen remote devices and even larger than the CRT, and weight. LCD is liquid crystal chemistry that allows light to go through their second line. By using electric current to different levels to adjust the crystal, it is possible to make pictures and color desired.

Figure 1.7 Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) devices

Adapter Cards

Graphics card that is displayed includes a DVI connector, TV / Video connectors, and VGA connector. This card has on-board graphics processor with air fans. Typically, for graphics-intensive applications, you need the adapter end graphics card that is higher. For normal desktop use, the video adapter will be enough.

Figure 1.8 Graphic Card


In computer hardware, ports serve between computer and other computers or peripheral devices as an interface between functions. Physically, a port on a piece of equipment is a special outlet to which a plug or cable connects. Electronic, many outlets making up a signal transfer between devices provide conductors.

(b)Name, Purposes and characteristics of the standardized Peripheral ports

Serial port

As the distance between the computer and a peripheral reaches a certain point (10 feet), sending data as parallel words becomes less practical. An alternative method of sending data is to break the parallel words into their individual bits and transmit them, one at a time, in a serial bit stream over a single conductor.

Figure 1.10 Serial cable Figure 1.11 Serial connector

Parallel Port

Parallel ports have been a staple of the PC system since the original PCs were introduced. They have traditionally been the most widely used ports for connecting printers and other parallel devices to the computer. A typical parallel printer connection is using the IBM version of the Centronics Standard. This interface enables the computer to pass information to the printer; 8 bits at a time, across the eight data lines. The other lines in the connection carry control signals (handshaking signals) back and forth between the computer and the printer.

Figure 1.12 Parallel cable Figure 1.13 Parallel connector


The USB system is composed of a USB host and USB devices. The devices category consists of hubs and nodes. In any system, there is one USB host. This unit contains the interface that provides the USB host controller. The controller is actually a combination of USB hardware, firmware and software.

Figure 1.14 USB cable Figure 1.15 USB connector

Fire wire

The IEEE-1394 cable is composed of two twisted-pair conductors similar to those used in local area networks. A proposed version of the IEEE-1394 standard provides an additional electrical signaling methods that permits data transmission speeds of 800 Mbps and greater. PCs usually use a PCI expansion card to provide the FireWire interface.

Figure 1.16 Fire wire cable Figure 1.17 Fire wire connector



Figure 1.20 RJ cable Figure 1.21 RJ cable


Figure 1.22 Din cable


Mini DIN connectors 9.5 mm in diameter and come with three to nine the number of pins are seven patterns. Each pattern is a pattern like this one with a plug and socket mated with any pattern in what cannot be turned off. Each of these 7 mini DIN connectors is why an important aspect of government standards because they are quite different, and together with the other directly overlapping similarities in (1) pin system, (2) class size and location of keys, (3) circular shielding metal skirt notches and nonstandard mini DIN connectors directly to each other or may have overlapping characteristics unlike metal file.


Read phonetically

Figure 1.24 Mini-DIN cable Figure 1.25 Mini-DIN connector


Centronics parallel interface, a large & widely interface I/O interface to connect display devices such as printers & other computer devices. Typically included interfaces are cumbersome cable, a 36 pin male & female connector at the printer. Plug the cable in a 25 pin parallel port on the computer. Flowing data is only in a direction from the computer to the printer. In addition to the eight parallel data lines, the status of other lines to read and send control signals are used. Corporation Centronics parallel interface originally designed for the dot matrix printer.

Figure 1.26 Centronics cable Figure 1.27 Centronics connector


(a) 3 most popular types of mother boards

Asus motherboard

Figure 2.1 Asus motherboard


Form Factor   - ATX

Compatibility - PC

Chipset   - Intel 945G

Compatible Processors - Intel Pentium 4, Intel Celeron D, Intel Pentium D, Intel Core2 Duo, Intel Core2 Extreme

Front Side Bus Speed - 1066 MHz

Video Interface - PCI Express x16

Storage Controller Type(s) -DMA/ATA-133 (Ultra) x 1, Serial ATA II x 4

Integrated Input/Output Ports -USB 2.0 x 8, Serial Port x 1, RJ45 LAN Port x 1, PS/2 Mouse x 1, PS/2 Keyboard x 1, Parallel Port (ECP/EPP/SPP) x 1, Floppy Port x 1

Expansion Slots   - PCI Express x16 x 1 • PCI Express x1 x 1 • PCI x 2

South Bridge Chip - Intel ICH7

Socket type - Socket F

Max Supported CPUs qty - 1

Memory Types - DDR2 SDRAM

Number of Memory slots - 2 * 240 Pin DIMMs

Supported RAM Speeds - 533MHz, 400MHz, 667MHz

Max supported RAM - 4GB

Audio Output - Sound Card, SPDIF Out, 5.1 Channels, Line Out

Integrated Audio - ADI 1986A

Audio Input - Microphone Jack 1* Line In

Video Out Ports - 15 Pin D-Sub VGA port* 1

Graphic Processor - Intel Graphics Media Accelerator 950

Networking Type - Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, Fast Ethernet

Fans - 1* 4-pin fan headers, 1*3-pin fan headers

Classic Type - Desktop

Package Qty - 1

Depth - 8 in

Width - 9.6 in

Warranty - 3 years

BIOS Features - Plug and Play BIOS, DMI 2.0, WFM 2.0, SM BIOS 2.3, ACPI


Power Configuration - ACPI/AMP Power Management, Wake On Ring header, Wake

On LAN header, Wake up from keyboard/Mouse, Real time

Clock wake up alarm

Regulatory Approval - FCC Class B, FCC Part 15, ICES

BIOS Type - 4Mbit Flash EEPROM with AMI BIOS

UPC - 4719543142479

Other Features - Hyper thread technology ready, Dual channel memory

Architecture, 64 bit ready

Dell motherboard

Figure 2.2 Dell motherboard

MSI motherboard

Figure 2.3 MSI motherboard

FSB - 2600MHz

North Bridge - AMD 780 GB

South Bridge - SB 700

Dimension (L*W*H) - 244*215*0mm

Battery Type - Li-Ion

Number of batteries - 1

Power source - Mains

Maximum memory size - 4GB

Raid - 1, 0+1


CPU - AMD Phenom/ Athlon/ Semprom

Number of cores - 4

Socket - AM 2/AM 2+

RAM memory type - DDR 2

DIMM - 2

Audio inputs - analog, digital, SPDIF

Audio outputs - analog, digital, SPDIF

Video inputs - VGA

Video outputs - VGA

Availability - Africa, America, Asia, Australia, Europe, Oceania, Japan, Romania

(b)CMOS memory

All modern PC-compatible systems rely on a structure called the CMOS RAM to store configuration information for the system's hardware and its peripherals. Some of the parameters stored in the CMOS are generated automatically, whereas other parameters can be established by the user.

Figure 2.4 CMOS Main Menu screen

The CMOS Setup utility's Main Menu screen appears whenever the CMOS Setup utility is engaged. This menu enables the user to select different configuration functions and exit choices. The most used entries include the Standard CMOS Setup, BIOS Features Setup, and Chipset Features Setup options. Selecting these, or any of the other Main Menu options, leads you into the corresponding sub-menus. Other menu items typically include Power Management Setup, PnP/PCI Configuration, Integrated Peripherals, and Password Maintenance Services.

CMOS parameters changing

If the time is incorrect on a PC system, the easiest way to reset it is through the operating system; however, it the system continually fails to keep good time, should start by checking for corrosion on the battery contacts.

(c) (1) Two different types of Printers

Ink-Jet Printers

Ink-jet printers produce characters by squirting a precisely controlled stream of ink drops onto the paper. The drops must be controlled very precisely in terms of their aerodynamics, size and shape; otherwise, the drop placement on the page becomes inexact, and the print quality falters.

The drops are formed by one of two methods:

Thermal shock- This method heats the ink in capillary tube, just behind the nozzle. The heat increases the pressure of the ink in the tube and causes it to explode through the opening.

Mechanical vibration- This method uses vibrations from a piezoelectric crystal to force ink through a nozzle.

Figure 2.5 Ink-Jet Printer

Color Laser Printer

In Hewlett-Packard printers, the main portion of the printing system is contained in the electro photographic (ELP) CARTRIDGE. This cartridge contains the toner supply, the corona wire, the drum assembly, and the developing roller. Figure 2.6 depicts the Dell configuration.

Figure 2.6 Color Laser Printer

Color laser printers operate on the same principles as the monochrome version. However, color lasers use four different color toners. From earlier discussions of other color printers, we may be able to guess that the four toners are combined in different ratios on the page to form the different colors in the spectrum. Likewise, from the description of how images are written on the drum of a laser printer and transferred to the paper, we can probably imagine that the voltages used to control the attraction properties of the toner to the drum and paper are much more complex than they would be for a single-color laser printer, However, for the technician, color printers still work like their single-color relatives.

Options for upgrades include:


Hard drovers


Trays and feeders

Finishers (for example, stapling)


(2) Common printer problems

Printhead Not Moving

If the printhead is printing but not moving across the page, a single block of print is notmally generated on the page. When this type of problem occurs, the related components include the

printhead-position motor, the timing belt, the home-position sensor, the control board, and possibly the power supply.

Paper Will Not Feed or Is Jammed

If the paper does not feed at all, the place to begin checking is the paper-tray area. The paper trays have a complex set of sensors and pickup mechanisms that must all be functioning properly to begin the paper handling. Due to the complexity of the paper-pickup operation, jams are most likely to occur in this area.