Functions Of CAD CAM 2D And 3D Computer Science Essay

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The basic idea of this assignment is to suggest software to a Client who is a small tooling manufacturer. The business of the Client is originally to design, analyze and manufacture parts and tools for molding purpose of plastic containers, for example bottles, storage boxes, etc. The client uses AUTOCAD and MASTERCAM in order to design and manufacture the parts and tools but most of the customers of the client use SOLIDWORKS, AUTOCAD, INTERGRAPH NX and 3D STUDIO MAX. So the client has to interpret or translator before the use of the design of the customer. The main objectives of the client are preparing CAD models for the tools and parts, creating both engineering and production drawings, analysis of mechanical and injection molding and also developing CNC part programs for the tools and parts to be manufactured. But due to difference of software used by the client and the customers there exists an importance of communication with the customer before the designs are finalized to be manufactured. The customers have some requirements like the client should be working under the ISO9000/I and the files and data that are received and created should be controlled and managed.

CAD stands for computer-aided design. It is also known as CADD, which stands for Computer-Aided Design & Drafting. This software is used in creating plans and to construct drawings by architects, engineers, drafters and artists. The software is very efficient as the software has the capability to record lines on vectors based on mathematical equations. It also has features such as the drawings can be twisted and moved and the picture is automatically adjusted.

CAM stands for Computer Aided Manufacturing. The system sets the tool path and executes accurate machine operations based on the design of the part or tool to be manufactured. CAD and CAM are connected to each other directly. The integrated CAD/CAM system is then takes the design generated by the computer and is then fed into the manufacturing system and then the design is changed into multiple computer-controlled processes, such as drilling or turning.

Functions of CAD/CAM:

The basic function of CAD is to create two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) views, to zoom in and out for close-up and for distant views, to rotate images in order to outlook the images in different perspectives and to change the scale of images. When one of the values is changed the related values are automatically adjusted. It also manipulates the shape of the images as changing one part of an image automatically changes the whole.

CAM enables the automated integration of the manufacturing process with other mechanization systems like Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM), Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing (ICAM), Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS), Direct Numerical Control (DNC), and Manufacturing Process Management (MPM).

Block Diagram of CAD/CAM

Some of the CAD/CAM software are

Auto CAD

Master CAM

Solid works

Intergraph NX

3D Studio Max

Pro/ Engineering

CATIA, etc


Auto Cad is as defined as Computer Aided Design software product that is used for the two or three-dimensional drafting and designs. It was developed by auto desk and was introduced in the year 1980 , and released on December 1982 .At that time this is used to promote the feature extensibility and customization. And it was too expensive and there were limited features also. But now a days, it includes the three-dimensional tools and full set of basic solid modelling. It can be easily used as a platform for others like Bentley Auto Plant and Coade Cadworx. But of course it is vector graphics drawing program and the primitive entities that are used are the circles, arcs, lines, etc. Now it was running on the Microsoft desktop operating systems and is available in many languages


Even though AutoCAD has a number of commands for creating special 3D objects, lot of change can be achieved by changing the properties of basic 2D objects like polylines. Most 2D objects can get more thickness by using this command(DDCHPROP) command. we can extruded the thickness objects, with the EXTRUDE command which creates solid extrusions. By obtaining an object thickness it produces a surface extrusion. All objects can be given an elevation by moving them in the Z direction using the MOVE command. With a combination of the MOVE and Properties commands you can quickly create simple 3D drawings


With powerful new tools for manufacturing documentation, AutoCAD delivers the power to quickly document and communicate the design it includes

Powerful drafting tools designed to make the workday easier.

Helping speed in revision time and reduce errors

Native DWGâ„¢ support, helping us easily share designs with user of Autodesk Inventor software, partners, and suppliers

A robust materials library included with extensive PDF capabilities and help us to communicate designs with impact, bringing greater clarity to communications with clients, , suppliers, partners and colleagues



2-D Drafting used for lines, circles, arcs, polylines, rectangles, polygons, splines, points, texts, and area hatching

3-D Modelling used for Wireframe modelling, surface modelling, and solid modelling

3-D Images used for Wireframe images, hidden line images, shading images, and rendering images.

3-D primitives including boxes, wedges, cones, cylinders, spheres, and

to ruses; extruded and revolved solids from 2-D objects

€ Boolean operations to the 3-D objects including union, subtraction, and

Intersection. Operations for 2-D and 3-D Objects

Moving, rotating, copying, mirroring, viewing and erasing

Dimensioning and Tolerance

Linear dimensions, angular dimensions, radius dimensions, diameter

Dimensions, baseline dimensions, continuous dimensions, leaders, and size

And geometric tolerances.

User interface of AutoCAD :

The user's interface of AutoCAD consists of a Text window and a graphics window.

Graphics Window

The five primary areas of the AutoCAD graphics window are as follows:

Menu Bar -- AutoCAD's pull-down menus are accessed through the menu bar.

Status Bar - it gives the information including colour, layer, Coordinate display.

€ Drawing Area -- The centre area, called the drawing area.

Screen Menu -- The screen menu was AutoCAD's original menu interface.


Text Window

AutoCAD has a text window that displays a full window of command line text.

switch back and forth between the graphics window and text window.



It is software that allows users to generate GN-code programs that can be generate unlike geometric shapes on CNC machines.


Illustrate the geometry of the part to be machined.

Generate a tool database. It carries information about the available tools.

Construct the GN-code program to cut the part.

Simulate the machining of the part

Upload the program to the CNC machine controller.


Processor: 1.5 GHz (minimum) 32- bit Intel-compatible processor; 64-bit Intel- compatible processors are supported.

Operating System: Windows XP, Windows Vista or Windows 7 32 bit, including the latest service packs and recommended updates

Memory: 2 GB (minimum), 1.7 GB available hard disk space.

Graphics: 128 MB OpenGL-compatible graphics card (minimum).

Monitor: 1024 x 768 at 96 DPI (minimum)

Mouse: Windows-compatible 2 or 3 buttons


The tool paths of master cam delivers from the world leading CAM that is solid works

Now it became fully automatic feature based machining for pocketing, contouring and drilling

It is used for 2D and 3D high speed machining for complex parts


It is software used for designing and manufacturing parts and tools. At present this software has a great demand in the market. Now every company and competators are using this software. By using this software 3D designs and models of various products can be created that would work efficiently and its performance will be long-lasting .it is very easy to make transition by observation it is known that moving from 2D to 3D involves more than just buying new software it also requires to think differently about how you approach the design process. SolidWorks can help all users become more productive. Than using complex rules, design team can focus on creating better products, not software.

Solid Works, will works with a locally-based Value-Added Reseller. The Reseller will help to formulate an implementation strategy, provide comprehensive training, and deliver full technical support.

Test it before you build it: SolidWorks SimulationXpress is a design validation tool that's included with every copy of solid works 3D CAD. It helps to test the designs earlier in the design cycle, on-screen and against real-world conditions. It leads to improve the design quality and manufacturing efficiency, while reducing time to market, costs, and materials waste. In a different MIT survey, 66% of respondents reported improved design quality resulting from Solid Works design validation tools.

Collaborate, communicate, and share data: solid works plays well with others it can share models and work with one another, suppliers, and manufacturers to refine designs, maximize accuracy, and it improve production efficiency.

Work in a single application: No one likes having to open multiple applications to finished a single task. It's slows down the computer.. Luckily, solid works users can work from product concept to accurate virtual prototype without ever opening another application.

At SolidWorks, we know that great ideas can come from anywhere. In fact, a growing number of SolidWorks Partners are creating applications that seamlessly integrate specialized capabilities with the SolidWorks platform. That means if there's a special capability like to have


Commonly moving to any new design platform investment will be more and some times it will affect the bottom line. But coming to solid works software will likely start paying off sooner than later

.Benefits for the companies by using Solid Works software

Experience a high return on investment

Low total cost-of-ownership,

Significant productivity benefits..

This software is easy to learn


Power CAM is a direct Mazatrol or G-code output form within the Solid Works interface. This product allows Solid Works users to create parts and output CNC code, often within a few minutes. The program joints the power of a Mazatrol off-line programming system (a CAD/CAM system) and engineering software into one system. The MazaCAM Editor is an off-line Mazatrol programming system.

GeoPath is a system that can output G code; it integrates with the MazaCAM to output the Mazatrol. Power CAM connect with Solid Works, MazaCAM and GeoPath into a programming system, taking advantage of the feature information present in the Solid Works model.

we will use this software can take a native SolidWorks file, assign tooling and output Mazatrol directly. We can also view tool motion; calculate run times; generate tool sheets; output codes for virtually any CNC.


First of all Solid works will work by creating part in 3D or solid form. They are three components which are mainly uses in solid works that is Part, Assembly and Drawing. Part define by it sketch and selected feature. Assembly is how all parts must be assemble in one unit, parts assemble by user adding mate between parts. Drawing is for detailing and adding dimensions to part. solid works main idea is user must create drawing directly in 3d or solid form .from this solid form user can assemble it directly on there work station by checking clashes and functionality of it. Creating drawing in an easy way and drop the solid to drawing block



Part is created by sketch

Sketch is the base to define the part, form and features

Before start creating sketches we must select plane or face where the sketch will be sketch on it and add features.

Added features


This is nothing but how all parts work together in assembly. There after we have to check it out for clashes and its functionality. first of all parts are inserted in assembly by insert component tool .After inserting all parts in a workspace and there after we have to check it out for functionality .Mate is a command how parts mate with each other .After assembling all parts its represents like that


This is use for detailing part by adding dimension to it. The pictorial represents for drawing is


Solid works is a "parametric" solid modeller used for 3D design.

AutoCAD is primarily a 2D design tool that does have some 3D capability,

It is easy to compare any parametric solid modeller even though 3D is improved in AutoCAD 2007.

Autodesk (creator of AUTO CAD) makes a product that is almost identical to solid works called Inventor, which is a parametric program for design of solid parts and assemblies.

It is very to know that Parametric simply means the dimensions can have relationships between one another and can be changed at any point during the design process to mechanically change the solid part and any related documentation


This software is based on a plug-in architecture. Any one can extend its functionalities by developing scripts and plug in using the SDK and the Maxscript language..This software has two goals they are

Create images or movies using 3D content (short movies, special FX, architecture)

Create 3D content to be used by another software

Plug-ins expansion can be done in both fields because both are common process.

The main functionalities of 3D Studio Max programming using the SDK in C++ language. Max SDK is something difficult learn but after learning know this software we can easily expand it

3D studio max is accomplished only by using Microsoft Visual

Studio 6 (for versions prior to 5.1) or Visual Studio .NET 2002 for versions of 3D Studio Max and It is not recommended to use another compiler

Different type of plug ins CATOGORIES

Procedural Objects

It is a general class of developer-defined things that can be used in 3ds max.

Geometric Objects

These are the only procedural objects that actually get rendered.


Primitive objects such as boxes, spheres, cones, cylinders, and tubes are implemented

as procedural geometric objects.


Compound Objects

Compound objects take several objects and combine them together to produce a new




Developers can develop patch modelling systems that work inside MAX.


The NURBS provides an interface into the NURBS objects used by MAX.

Helper Objects

Helper objects are items such as dummy objects, grids, tape measurers and point


.Shape Objects

These are shapes such as Circles, Arcs, Rectangles, Donuts, etc.

Procedural Shapes

These are shapes that are defined procedurally.


Developers may create custom plug-in lights.

They may create custom cameras. The two classes from which cameras may be

derived are Camera Object and GenCamera.


Object Modifiers

Object modifiers are applied to objects in their own local transform space to modify them

Edit Modifiers

This plug-ins allows specific object types to be edited. For example, an Edit Mesh modifier


Space Warps

Space Warps are basically object modifiers that affect objects in world space instead of in the

Object's local space


It is also known as 3ds Max, is a graphic design application by Autodesk. It has been used in the development of so many games and movies in the 21st century and is careful to be an industry model for 3D-computer-aided design.

This software is not for an common user. This software mainly uses for large scale industry because its too expensive. These are some requirements which are used for 32 version

. 3D Studio Max requires at least an Intel Pentium 4, AMD Athlon 64 or AMD Operton microprocessor.

To run 3D Studio Max, we must have at least 1GB of RAM, although 2GB is recommended..

A fully working , three-button mouse is required .

3D Studio Max has to offer, as is DirectX 9.0c.

A 128MB graphics card with Direct3D 9, Direct3D 10 or OpenGL support is also required.

Finally, the entire program takes up 2GB of space on computer's hard drive.


NX redefines CAD productivity with unique elevated description 3D technology with powerful new plan tools with the intention to increase efficiency. It accelerate the design process, and has very low cost and it improve decision-making while attractive the 3D aspects of the High Definition PLM framework


With a powerful suite of included CAD, CAE and CAM applications, NX redefines productivity for product development. NX takes full advantage of the High Definition PLM Technology structure to improve decision-making throughout the product development process

NX explains part manufacturing productivity with two new applications that put in the background of a specific programming task.

A comprehensive mechanical design solution, NX give to chose an option in the tools and methodologies that best which suits design challenge, and work directly with design data from other CAD systems. A unique assembly design and mock-up environment, process-specific propose aids, drafting and 3D annotation help the work more significantly faster than with general-purpose CAD tools.


NX simplify the design by leveraging the product and process of ideas that companies gain from information. It includes tools that designers can use to capture information to automated cyclic tasks. Therefore due to that there is a reduction in cost and cycle time and improvement in quality.

NX enthusiastically integrate CAD with planning, simulation, tooling, manufacturing and other processes to help ensure that design decisions can be made more quickly, with detailed knowledge of product performance and manufacturability issues.


Evaluate the cost, quality and manufacturability of designs before physical prototyping, resulting in truly informed decisions

Greater design control, speed, productivity and throughput

Significant time, effort, and cost savings through design re-use

Improved quality, less re-design, fewer errors

Better integration and coordination of multiple disciplines, design teams, and CAD systems, resulting in faster time to market.