Functions And Features Of Two Different Types Computer Science Essay

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Microsoft has created countless advancements and adjustments that have created it a far easier to use working arrangement, and even though arguably it could not be the easiest working arrangement, it is yet Easier than Linux.

Microsoft is less reliable than Linux although more improvements have been made in the past years

Due to large amount of Ms Windows's users, there are more selections of available software programs, utilities, for Windows.

Ms Windows's software costs a lot with varied prices depending on the type of software required.

Due to the number of Ms Windows's users and the broader driver support, Windows has a far larger prop for hardware mechanisms and a good bulk of hardware manufacturers will prop their produce in MicrosoftWindows.

Ms Windows has had major improvements over the years with security on their operating system; windows operating system unfortunately is at far more vulnerable to attack than Linux.

Ms Windows is not open source and the majority of Windows programs are not open source

Ms Windows includes its own aid serving, has large number of obtainable online documentation and aid, as well as books on every single of the editions of Windows.

The majority of Linux variants are available for free or at a much lower price than Microsoft Windows.

Although the majority Linux variants have improved dramatically in ease of use, Windows is still much easier to use for new computer users.

The majority of Linux variants and versions are notoriously reliable and can often run for months and years without needing to be rebooted.

Linux also has a large selection of software available but windows has more due to having more users

Many of the available software programs, utilities, and games available on Linux are freeware or open source.

Linux firms and hardware manufacturers have created outstanding advancements in hardware prop for Linux and nowadays Linux will prop most hardware devices. Though, countless firms yet do not proposal drivers or prop for their hardware in Linux.

Linux is far more secure than the Ms Windows. Its firewalls, networks, privacy, encryption are known to be more secure. Unlike Windows which is vulnerable to attacks, Linux does not have the same problems.

Majority of the Linux variants and many Linux programs are open source and enable its users to customize or modify the code however they want to.

it is extra tough to find users acquainted alongside all Linux variants, but there are large numbers of obtainable online documentation and aid, obtainable books, and prop obtainable for Linux

Both Windows and Linux come in many variations. All the variations of Windows come from Microsoft; the various distributions of Linux come from different companies

Windows has two main lines. The older ones are referred to as "Win9x" and consist of Windows 95, 98, 98SE. The newer flavors are referred to as "NT class" and consist of Windows NT3, NT4, 2000, XP and Vista.

The variations of Linux are referred to as distributions. All the Linux distributions released around the same time frame will use the same kernel. They differ in the add-on software provided, GUI, install process, price, documentation and technical support. Both Linux and Windows come in desktop and server editions.

http://www.michaelhorowitz.com/Linux.vs.Windows.html

Task 2

A doctor wishes to install a computer system to help him in the running of his practice. He has quite a number of patients and he would like to store their records in the computer

Assuming he has decided on the CPU, what peripherals would you suggest he buys?

For each of the above peripherals you have listed, explain what use each of them could be put to

What other jobs, apart from storing patient records, could be done using this computer.

The computer system the doctor wants to run in his practice should have both input and output peripherals, these include

Monitor -

The monitor is the computer hardware which displays the inputs and images without saving them to the computer memory. In the doctors practice the monitor is used together with the CPU to view various tasks and operations in the computer. Monitor needs to be configured / adjusted depending on the user needs. In some cases brightness, contrast and sharpness needs to be adjusted

Keyboard -

Keyboard contains many keys for input. Used o enter data in the system. It contains letters, numbers and symbols and used according to user desire

Mouse -

Mouse is used for navigating through different programs. In order to access various functionalities of software such as opening a new file. Mouse can be moved in any direction where the user wants. Scroll up or down Selected items can be opened or closed.

Printer

Printer is the machine that is used to print the documents. Keyboard and mouse are used to locate the specific document and the expected outcome is printed on a piece of paper.

Scanner

A scanner is a device that optically scans images, printed text, handwriting, or an object, and converts it to a digital image

Photocopying machine

Photocopier is used to make a dublicate copy of the document. Document must be placed in the screen in the copier and lid closed.

Apart from storing records, the doctor can also use the computer for the following purposes

He can check and make appointments for the patients

Have a record of the patient medication or history

Easily check on patients past history without referring back to old files

Can note down patients symptoms easily and progress

Can send or receive reports from other staff

Track patient progress

Task 3

Explain what precautions you coud take in order to protect datafiles from the following

Destruction

Theft

Unauthorised access

Destruction of files can be caused when the computer is attacked by virus. Computer users can help protect themselves against computer viruses, malware, and other computer security threats by installing an antivirus protection program.

System backup needs to be used for files that have been destroyed or lost. It is important to back up files in the case that the system could be destroyed. Records may be stored on drives using some form of RAID, which helps protect the data even if a drive fails

Data theft is a word utilized to delineate after data is illegally duplicated or seized from a company or supplementary individual. Commonly, this data is user data such as passwords, communal protection numbers, trust card data, supplementary confidential data, or supplementary confidential company information. Because this data is illegally obtained, after the individual who robbed this data is apprehended, he or she will be prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law.

When sending confidential information such as usernames, passwords or financial/personal details make sure by verifying that it is encrypted. Use of URL like HTTPS Familiarize you with phishing scams and techniques, which are used to con you into divulging account information. Finally make sure to store passwords and login information in a secure area. Never write login information on a sticky note or in a text file that is not encrypted.

Unauthorised access to the system can lead to information being stolen or divulged. Unauthorized admission can transpire if a user endeavours to admission an span of a arrangement they ought to not be accessing. After endeavouring to admission that span, they should be repudiated admission and perhaps discern an Unauthorized Admission message. Arrangement administrators set up alerts to allow them understand after there is an unauthorized admission endeavour, so that they could examine the reason. These alerts can aid halt hackers from obtaining admission to a safeguard or confidential system. Countless safeguard arrangements could additionally lock an report that has had too countless floundered login attempts. Firewalls are additionally a outstanding pace for helping stop un-authorized admission to a firm or residence network.

"A firewall is a software utility or hardware device that limits outside network access to a computer or local network by blocking or restricting ports." http://www.wisegeek.com

Task 4

Security of data is very much a problem for computer users

Give three reasons why this is so

Give two examples of how privacy can be protected within a computer

a)

Reasons for data security

Destruction - this is a very important reason for securing of data. System can be damaged and thus losing of data. Viruses can cause a system to function slowly and in time crash. This will affect other users. There are various ways of dealing / preventing this mentioned in task 3.

Theft- perhaps one of the most common things that affect users If we are not secure with our data (usernames, passwords etc) they may be easily copied and used for illegal purposes. This happens a lot especially in debit/credit card, where someone can obtain the information and use it. Lots of money can be stolen and could cause a lot of problems and difficulties to the user. Security of theft is very important.

Unauthorised access - without having a secure firewall on a system someone can have unauthorised access to your system. If we do not protect our data and files from unauthorised access, they can have full access to the data and could use if for illegal purposes in the future.

b)

Privacy - A term often used to describe an individual's anonymity and how safe they feel in a location. When referring to privacy on the Internet, this commonly refers to what information is shared with the visiting site, how that information is used, who that information is shared with, or if that information is used to track users when on the website. Answers to these questions are commonly found on the company or website privacy policy

Examples of privacy invasion

Identity theft

Identity theft is the act of a person obtaining information illegally about someone else. Often the thief will try finding such information as first name, surname, address, date of birth, social security number, passwords, phone numbers, email, family information, credit card numbers, other credit information, etc. The thief can then use this information to gain access to bank accounts, e-mail, cell phones, identify themselves as you, or sells your information.

There are various ways of preventing identity theft e.g

Using secure pages when on the internet. This are usually indicated with a lock

Do not store debit /credit card details online

Having active and up-to-date spyware protection program

Having antivirus protection

awareness of fake e-mails and phishing e-mails

making sure computer is secure (passwords)

Hacking

 This is a term associated with any change not approved by the manufacturer or developer that makes the device do something it was not initially intended to do. Hackers usually use a software program downloaded to help a user perform a hack on their computer or other computer or device. Some software that may claim to do one thing may do another. For example, software that may promise to gain you access to another individual's computer may allow other hackers to get access to your information (aka Trojan Horses).

Listing of programs that may indicate a hacker has been on the computer.

Backdoors and Trojans are by far the most common programs to be installed on the computer after it has been hacked. These programs allow the hacker to gain access to the computer.

Spyware, rogue antivirus programs, and malware can be an indication of a hacker.

The following are ways of protecting your computer system

Verify data is encrypted

Use safe passwords

Be cautious when logging from different locations

Update internet browser plugins

Secure saved passwords

Be aware of those around you

Task 5

A school shop which sells foodstuff, books, stationary etc. has a manual sales system it is felt that it would be advantageous to computerize the system to make accountancy, stock control and re-ordering more efficient.

Explain each of the following steps involved in the design and implementation of a new system: Feasibility study; system design; implementation; monitoring; training personnel

Feasibility studies aim to objectively and rationally uncover the strengths and weaknesses of an existing business or proposed venture, opportunities and threats as presented by the environment, the resources required to carry through, and ultimately the prospects for success

In the school shop the following issues need to be addressed

Is there a better way of achieving productivity?

What are the costs and saving alternatives?

What are the recommendations?

The main achievement is to computerize a system to make accountancy, stock control and re-ordering more efficient for the school shop. There will be more advantages to this and the users will benefit from the new system. First of all we need to analyse if the new system is better than the current system. At the moment the current system of school shop uses manual system this compared to the new system will have negative feedbacks. A budget needs to be prepared in order to adopt the new system. The new system will require more equipment so it should be reflected in the budget.

The new system should

Increase efficiency

Increase speed

Track progress

Reduce costs

System Design

Systems design is the process of defining the architecture, components, modules, interfaces, and data for a system to satisfy specified requirements. One could see it as the application of systems theory to product development.

After the report of the final project is directed to the management and it is complete /finalised to make the finally system, the next step is to design the system. The school shop first need to have a preliminary design in order to focus on all the requirements. After making the preliminary design, the management need to review all the documentation in order to start the detail design, this is normally the time consuming part but relatively straight forward. After all the detailed checks the final system is designed

Implementation

Implementation is the realization of an application, or execution of a plan, idea,  model,  design,  specification , standard,  algorithm, or policy.

After the design process the school shop need to implement the new system. This is basically converting the old system to the new one. The following need to be addressed

Requirements analysis

Scope analysis

Customisations

System integration

User policy

User training

System delivery

Monitoring

Monitoring is the process of monitoring the system and see if it is working well with the school shop requirements. Tests will need to be conducted to check on the system accountancy, stock control and re-ordering capabilities. E.g. the school shop can check if there will be an indication if the stock runs low. This is a very important phase.

Training

The final phase is training. Once the new system is implemented and monitored the users need to be trained on how to use the system. Tutorials, help-screens, manuals are used. A questionnaire could be used on various ways to improve the system in the future

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