Flash Memory Data Organization Computer Science Essay

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In this report the functionality of the data storage device and reliable sequence of store data in memory chip for using the advance technology and extendable security function for secure data. The new chip technology design for user friendly and use in flexible environment. In this system we will find how to make the data secure in solid memory design environment and adopting the new technology environment to make the external storage data device less power, more powerful and organizing the data more reliable with built-in tools. The objective of data store in external memory organization, input and output are fully TTL-compatible, common flash interface (CFI) and scalable command set, automatic write and erase algorithm, and ready to boost in sequence finally security block features of the flash memory. To make the flash memory forensically strong and reliable to acquisition data with different powerful tools and describe the Forensic data recovery from flash memory, storage devices and functionality of the wireless sensor devices. On flash memory more research will be need time by time on the requirement of user.


Flash memories are very popular and well organize storage system because it's very shock resistant, affordable and economically non volatile system in this age. The flash memory technology attracted the consumer with electronically and embedded system. This significant technology has very well organized reliable features which is very easy to use and attract the consumer in this new technology. Time to time the flash memory features and designing increasing specially capacity and competition increase in cost throughout in the market. The capacity of flash memory introduction very rapidly these days. A lot of companies in competition and try to introducing the maximum capacity flash memory could be considerable replacement of hard disk in many applications. Structure which is very popular and reliable into organization the data over disk must be over flash memory.

The flash memory embedded system is very user friendly environmental system. Flash memory file system is FAT32 in this system the data significantly design and recovery system has been embedded. The popularity of electronic embedded system in flash memory is exponential growth in the amount of digital world. For example the mobile phones now a days in built-in system in mobile system the digital camera is able to transfer the video taking picture, play, forward pictures, audio and video transmission these significant feature of embedded system of any electronic device related to the human behaviour and might became subject of a forensics investigation.

These day more and more feature are using in flash memory drive, either in connection with or as system embedded into drive application system. It's very most importation sound way of data acquisition is maintain or development to sustain and present evidence collection form the flash memory drive in a court of laws. But unluckily the flash memory storage system from the current forensic tools has great creating problem to getting essential data into the embedded application ad flash memory. Electronically by the forensic point of view the smart flash memory make the great forensic problem. When the forensic team try to getting data and analyse their content the current forensic tools examination of handling device such as mobile phone and PDA devices do not give full access the acquisition and full recovery of data. Which is place on these device some time situation is different mostly the deleted data which is might be very useful and helpful evidence about the offence perpetrated cannot be getting the only way to getting deleted data from the flash memory or other device to analyse

and examine the lowest layer of data on this embedded system where the evidence may be expected.

In this system the flash memory storage management scheme is activated by the different characteristic of the underlying flash media in the flash memory files system including some evaluation tools, which tools write on bench marking or back up storage device, such HD bench for hard disk and FM bench for flash memory these tools only be considerable the backup of deleted file or data for further use and do not use the memory characteristic especially the flash memory management scheme which is called Flash Translation Layer (FTL). The performance and reliability if any storage device or flash memory is influence by the following these feature. It is very important feature in flash memory design and file system.

The underlying flash media.

The management scheme design

The access point or patterns which are generated by the application.

In the present age the flash memory is the most challengeable law enforcement especially for the forensic investigation team who are brake the wall when they come to getting damage data and analysis the data for evidence. In this modern technology age its is very important to give a great attention to these type device and understanding the tools, feature and characterize of getting damage data especially the safety about the Flash Translation Layer (FTL) level reachable this area for evidential data forensically.


Flash memory is designed non-volatile memory which is can electronically erased and reprogramming system. Flash memory come into pieces or type NOR flash and NAND flash. NOR introduced by Intel in 1988 and NAND introduced by Toshiba in 1989. Basically these electronic chip NOR and NAND is logically structures. These chips read byte by byte constantly. The data electronically hold in these chips by firmware the embedded software. These chips are use in mobile, PDA, USB flash disk, digital camera, multimedia device and phone camera use NAND flash memory technology to create compress data image. In this system we explain the base technology the physical and logical level.


To store the data in flash memory by physical mechanism use electronic charge into

floating gate of transistor. This charge gradually stored the data for extended record of this time without using external power supply. The current physical structure in flash memory can be data retention between 10 to 100 years.

Flash memory store or write the data byte by bytes like Electronically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EEPROM), but the data erased in block or layer system before rewrite on it. Erasing result in flash memory block filled into 1's in NAND memory flash system each block divided into page. For example 32 or 64 per erase block A, page usually multiply bye 512 bytes in size, just like the Hard Disk or Magnetic media bytes store in sector size these page are called spare area bytes use for store meta data. Some flash memory file system use the zones the zones is a group of blocks usually 256 to 1024. Basically the block and zones are logical concept no physical representation.












ZONE n-2


PAGE n-2

ZONE n-1


PAGE n-1





This diagram show that the zones and blocks of the NAND flash memory technology.

Example spare area sizes for different page size (in bytes)

Page Size

Spare Area Size

Total Page Size

Block Size














There are many way to use flash memory store the data in embedded system. There are three way are explained below.


It is very easy and approachable way to read flash memory data use the simple hardware and software interface to copy all data to a target storage device for further analyse. But unfortunately there are no general rules or methods of this procedure because every flash memory embedded system as own interface or firmware to store data in memory chip there is no proper function to standardize the embedded system. However some coping tools helpful to save the data on targeted storage data if the data not erased for use of forensic purposes. These tools come into two sources, manufactures or server centres mostly these tools use debugging and diagnose the problem. Some time use by hacker to checking and change the device functionality.

JTAG (Joint Test Action Group)

Another tool JTAG for use forensically getting data from storage device, when the sound image in flash memory could not be produce with flasher tool, then a second option will be considerable JTAG, its use to test access of an embedded system or electronic chip. The functionality of JTAG tool to test the device and debug in embedded system but cannot be also access flash memory in this section the JTAG explanations with tow test mode extest mode and debug mode and also be explained how these mode helpful to getting data from flash memory

How to access flash memory using JTAG

Flash memory chips is not designed for JGTAG tool but the following diagram show that the flash memory usually connected to other chip like a processer, the functionality of the processor use gain access flash memory if the processor is enable with JTAG







Extest mode. In this system the extest mode the processor pins controlled by a JTAG while the processor feature disable.

Debug mode. This function built in processor to debug the embedded software on the processor, JTAG circuitry in the process to stop the extra registry and start execution the read registry read and write the data on the flash memory. These options useful to create the image of NOE flash memory.

How to find JTAG test access port

Before the producing the image on flash memory the JTAG test access port freed in embedded system, JTAG port located in the row and clearly marked.

JTAG advantages and disadvantages

The risk of changing data is minimized.

Flash memory can be imaged without de soldering of flash memory chip.

A complete forensic imaged can be produced.

A disadvantage is that communication in extest mode is slow and other have debug mode is faster.

A JTAG test access port is difficult to find.

All the embedded system is not compatible with JTAG.


Another system to create the image on flash memory is physical extraction. In this system physically remove flash memory from PCB and read with memory chip programmer or reader. Mostly this tool use when the JTAG not approachable.


The first principle to examine the data electronically is very important to keep data on medium storage unchanged this data use in further forensic evidence. The problem is that in this system it is very challengeable. Actually the embedded system is a look like a network connections. Similar to the open system it's difficult to detect that an embedded system is connected to other system for example when the mobile phone ON or OFF the data change probably in algorithmic form. Its need more and more research on the power cycle, we approaches the data acquisition technique to creating or producing full image on flash memory for forensic investigation.



Flash memory is very popular cheep and viable storage device and use the less power. New technology is introducing sensor node on flash memory. Mandy authors have proposed a file system based approach to store on sensor device. The primary plan of sensor network device is to ensure and processing readings from the environment. One the sensor node read the base station immediately, or it could log it into flash memory is much cheaper than situations in network query processing performance could be control the sensor device receiving data and read write performance and also need an efficient way to retrieve data from storage in order to satisfy queries.


The sensor nodes capable of different attribute to retrieving the data in some way in this system the sensor attribute create a different index over the log sensor reading the same value which is generated by the sensor nodes.


Segments TINX drives flash memory into logical units block called segments. Each segment or block contained the set of data the logically division from automatic second into index.


My main aim was to introduce a flash memory strongly, friendly and data acquisition in forensically purpose, to make the memory mechanism by different tools to understand their features. But the day by day new technologies introducing and make power full tools in the market for data recovers and making the flash memory in highly performance like Win Hex, X-Way Investigation, X-Way Capture, F-Response and X-Way forensic like a lot of tools with new technologies with more reliable feature. Digital forensic is became very popular in this modern age, it's totally time consume technology and effective result for the further procedure in this system. The investigator or forensic team examine the every time a tiny thing in the digital device. But some time the situation different in data recovery its depend on the flash memory or storage device mechanism and manufacture design in the present environment. Mostly crime done in digital enforcement condition for example crime on computer, hacking and bank account fraud.

In my point of view the future technology should more and more advance techniques with security feathers. For example the storage data device own backup portion which is very strong and highly security embedded system. This embedded system operated in different forensic application and tools for getting the data.

In other hand flash memory done wireless and with more feathers. Today in the market flash memory size is increasing day by day and storage data is compress with powerless and more data capacity. In my suggestion flash memory should be convert in new file system and bootable with operating system. This operating system should be compatible with different machine environment in forensic point of view it will be beneficial to the law enforcement. The data will be distributed in operating system platform. More research also be needed on the relation between operation like block and zones with the result if this research future forensic tools might be able to improve the power and efficiency of embedded system examination for researchable skilled IT professions. This world is going to digital system every things is compress in smaller part of embedded system. But when we create this type system the threat increase on the embedded system. This digital electronic embedded system need more and more security features for save the data and debug the hacker threat activities. Time by time further research also be attempt to enhance features of the flash chip, the FTL micro controller chip to make better and deep analysis also be make sure the evidence data could be recover from the different storage device or USB flash devices.