Features Which Distinguish Wsdl From Uddi Computer Science Essay

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Web Services: Web services are typically application programming interfaces or web APIs that can be accessed over a network, such as the Internet, and executed on a remote system hosting the requested services. Big Web Services and Restful Web Services Web Services are published, found, and used through the Web. Web services can be discovered using UDDI. The W3C defines a "web service" as "a software system designed to support interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network. It has an interface described in a machine-process able format (specifically Web Services Description Language WSDL). Other systems interact with the web service in a manner prescribed by its description using SOAP messages, typically conveyed using HTTP with an XML serialization in conjunction with other web-related standards

Provider: Someone who provides the means for subsistence. Also we can use this-someone whose business is to supply a particular service or commodity. Provider Connection is your online source for current, detailed member eligibility and benefit information, claims status and payment information, authorization status and submission, Blue Shield policies and guidelines, and more

Requester: Generally a requester is, one (single unit or person) who request. That means a petitioner. One who requests, a petitioner. Totally we can stay this solution when anybody request anything for web browser those person is we called requester.

Web Service Description (WSD): The Web Services Description Language (WSDL, pronounced 'wiz-dell') is an XML-based language that provides a model for describing Web services.

Semantic: Is an evolving improvement of the WWW. For, making it, possible for the web to understand and also assure the request of people and machines to use the Web Content. These technologies are shared in order to provide descriptions that supplement or replace the content of Web documents. Finally Semantic means of some of the technical terms used in this paper are defined here to ensure that all readers understand the meaning I am applying to these terms.

How does Web Service distinguish itself form a Web Application - The difference between a web service and application are simple. Web service is a service based application, that is, we can use this service by using web, to interact with other programs. These services are provided form the web servers. Web Application is known as providers of web service. It is an application that can be accessed via a web browser using the internet. It is the collection of all the web pages.

WSDL is an XML-based language for locating and describing Web services. It stands for Web Services Description Language. it is based on XML. It is used to describe Web services. It's used to locate Web services. WSDL is a W3C standard.

UDDI is a directory service where companies can register and search for Web services. It stands for Universal Description, Discovery and Integration. This is a directory for storing information about web services. UDDI is a directory of web service interfaces described by WSDL. It is communicates via SOAP. UDDI is built into the Microsoft .NET platform

By using UDDI as infrastructure in web services architecture, applications can be written to be more reliable. UDDI can play an essential role in providing an infrastructure to support Web services at run time. UDDI addresses these issues by defining a calling convention that involves caching binding information such as the access point of that Web service as well as other parameters specific to that particular implementation.

UDDI provides important run-time functionality that can be integrated into applications so as to create more robust, dynamic clients. UDDI can be managed by the following steps:

SOAP is an XML-based protocol to let applications exchange information over HTTP.SOAP is a protocol for accessing a Web Service. It stands for Simple Object Access Protocol This is a communication protocol & format for sending messages.It is designed to communicate via Internet. SOAP is platform & language independent. SOAP based on XML& its simple and extensible. SOAP allows you to get around firewalls & it ts W3C standard.

Task 2

On a computer having Microsoft Windows XP environment, open the Microsoft Management Console and then open the Computer Management snap- in. Show how you can perform the following activities. Write a brief report (approximately 800 words) providing evidence (relevant screen shots, explanation and comments on results) of having performed these activities.

Identify the class of IP addresses that will be used for an organization having a network of between 1000 to1500 computers. Explain your reasons for arriving at this solution.

Using http://www.4domains.com (or a similar website), check that the domain name you desire is available (assuming that it would be registered).

Design a subnetting system for the same organization described in part (d)1 . Each subnet should contain no more than 100 computers. Show the overall network using a diagram. Support your proposal with sound technical arguments.

The DNS translates Internet domain and host names to IP addresses. DNS automatically converts the names we type in our Web browser address bar to the IP addresses of Web servers hosting those sites.

DNS implements a distributed database to store this name and address information for all public hosts on the Internet. DNS assumes IP addresses do not change (are statically assigned rather than dynamically assigned).

The DNS database resides on a hierarchy of special database servers. When clients like Web browsers issue requests involving Internet host names, a piece of software called the DNS resolver (usually built into the network operating system) first contacts a DNS server to determine the server's IP address. If the DNS server does not contain the needed mapping, it will in turn forward the request to a different DNS server at the next higher level in the hierarchy. After potentially several forwarding and delegation messages are sent within the DNS hierarchy, the IP address for the given host eventually arrives at the resolver, that in turn completes the request over Internet Protocol.

DNS additionally includes support for caching requests and for redundancy. Most network operating systems support configuration of primary, secondary, and tertiary DNS servers, each of which can service initial requests from clients. ISPs maintain their own DNS servers and use DHCP to automatically configure clients, relieving most home users of the burden of DNS configuration.

3. A-2.

Internet Protocol (IP) address:

An identifier for a computer or device on a TCP/IP network. Networks using the TCP/IP protocol route messages based on the IP address of the destination. The format of an IP address is a 32-bit numeric address written as four numbers separated by periods. Each number can be zero to 255. For example, 1.160.10.240 could be an IP address.

Within an isolated network, you can assign IP addresses at random as long as each one is unique. However, connecting a private network to the Internet requires using registered IP addresses (called Internet addresses) to avoid duplicates.

The four numbers in an IP address are used in different ways to identify a particular network and a host on that network. Four regional Internet registries -- ARIN, RIPE NCC, LACNIC and APNIC -- assign Internet addresses from the following three classes.

Class A - supports 16 million hosts on each of 126 networks

Class B - supports 65,000 hosts on each of 16,000 networks

Class C - supports 254 hosts on each of 2 million networks

The number of unassigned Internet addresses is running out, so a new classless scheme called CIDR is gradually replacing the system based on classes A, B, and C and is tied to adoption of IPv6.

3. A-3.

IP version 4 addresses:

Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is the fourth revision in the development of the Internet Protocol (IP) and it is the first version of the protocol to be widely deployed. Together with IPv6, it is at the core of standards-based internetworking methods of the Internet. IPv4 is still by far the most widely deployed Internet Layer protocol. As of 2010, IPv6 deployment is still in its infancy.

IPv4 uses 32-bit (4-byte) addresses, which limits the address space to 4,294,967,296 (232) possible unique addresses. IPv4 reserves some addresses for special purposes such as private networks (~18 million addresses) or multicast addresses (~270 million addresses).

IPv4 addresses are usually represented in dot-decimal notation (four numbers, each ranging from 0 to 255, separated by dots, e.g. 208.77.188.166). Each part represents 8 bits of the address, and is therefore called an octet. In less common cases of technical writing, IPv4 addresses may be presented in hexadecimal, octal, or binary representations. In most representations each octet is converted individually.

3. A-4.

DNS name server:

A name server translates domain names into IP addresses. This makes it possible for a user to access a website by typing in the domain name instead of the website's actual IP address. For example, when you type in "www.microsoft.com," the request gets sent to Microsoft's name server which returns the IP address of the Microsoft website.

Each domain name must have at least two name servers listed when the domain is registered. These name servers are commonly named ns1.servername.com and ns2.servername.com, where "servername" is the name of the server. The first server listed is the primary server, while the second is used as a backup server if the first server is not responding.

Name servers are a fundamental part of the Domain Name System (DNS). They allow websites to use domain names instead of IP addresses, which would be much harder to remember. In order to find out what a certain domain name's name servers are, you can use a WHOIS lookup tool

3. A-5.

DNS resolvers:

The client-side of the DNS is called a DNS resolver. It is responsible for initiating and sequencing the queries that ultimately lead to a full resolution (translation) of the resource sought, e.g., translation of a domain name into an IP address.

A DNS query may be either a non-recursive query or a recursive query:

A non-recursive query is one in which the DNS server provides a record for a domain for which it is authoritative itself, or it provides a partial result without querying other servers.

A recursive query is one for which the DNS server will fully answer the query (or give an error) by querying other name servers as needed. DNS servers are not required to support recursive queries.

The resolver, or another DNS server acting recursively on behalf of the resolver, negotiates use of recursive service using bits in the query headers.

Resolving usually entails iterating through several name servers to find the needed information. However, some resolvers function simplistically and can communicate only with a single name server. These simple resolvers (called "stub resolvers") rely on a recursive name server to perform the work of finding information for them.

3. A-6.

DNS Infrastructure:

The Domain Name System (DNS) infrastructure consists of DNS servers that run the DNS Server service and DNS clients that run the DNS Client service.

DNS is a system for naming computers and network services that is organized into a hierarchy of domains. DNS naming is used in TCP/IP networks, such as the Internet, to locate computers and services with user-friendly names. When a user enters a DNS name in an application, DNS services can resolve the name to other information that is associated with the name, such as an IP address.

3. A-7.

FQDN:

A fully qualified domain name consists of a host and domain name, including top-level domain. For example, www.webopedia.com is a fully qualified domain name. www is the host, webopedia is the second-level domain, and.com is the top level domain.

A FQDN always starts with a host name and continues all the way up to the top-level domain name, so www.parc.xerox.com is also a FQDN.

3. A-8.

Network ID:

A network ID refers to a part of a TCP/IP address that is used to identify the subnet that a host may be on. The subnet that the computer is on is determined by the netmask and IP address of the computer. This subnet address is the same as the network ID and is the beginning part of the computers IP address.

When the netmask is setup, it is a number where some of the most significant bits have a 1's value and the rest have values of 0. The most significant part of the netmask with bits set to 1's specifies the network address, and the lower part of the address will specify the host address.

The part of the IP address that matches the part of the netmask where the bits are set to ones determines the network ID.

3. A-9.

Subnet mask:

A subnetwork, or subnet, is a logically visible, distinctly addressed part of a single Internet Protocol network.[1] The process of subnetting is the division of a computer network into groups of computers that have a common, designated IP address routing prefix.

Subnetting breaks a network into smaller realms that may use existing address space more efficiently, and, when physically separated, may prevent excessive rates of Ethernet packet collision in a larger network. The subnets may be arranged logically in a hierarchical architecture, partitioning the organization's network address space (see also Autonomous System) into a tree-like routing structure. Routers are used to interchange traffic between subnetworks and constitute logical or physical borders between the subnets. They manage traffic between subnets based on the high-order bit sequence (routing prefix) of the addresses

(b)

Common Vulnerabilities of DNS -

There are a lot of security problems with the domain name service/server. A lot of security hazards exist which are discussed below:

# The fundamental problem with the DNS is that the responses to queries can, in

principle, be faked.

# DNS cache poisoning.

# DNS spoofing.

# Flat footed hacking

# Eavesdropping

# Backdoor attack

# DNS ID hacking

(c)

Measures to secure DNS

There are several ways to protect domain name server. Among them the most famous and

# By using caching -only DNS server

# Disabling zone transfer

# Use of firewall to control access to DNS server

# Upgrade DNS server regularly with patches and latest versions.

# Consider signing the entire zone by using DNS Security Extension

# Set up early warning system.

(d)

3. D-2.

Class B - I am choosing Class B for the network. The reasons are discussed below:

The Class B network address has 16 bits available for host addressing. This means we can use up to 14 bits for subnetting because we have to leave at least tow bits for host addressing. The calculation should be:

Subnets: 22 - 2 = 2

Hosts: 214 - 2 = 16,382.

The amount of host which is 16,382 in Class B IP addressing is what we need. As we have to do a network within 1000 to 1500 computers, so taking Class B IP will let us have that facilities with a minimum waste. In Class A IP we will have a 65534 hosts, which is very far from our requirements. Thousands of IP addresses will be wasted. So to choose Class B IP addressing will be the best in our situation.

3. D-2.

Figure D2.1: Check "warriorsoftwareltd".

Figure D2.1: "warriorsoftwareltd" is available.

3. D-3.

For the 172.172.0.0 network with the subnet mask 255.255.255.192

Network

Hosts from

Hosts to

Broadcast Address

172.172.0.0

172.172.0.1

172.172.0.62

172.172.0.63

172.172.0.64

172.172.0.65

172.172.0.126

172.172.0.127

172.172.0.128

172.172.0.129

172.172.0.190

172.172.0.191

172.172.0.192

172.172.0.193

172.172.0.254

172.172.0.255

172.172.1.0

172.172.1.1

172.172.1.62

172.172.1.63

172.172.1.64

172.172.1.65

172.172.1.126

172.172.1.127

172.172.1.128

172.172.1.129

172.172.1.190

172.172.1.191

172.172.1.192

172.172.1.193

172.172.1.254

172.172.1.255

172.172.2.0

172.172.2.1

172.172.2.62

172.172.2.63

172.172.2.64

172.172.2.65

172.172.2.126

172.172.2.127

172.172.2.128

172.172.2.129

172.172.2.190

172.172.2.191

172.172.2.192

172.172.2.193

172.172.2.254

172.172.2.255

172.172.3.0

172.172.3.1

172.172.3.62

172.172.3.63

172.172.3.64

172.172.3.65

172.172.3.126

172.172.3.127

172.172.3.128

172.172.3.129

172.172.3.190

172.172.3.191

172.172.3.192

172.172.3.193

172.172.3.254

172.172.3.255

172.172.4.0

172.172.4.1

172.172.4.62

172.172.4.63

172.172.4.64

172.172.4.65

172.172.4.126

172.172.4.127

172.172.4.128

172.172.4.129

172.172.4.190

172.172.4.191

172.172.4.192

172.172.4.193

172.172.4.254

172.172.4.255

172.172.5.0

172.172.5.1

172.172.5.62

172.172.5.63

172.172.5.64

172.172.5.65

172.172.5.126

172.172.5.127

172.172.5.128

172.172.5.129

172.172.5.190

172.172.5.191

172.172.5.192

172.172.5.193

172.172.5.254

172.172.5.255

172.172.1.64

172.172.0.192.

ROUTER

INTERNET

172.172.0.0

172.172.0.64

172.172.0.128

172.172.1.0

172.172.5.192

172.172.5.128

172.172.5.64

172.172.1.128

172.172.5.0

172.172.4.192

172.172.3.0

172.172.3.64

172.172.4.128

172.172.4.64

172.172.4.0

172.172.3.128

172.172.3.192

172.172.2.64

172.172.2.128

172.172.2.192

172.172.1.192

172.172.2.0

3. D-4.

For the 172.172.0.0 network with the subnet mask 255.255.255.192

Network

Hosts from

Hosts to

Broadcast Address

172.172.0.0

172.172.0.1

172.172.0.62

172.172.0.63

172.172.0.64

172.172.0.65

172.172.0.126

172.172.0.127

Task 4

Write a report (approximately 1000 words) covering the following:

Briefly describe the following:

Automation (of server administration tasks)

Search engine

www robot

uses of robots and search engine

Interpret the following "/robots.txt" file

User-agent: *

Disallow: /cgi-bin/

Disallow: /Naj/

c) Interpret the following "/robots.txt" file

User-agent: *

Disallow

Most servers provide mechanisms to automate common administration tasks. Schedule three task that can be harmlessly run immediately and verify that they run on schedule providing appropriate evidence

Remove the tasks you have scheduled during the performance of the current task.

List the tasks that are currently automated on your server.

Show that your web server is scheduled to start running at login time.

Demonstrate the use of three Windows Server Tools for administrative tasks.

(a)

4. A-1. Automation (of server administration tasks):

Which things, which can be used for control system, in show with the application of information technology to control industrial machinery and processes and also reducing the human intervention is called the Automation. Automation plays an progressively more important role in the world economy and in daily experience. Engineers strive to join automatic devices with mathematical and organizational tools to create multipart systems for a rapidly increasing range of applications and human activities. Many roles for humans in industrial processes presently lie beyond the scope of automation. The main disadvantage of automation is, this technology is limits. Current technology is unable to automate all the desired tasks and cost are permanently high rate.

4. A-2. Search engine:

A web search engine is designed to search for information on the World Wide Web. The search results are usually presented in a list of results and are commonly called hits. The information may consist of web pages, images, information and other types of files. Some search engines also mine data available in databases or open directories. Unlike Web directories, which are maintained by human editors, search engines operate algorithmically or are a mixture of algorithmic and human input.

4. A-3. www robot:

This module implements a configurable web traversal engine, for a robot or other web agent. Given an initial web page URL, the Robot will get the contents of that page, and extract all links on the page, adding them to a list of URLs to visit. This follows the robot exclusion protocol. This also supports the META element proposed extensions to the Protocol. WWW robot builds up different types of standard Perl 5 modules for WWW, HTTP, HTML, etc. User Agent, Name, Ignore Unknown, Traversal, Verbose are the attributes of robots.

4. A-4. Uses of robots and search engine

The largest use of robot is to web spidering. This is also use for automating the system software. And this uses are simply and structural. With the spidering, in which an automated script fetches, analyzes and files information from web servers at many times the speed of a human. Bots may also be implementing where a response speed faster than that of humans is required or less commonly in situations where the emulation of human activity is required, for example chat bot.

All we know the uses of search engines category. Mainly we use the search engines for according our correct topic for searching. In a search engine all types of information are added for user benefits. If we needed any types of difficult things or correct information any things, we can search those needed things by search engine. So, with use of search engine we can find out any kind of perfect information with images, videos, downloading and collect many types of files.

(b)

Interupt the following "/robots.txt" file

User-agent: *

Disallow: /cgi-bin/

Disallow: /Naj/

In the (User-agent *) it is said that we have a user-agent directive. The * means all robots. It also means to disallow directives to any robots or spider. Then here in the code we have two disallowed directives. The cgi-bin directory contains CGI scripts. And the Naj directories disallow all files or anything that it contains. It means that the code will not allow any file.

(c)

Interpret the following "/robots.txt" file

User-agent: *

Disallow

In the first line User-agent * we have a user-agent directive. The * means all robots. The Disallow in the second line means that it permits all files, which means that noting is disallowed here.

(d)

Most servers provide mechanisms to automate common administration tasks. Schedule three tasks that can be harmlessly run immediately and verify that they run on schedule providing appropriate evidence.

First Scheduling Task

Figure: Scheduling first task

For scheduling my first task I choose Adobe Photoshop CS. The first step while scheduling task are shown in this figure

Figure: Scheduling first task - Adobe Photoshop CS

I select the Adobe Photoshop CS in this step and click next to go forward to complete my steps.

Figure: Scheduling first task - Adobe Photoshop CS

Then in the next step I choose whether I want Adobe Photoshop CS to run daily or weekly or monthly etc. I selected daily in this step and click next.

Figure: Scheduling first task - Adobe Photoshop CS

In my next step I choose the time and the date from when my Opera Web Browser will start to run in scheduled wise. After determining the time and date I clicked the next button to go the next step.

Figure: Scheduling first task - Adobe Photoshop CS

In the next step I gave my username and password. Then I clicked next.

Figure: Scheduling first task - Adobe Photoshop CS

A confirmation message box is shown, which confirms that the task I scheduled was accepted and will run accordingly as I selected. The confirmation box is shown here.

Second Scheduling Task

Figure: Scheduling Second Task

Figure: Scheduling Second Task - Yahoo! Messenger

Here in this figure I showed that scheduling the second task, which is Yahoo! Messenger. A software use to connect to other yahoo user.

Figure: Scheduling Second Task - Yahoo! Messenger

Then in the next step I choose whether I want Messenger to run daily or weekly or monthly etc. Here I selected daily in this step and click next.

Figure: Scheduling Second Task - Yahoo! Messenger

In my next step I choose the time and the date from when my Yahoo! Messenger will start to run in scheduled wise. After determining the time and date I clicked the next button to go the next step.

Figure: Scheduling Second Task - Yahoo! Messenger

In the next step I gave my username and password. Then I clicked next.

Figure: Scheduling Second Task - Yahoo! Messenger

A confirmation message box is shown, which confirms that the task I scheduled was accepted and will run accordingly as I selected. The confirmation box is shown in this figure

Third Scheduling Task

Figure: Scheduling Third Task

For scheduling my first task I choose VLC media player. The first step while scheduling task are shown in this figure.

Figure: Scheduling third Task - VLC media player

I select the VLC media player in this step and click next to go forward to complete my steps.

Figure: Scheduling third Task - VLC media player

Then in the next step I choose whether I want VLC media player to run daily or weekly or monthly etc. I selected daily in this step and click next.

Figure: Scheduling third Task - VLC media player

In my next step I choose the time and the date from when my VLC media player will start to run in scheduled wise. After determining the time and date I clicked the next button to go the next step.

Figure: Scheduling third Task - VLC media player

In the next step I gave my username and password. Then I clicked next.

Figure: Scheduling third Task

A confirmation message box is shown, which confirms that the task I scheduled was accepted and will run accordingly as I selected. The confirmation box is shown in here.

(e)

Remove the tasks you have scheduled during the performance of the current tasks

Figure: Removing the Scheduled Task

Here I am showing how to remove the task that I scheduled. The procedure is simple and shown accordingly in the figure. After all the tasks are removed another screen shot showing that the tasks are removed are shown in next step.

Figure: Removed the task that I scheduled

As all the tasks are removed, the screen shot is taken and shown here.

(f)

List the tasks that are currently automated on your server

Figure: listing the tasks that I selected

The tasks that are automated in my server are listed and shown here.

(g)

Figure: showing that Scheduled Task will start running at login time

Here shown that the Scheduled Task One which was Adobe Photoshop CS will run at login time.

Figure: showing that Scheduled Task will start running at login time

Here shown that the Scheduled Task Three which was Yahoo! Messenger will run at login time.

Figure: that Scheduled Task will start running at login time

Here shown that the Scheduled Task Three which was VLC media player will run at login time.

(h)

Demonstrate the use of three Windows Server Tools for administrative tasks.

Figure: bootcfg in cmd

Figure: defrag in cmd

Figure: diskpart in cmd

Figure: getmac in cmd

Figure: gpresult in cmd

Figure: ipconfig in cmd

Figure: reg in cmd

Figure: secedit in cmd

Figure: tree in cmd

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