Everybody Owns A Computer Computer Science Essay

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Computers are used as learning tool which is broadly used in education especially in e-Learning programs. E-Learning is the use of technology to facilitate people to study anytime and everywhere which can involve training, the distribution of just-in-time information and guidance from experts. The usages of e-Learning are computer-based training (CBTs), virtual learning environment and digital library.

Computer based-training (CBTs) is a form of education by executing individual training programs on a computer. CBTs offer learning away from time-honored learning from textbook, classroom-based instruction or manual. CBTs is especially valuable for training people to utilize computer applications because the CBTs program can be included with the applications so that students can perform using the application as they learn. Examples, lessons can be done by using computers and the computer is used to do assignment and project work using Microsoft Office Word software to submit the coursework. The lectures or teachers also teaching using computer and projector, with the help of Microsoft Office Power Point software. The students also can get the soft copy of the syllabus learned from the lectures or teachers which make them easier to study and understand.

On the other hand, virtual learning environment is a software system calculated to maintain learning and teaching in an educational surroundings which commonly used over the Internet. Examples, one can get the self-assessment quizzes and module syllabus or equivalent strategy about the studies through internet. A person also can look through a notice board over the Internet for current information about the ongoing courses.

Last but not least, digital library is an anthology of documents in prepared electronic structure that available on CD-ROM disks (compact-disk read-only memory) or on the Internet. A user may be able to retrieve magazine articles, papers, books, sound files, images, and videos depending on the particular library. Example, World Wide Web is one of the website where a person can look for the information or images which provide them useful collection of information resources.

As for the business, computers are being used for every single business operation which is trade merchandise or services that handle and sustain the business. Without this computer, business actions could not function well. In business, general purpose work can be done easily with the help of computer. Examples of general purpose work are to create memorandums, business letters, presentations, reports, spreadsheets, mailing labels, manage database and so on.

Besides that, mostly company use computers to search for accounts information. Ledgering systems and accounting software are use to guarantee the accuracy of their financial condition. Mostly in large companies the accounts are sustained by a mechanized system. Because of the monotonous nature of accounts, a computer system is perfectly well-matched to this task and accuracy is assured.

Other than that, in business the computer is needed for stock control. Stock control is best for computerization and in many organizations it is now completely automated. The stock control system keeps trace of the amount of items in the stock and it can mechanically order alternate items when required. Microsoft Office Excel software can be used to put in the information and data of the items in the stock control.

QUESTION 2

Data processing, also known as information processing cycle is a process of obtain and control raw data into information. Data is a set of raw facts or unprocessed items which may be insignificant to a person. The computer processes these pieces of raw data and converts them to worthwhile and significant information. Information is a set of processed data into a meaningful type. There are three important units which are input, output and storage so that those devices units can be function well. Before knowing the function of these three devices units, we need to understand how this data or information-processing cycle works by applying these three units.

Input unit is any data or orders entered into the memory of the computer. Orders entered into the computer can be in the form of commands, programs and user responses. Commands are instructions that tell the computer to carry out certain tasks. Programs react to commands given by users. A program is a sequence of instructions that tell a computer what to do and how it can be done. This program is save in the computer for the user to accomplish. User responses are instructions that are given when a user responds to an enquiry. The responses given instruct the computer to perform certain action. All these performance can be done by applying the devices. The function of input devices is hardware mechanism allow us to input orders and data to correspond with the computer. Input devices translate the orders, commands and data we enter in the computer into a mode that the computer can recognize. The orders, commands and data are processed and later translated back to a form we can understand. Examples of devices are mouse, keyboard, scanner, microphone and etc.

Output unit is the data that has been processed into a convenient form. Computers process input into output. A computer can produce a few types of output, depending on the hardware and software used. The output can be divided into two which are visual output and audio output. In visual output, it can be categorized into three components: text, graphics and video. While in audio output only contain audio. Function of output devices is hardware devices that express information to one or more people. Frequently used output devices include display screens, printers, speakers, headsets and projectors.

A storage unit is computer stores the results of the processing operations in storage devices. It is use to stored data and information. Storage medium are the physical resources used for storage. Examples of devices are pen drive, RAM, hard disk, CD-ROM and etc.

Now with the knowledge on output, input and storage as well with the devices, how the data-processing perform? Firstly, a computer receives data via an input device such as the keyboard. Then a computer program performs operations on the data to transform it into information through processing. Next, a computer produces the output through an output device such as the monitor to display the result of the processing operations. Lastly, a computer stores the result of the processing operations in a storage device such as the hard disk.

QUESTION 3

Operating system (OS) act as an interface between the user and the computer which is the hardware of the computer. The usages of operating system are it operate as a system manager which manage the both hardware and software. It also makes the resource accessible to the user and the user's programs in a suitable way. Besides, it also controls and manages the hardware. Whereas, the function of operating system are accept input from the keyboard or mouse, sending output to the monitor, keeping track of files and directories on the disk and controlling tangential devices such as disk drives and printers. There are three types of services that the operating system offering. Firstly, it manages the hardware resources of the computer. Secondly, it manages loads and executes programs of the computer. Lastly, it accepts and executes commands and request from the user and from the user's programs. There is a lot of operating system software available to be installed in the computer hardware. The most well-known software are Microsoft Windows OS, Macintosh OS and Linux OS.

Microsoft Windows OS is the operating system promote by the Seattle-based company Microsoft. Version 1.0 of the operating system Microsoft Disk Operating System, (MS-DOS) entered the marketplace in August 1981 which is also the oldest of all Microsoft operating systems versions. MS-DOS is a text-based operating system. Users have to type the commands rather than use the friendlier graphical user interfaces (GUI's) that is available today. In spite of its very fundamental appearance, MS-DOS is a very potential operating system. There are many advanced applications and games available for MS-DOS. MS-DOS can perform many advanced administration tasks in Windows. Microsoft's objective was to provide a friendly user-interface known as a GUI (graphical user interface) which permissible for easier direction-finding of the system features. The functionality of Microsoft Windows are to provide multimedia capabilities as well as extremely improved graphics and application support. The availability of Microsoft Windows OS is the software and hardware add-ons are widely available and many applications can easily downloaded and run for free.

Macintosh OS is the computer operating system for Apple Computer's Macintosh  line of personal computers and workstations. Mac OS X is the latest versions have a common feature that is a desktop interface with 3-D appearance. Mac OS X has a modular design planned to make it easier by adding new features to the operating system in the forthcoming. It runs UNIX applications as well as older Mac applications. Graphical user interfaces and series of Unix-based operating systems was marketed, developed, and sold by Apple Incorporated. It is used by fewer personal computers. Examples of Macintosh editions are Mac OS X Server 1.0, Mac OS 8, Mac OS 9, Mac OS X Lion, and etc. Almost all Mac desktops are all-in-one that allow for a far easier system than most PCs. Apple's operating system is generally apparent to be at ease to operate.

Linux is a Unix-like operating system that was designed to provide personal computer users a free operating system equivalent to time-honored and usually more expensive. Linux has a status as a fast-performing system and very efficient. Linux's kernel (the central part of the operating system) was developed by Linus Torvalds. Linux is a outstandingly complete operating system, including a graphical user interface. Although copyrights are held by a range of creators of Linux's components, Linux is spread using the Free Software Foundation's  copy left  provisos, that mean any customized version that is redistributed must in turn be freely available.

There is several term can be use to identify and compare the differences between these three software which is in term of functionality, user-friendly and availability. In term of functionality, the Microsoft OS functions as a personal computer. Macintosh OS is a graphical user interfaces and series of Unix-based operating systems and it is used by fewer personal computer. Linux OS refers to the family of Unix-like computer operating systems using the Linux kernel. In another hand, the availability of Microsoft Windows OS is the software and hardware add-ons limited with applications which are not widely available. Many applications can easily downloaded and run for free. Macintosh OS software and hardware add-ons are limited and the applications not widely available. Linux OS not easy to install, only user with technical knowledge and experience are able to use. It is also cheap for personal computer and the applications are free to install. Microsoft Windows is very user-friendly compare to the both software because it uses Graphical User Interface (GUI). Linux OS is not friendly at all because it practices the black screen which requires the user to memorize certain codes to use any of the programs. The Macintosh OS is not that user-friendly as it is limited and difficult to download. It requires a lot of money to install the hardware and software add-ons.

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