Enterprises Networking Hotel Computer Science Essay

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PBX is a short term of Public Branch Exchange. A PBX system can split a PSTN line into many extension lines within an organization or network environment. Nowadays, PBX systems are widely involved and used in many business environments. Starting from a single-site organization, incoming and outgoing costs of phone lines can be shared by using PBX system(s). In a typical business environment, the PBX system connects multiple incoming phone lines to multiple telephone extensions. Central Processor of a PBX system is able to route incoming calls to appropriate extension line in the office and to share phone lines between extensions. There are two types of PBX system in network environment; one is PBX and another is IP PBX. IP PBX system is the next generation and special form of PBX's and it uses Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) technology to carry telephone calls digitally over data networks using cat5 or cat6 cabling, instead of traditional two wires copper phone lines and every phone and any accessories in the system utilize IP address. Any appropriate software and/or firmware have to install in the IP PBX central processor to control and customaries the system.

KTSs (Key Telephone System)

Although functional terms of KTSs and PBXs are in same, their designs and features are different. In the KTS system, the control and switching functions are incorporated into a telephone instrument and routing can be done manually. It means KTSs cannot route incoming phone calls to appropriate extensions as it does not have a centralized processor and operator has to choose the route of incoming of outgoing calls. The proprietary telephone handset of KTS system usually contains dedicated keys for each incoming telephone line with a LED to indicate the status of each incoming line. One of the distinguishing factors between a KTS system and PBX system is that all KTS station users can be allowed to gain access to, and answer, any specific external lines. Most of the IT and security restricted organizations do not use KTS system because it lacks of privacy and centralized management is not supported, but most of the small business and organization likely to use KTS system as it costs less than PBX system.

Features of PBXs and KTSs

Features of the PBX system and KTS system are basically same

To dial other extensions

To dial outside lines

To receive external calls

To make an enquiry call to another extension whist connected to an external call

To transfer the external call to the extension where an enquiry call had just been made

Advance features of PBXs

Most of the High-end PBX systems are implemented with the following features;

Call barring

Hunt groups- One number selects a group of line

Call diversion- Calls sent to another extension

Short code dialing

Night service- Handling of out-of-hours calls

Call parking- to enable a call to be picked up at an another location

Call hold- to avoid caller overhearing

Automatic call back- also known as "call back when free"

Conference call- A number of telephones connected to one line

Communications group- A department with a close community of interest

Automatic answers- avoids having to lift handset, poses a security risk

Temporary barring of external calls

Save last number dialed.

Hardware and software requirements of PBXs

PBX system central processor

PBX Phone/ IP Phone

Gateway

PBXs configuration and controlling software

Hardware requirements of KTSs

Key Telephones

PBX System

System installation

1500$

Hardware Installation

3800$

Telephone Line set up

1500$

Maintenance Cost (per month)

100$

Total Cost

6900$

KTS System

System installation

500$

Hardware Installation

1000$

Telephone Line set up

1500$

Maintenance Cost (per year)

300S

Total Cost

3300$

Recommendation

To use the telephone systems for single-site organizations, I would like to recommend IP PBX system as this following reason;

IP PBX allows multiple incoming phone line into multiple telephone extensions.

Automatic call back is available in IP PBX.

IP PBX system can approach with VoIP over the Internet.

High end PBX is usually contained ACD modules

IP PBX system can route incoming calls into specific extension lines

IP PBX system is provided centralized management

Enable to control the system by using any appropriate IP PBXs software

Task 2

Task 2

ADSL Wireless Network

This type of wireless network utilizes ADSL line for internet access. A PSTN phone line is connected to the ADSL modem which is usually connected with a router. Wireless Access Point is also connected to the router if it doesn't include a wireless system. Access Point provides the link between the devices requiring connection and the network itself. Each device using the network must have a wireless adapter to be able to connect to the access point. Some forms of wireless network use wireless routers as most of modern routers works not only as a routing device but also as an access point. These types of Wireless Routers are the form of combining the Router and Access Point.

Wi-Max Wireless Network

This type of wireless network utilized the WiMax for internet connection. WiMax (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a telecommunication protocol that provides fixed and fully mobile internet access. Either a desktop or a laptop equipped with wireless modem would receive data from the WiMax transmitting station, probably using encrypted data keys to prevent unauthorized users access. Most of the forms of WiMax and ADSL wireless network are same but the type of utilized modem and some feature and bandwidth available are different. Moreover, WiMax wireless network used the appropriate wireless modem for their internet connection.

Main equipment that would be installed

Wireless router

Wireless router is used for a wireless LAN that connects computers to a shared internet connection. This has routing capabilities and it can provide a shared gateway to internet. Wireless router has a physical network connection which could be connected to a wired network. It could be connected to a hub or switch on a network or for home users would generally be connected to a cable or DSL modem. All of the wireless-enabled clients would then connect to the wireless router. Typically the wireless router will act as the DNS server and Internet gateway for the clients attached to it and it can also be configured to provide IP addresses automatically using DHCP. Common features of a wireless router in market include DNS, DHCP, firewall and encryption.

Wireless Network Adapter

Any computer connecting to a wireless network will require a wireless network adapter. Most of the modern laptops are equipped with the wireless adapters, although not all. For the desktop computer, they will require to equip wireless adapter to have a wireless network connection. A wireless network adapter can be installed in a desktop computer or a laptop, either internally or externally via a USB connection.

Wireless Access Point

Wireless access point can be used to join wireless devices to a wired network, or to extend the range of a wireless network. It doesn't provide the DNS, DHCP, firewall or other functions and features of wireless routers. They simply take a wired or wireless network input and relay it to the wireless devices within its broadcast range.

Repeaters

Repeaters are another common equipment of wireless network. This is essentially a wireless signal amplifier that extends the range of a wireless LAN and this allows easier to expand a network within an organization.

Modem/ Wireless Modem

A modem is a device that modulates an analog carrier signal to digital information, and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. Modem/ wireless modem used to connect computers by ADSL or Wimax.

Feature available

Wimax Wireless Network

The fastest WiFi connection can transmit up to 54 mbps under optimal conditions and Wimax could be able to handle up to 70 mbps. Even once that 70 Mb is split up between several dozen organizations or a few hundred home users, it will provide at least the equivalent of cable modem transfer rates to each user. Wimax wireless network also facilitates the user with strong encryption by using AES (Advanced Encryption standard).

ADSL wireless network

Wireless data speed of up to 54 mbps available and WEP/ WAP can be used for the security and authorization. Network allows simultaneous use of the phone line for voice as well as data traffic.

Task 3

Task 3

a) Methods for filtering Wi-Fi user

MAC address checking method

This is a method where hardware devices must be involved apart from customer's own devices such as laptop, PDAs. Each customer checking in or ordering a service will get a device such as USB wireless adapter that is enabled to connect to the hotel's wireless network. A hardware server and software(or) module will have to be implemented in order to enable the devices to connect to the network.

RADIUS Server Method

RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial in User Service) is an AAA (authentication, authorization and account) protocol that acts like a gatekeeper to verify identities coming thorough that are pre-determined by the user. This is a method where no hardware devices are involved. Software combining with RADIUS protocol are usually web applications. Each customer checking in or ordering a service will get passphrases or login information to access the network. Duration or data usage for these passphrases or login information are pre-defined on the server.

b) Customer Access control

MAC address checking method

Only devices with specific MAC addresses will have permission to access the network which is already defined in server. Of course arrangements have to be made in order to make sure that customers return the devices after completing their services or accommodation.

RADIUS Server Method

As in software only mode, once the time or data usage is due, these passphrases will be expired. The time or data usage limit of a specific passphrase is defined when a customer check in or when a customer use one of the hotel's service that is complemented with free Wi-Fi access. If a customer wants to extend a service or connection for any reason, passphrases can be renew anytime in any amount or new passphrases and information can be generated anytime.

c) Controlling access to printing facilities

There will be an email address which is only to accept emails from all customers who wish to have print outs for a limited amount. An email containing files that are to be printed out, customer name and accommodation or facility identity can be send to the email address that accepts incoming print out document. Documents can be printed out at a specific location or even at the front desk where customers can take out their documents by showing their accommodation or facility identities. Every customers checking in or using hotel's facilities should be informed about printing service from the time they check in or purchase services. Information on how the process works can be on flyers or pamphlets, etc.

Recommendation

According to the hotel's conditions and needs, RADIUS server should be used over the Wi-Fi network. The access to the network should be built with access points located in appropriate locations within the hotel. The access points are connected with the server using RADIUS protocol so it can control user logging in and logging out concurrently. The access points and server are both connected to the Internet through a gateway which is connected to a modem. The network should be ready to use after professional setup of software in the server. A few reasons of choosing RADIUS protocol method are stated below:

RADIUS protocol has the ability of billing and timing

RADIUS protocol can control many users (transactions) concurrently

Working together with suitable server software, the hotel can manage all kinds of customer accessing the network with their respective duration or data usage.

User Guide

Each customer who is allowed for free Wi-Fi access will get passphrases or login information when they check in or purchase services such as conference facility. Passphrases are generated immediately on check in according to number of users in a transaction. The expiration date or limit of usage on these passphrases is defined depending on the check in number of days or conference duration. Since the controlling software is a web application, everyone entering the network will be redirected to a website where allowed user can provide their passphrase or login information. After providing the passphrase, customer can start using the hotel's free network. Each customer will be disconnected and redirected to the web site when the time or usage is due on the passphrase or login information.

Task 4

Task 4

There are two factors that should be taken into consideration when implementing a wireless network; Access and Privacy. Brief explanations on these factors will be presented below:

a) Access (Access to email)

Proper access control must be arranged so only authorized people can use the wireless network. Otherwise, any person or device within the range of wireless network will have access to the network making the network insecure to share important information.

b) Privacy (Transmission of sensitive business information)

Privacy control such as encryption must be arranged so no one can see the transmitted information even if he has access to the network since a wireless is more likely to be hacked then a wired network. Otherwise, important information such as passwords and credit card information will be stolen.

Network Security

WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) is a suitable method for this hotel's wireless network. There is two security mode in WPA technology; personal mode and enterprise mode. In personal mode, a single password is require to have access to the network. So everyone who has the password can have access to the network anytime.

In enterprise mode, each user is required to enter a username and password to have access to the network. Also a RADIUS server has to be set up to support WPA enterprise mode. As mentioned in Task 3, RADIUS protocol can support concurrent user log in and billing.

Recommendation

Since RADIUS server method is recommended in Task 3, co-operating network have to be WPA enterprise mode. By using RADIUS protocol and WPA enterprise mode, the hotel doesn't have to distribute a common password to every customer making impossible to manage every users' access. Plus the ability of good quality software, the hotel can manage their customers and network users easily and immediately. And this method will also increase the security level of wireless network making it almost impossible to be hacked or using it unauthorized.

Task 5

Task 5

This assignment allows us to demonstrate an understanding of installing networks for computing and telephony on a single site. According to the scenario, this is about a hotel opening in a small city which will provide accommodation with free Wi-Fi Internet access complement. We are to create a report on how to set up a wireless that is secure and only for the use of paying customers.

Task 1

PBXs (Public Branch Exchange System)

PBX is a short term of Public Branch Exchange. A PBX system can split a PSTN line into many extension lines within an organization or network environment. Nowadays, PBX systems are widely involved and used in many business environments. Starting from a single-site organization, incoming and outgoing costs of phone lines can be shared by using PBX system(s). In a typical business environment, the PBX system connects multiple incoming phone lines to multiple telephone extensions. Central Processor of a PBX system is able to route incoming calls to appropriate extension line in the office and to share phone lines between extensions. There are two types of PBX system in network environment; one is PBX and another is IP PBX. IP PBX system is the next generation and special form of PBX's and it uses Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) technology to carry telephone calls digitally over data networks using cat5 or cat6 cabling, instead of traditional two wires copper phone lines and every phone and any accessories in the system utilize IP address. Any appropriate software and/or firmware have to install in the IP PBX central processor to control and customaries the system.

KTSs (Key Telephone System)

Although functional terms of KTSs and PBXs are in same, their designs and features are different. In the KTS system, the control and switching functions are incorporated into a telephone instrument and routing can be done manually. It means KTSs cannot route incoming phone calls to appropriate extensions as it does not have a centralized processor and operator has to choose the route of incoming of outgoing calls. The proprietary telephone handset of KTS system usually contains dedicated keys for each incoming telephone line with a LED to indicate the status of each incoming line. One of the distinguishing factors between a KTS system and PBX system is that all KTS station users can be allowed to gain access to, and answer, any specific external lines. Most of the IT and security restricted organizations do not use KTS system because it lacks of privacy and centralized management is not supported, but most of the small business and organization likely to use KTS system as it costs less than PBX system.

Features of PBXs and KTSs

Features of the PBX system and KTS system are basically same

To dial other extensions

To dial outside lines

To receive external calls

To make an enquiry call to another extension whist connected to an external call

To transfer the external call to the extension where an enquiry call had just been made

Advance features of PBXs

Most of the High-end PBX systems are implemented with the following features;

Call barring

Hunt groups- One number selects a group of line

Call diversion- Calls sent to another extension

Short code dialing

Night service- Handling of out-of-hours calls

Call parking- to enable a call to be picked up at an another location

Call hold- to avoid caller overhearing

Automatic call back- also known as "call back when free"

Conference call- A number of telephones connected to one line

Communications group- A department with a close community of interest

Automatic answers- avoids having to lift handset, poses a security risk

Temporary barring of external calls

Save last number dialed.

Hardware and software requirements of PBXs

PBX system central processor

PBX Phone/ IP Phone

Gateway

PBXs configuration and controlling software

Hardware requirements of KTSs

Key Telephones

PBX System

System installation

1500$

Hardware Installation

3800$

Telephone Line set up

1500$

Maintenance Cost (per month)

100$

Total Cost

6900$

KTS System

System installation

500$

Hardware Installation

1000$

Telephone Line set up

1500$

Maintenance Cost (per year)

300S

Total Cost

3300$

Recommendation

To use the telephone systems for single-site organizations, I would like to recommend IP PBX system as this following reason;

IP PBX allows multiple incoming phone line into multiple telephone extensions.

Automatic call back is available in IP PBX.

IP PBX system can approach with VoIP over the Internet.

High end PBX is usually contained ACD modules

IP PBX system can route incoming calls into specific extension lines

IP PBX system is provided centralized management

Enable to control the system by using any appropriate IP PBXs software

Task 2

ADSL Wireless Network

This type of wireless network utilizes ADSL line for internet access. A PSTN phone line is connected to the ADSL modem which is usually connected with a router. Wireless Access Point is also connected to the router if it doesn't include a wireless system. Access Point provides the link between the devices requiring connection and the network itself. Each device using the network must have a wireless adapter to be able to connect to the access point. Some forms of wireless network use wireless routers as most of modern routers works not only as a routing device but also as an access point. These types of Wireless Routers are the form of combining the Router and Access Point.

Wi-Max Wireless Network

This type of wireless network utilized the WiMax for internet connection. WiMax (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a telecommunication protocol that provides fixed and fully mobile internet access. Either a desktop or a laptop equipped with wireless modem would receive data from the WiMax transmitting station, probably using encrypted data keys to prevent unauthorized users access. Most of the forms of WiMax and ADSL wireless network are same but the type of utilized modem and some feature and bandwidth available are different. Moreover, WiMax wireless network used the appropriate wireless modem for their internet connection.

Main equipment that would be installed

Wireless router

Wireless router is used for a wireless LAN that connects computers to a shared internet connection. This has routing capabilities and it can provide a shared gateway to internet. Wireless router has a physical network connection which could be connected to a wired network. It could be connected to a hub or switch on a network or for home users would generally be connected to a cable or DSL modem. All of the wireless-enabled clients would then connect to the wireless router. Typically the wireless router will act as the DNS server and Internet gateway for the clients attached to it and it can also be configured to provide IP addresses automatically using DHCP. Common features of a wireless router in market include DNS, DHCP, firewall and encryption.

Wireless Network Adapter

Any computer connecting to a wireless network will require a wireless network adapter. Most of the modern laptops are equipped with the wireless adapters, although not all. For the desktop computer, they will require to equip wireless adapter to have a wireless network connection. A wireless network adapter can be installed in a desktop computer or a laptop, either internally or externally via a USB connection.

Wireless Access Point

Wireless access point can be used to join wireless devices to a wired network, or to extend the range of a wireless network. It doesn't provide the DNS, DHCP, firewall or other functions and features of wireless routers. They simply take a wired or wireless network input and relay it to the wireless devices within its broadcast range.

Repeaters

Repeaters are another common equipment of wireless network. This is essentially a wireless signal amplifier that extends the range of a wireless LAN and this allows easier to expand a network within an organization.

Modem/ Wireless Modem

A modem is a device that modulates an analog carrier signal to digital information, and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. Modem/ wireless modem used to connect computers by ADSL or Wimax.

Feature available

Wimax Wireless Network

The fastest WiFi connection can transmit up to 54 mbps under optimal conditions and Wimax could be able to handle up to 70 mbps. Even once that 70 Mb is split up between several dozen organizations or a few hundred home users, it will provide at least the equivalent of cable modem transfer rates to each user. Wimax wireless network also facilitates the user with strong encryption by using AES (Advanced Encryption standard).

ADSL wireless network

Wireless data speed of up to 54 mbps available and WEP/ WAP can be used for the security and authorization. Network allows simultaneous use of the phone line for voice as well as data traffic.

Task 3

a) Methods for filtering Wi-Fi user

MAC address checking method

This is a method where hardware devices must be involved apart from customer's own devices such as laptop, PDAs. Each customer checking in or ordering a service will get a device such as USB wireless adapter that is enabled to connect to the hotel's wireless network. A hardware server and software(or) module will have to be implemented in order to enable the devices to connect to the network.

RADIUS Server Method

RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial in User Service) is an AAA (authentication, authorization and account) protocol that acts like a gatekeeper to verify identities coming thorough that are pre-determined by the user. This is a method where no hardware devices are involved. Software combining with RADIUS protocol are usually web applications. Each customer checking in or ordering a service will get passphrases or login information to access the network. Duration or data usage for these passphrases or login information are pre-defined on the server.

b) Customer Access control

MAC address checking method

Only devices with specific MAC addresses will have permission to access the network which is already defined in server. Of course arrangements have to be made in order to make sure that customers return the devices after completing their services or accommodation.

RADIUS Server Method

As in software only mode, once the time or data usage is due, these passphrases will be expired. The time or data usage limit of a specific passphrase is defined when a customer check in or when a customer use one of the hotel's service that is complemented with free Wi-Fi access. If a customer wants to extend a service or connection for any reason, passphrases can be renew anytime in any amount or new passphrases and information can be generated anytime.

c) Controlling access to printing facilities

There will be an email address which is only to accept emails from all customers who wish to have print outs for a limited amount. An email containing files that are to be printed out, customer name and accommodation or facility identity can be send to the email address that accepts incoming print out document. Documents can be printed out at a specific location or even at the front desk where customers can take out their documents by showing their accommodation or facility identities. Every customers checking in or using hotel's facilities should be informed about printing service from the time they check in or purchase services. Information on how the process works can be on flyers or pamphlets, etc.

Recommendation

According to the hotel's conditions and needs, RADIUS server should be used over the Wi-Fi network. The access to the network should be built with access points located in appropriate locations within the hotel. The access points are connected with the server using RADIUS protocol so it can control user logging in and logging out concurrently. The access points and server are both connected to the Internet through a gateway which is connected to a modem. The network should be ready to use after professional setup of software in the server. A few reasons of choosing RADIUS protocol method are stated below:

RADIUS protocol has the ability of billing and timing

RADIUS protocol can control many users (transactions) concurrently

Working together with suitable server software, the hotel can manage all kinds of customer accessing the network with their respective duration or data usage.

User Guide

Each customer who is allowed for free Wi-Fi access will get passphrases or login information when they check in or purchase services such as conference facility. Passphrases are generated immediately on check in according to number of users in a transaction. The expiration date or limit of usage on these passphrases is defined depending on the check in number of days or conference duration. Since the controlling software is a web application, everyone entering the network will be redirected to a website where allowed user can provide their passphrase or login information. After providing the passphrase, customer can start using the hotel's free network. Each customer will be disconnected and redirected to the web site when the time or usage is due on the passphrase or login information.

Task 4

There are two factors that should be taken into consideration when implementing a wireless network; Access and Privacy. Brief explanations on these factors will be presented below:

a) Access (Access to email)

Proper access control must be arranged so only authorized people can use the wireless network. Otherwise, any person or device within the range of wireless network will have access to the network making the network insecure to share important information.

b) Privacy (Transmission of sensitive business information)

Privacy control such as encryption must be arranged so no one can see the transmitted information even if he has access to the network since a wireless is more likely to be hacked then a wired network. Otherwise, important information such as passwords and credit card information will be stolen.

Network Security

WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) is a suitable method for this hotel's wireless network. There is two security mode in WPA technology; personal mode and enterprise mode. In personal mode, a single password is require to have access to the network. So everyone who has the password can have access to the network anytime.

In enterprise mode, each user is required to enter a username and password to have access to the network. Also a RADIUS server has to be set up to support WPA enterprise mode. As mentioned in Task 3, RADIUS protocol can support concurrent user log in and billing.

Recommendation

Since RADIUS server method is recommended in Task 3, co-operating network have to be WPA enterprise mode. By using RADIUS protocol and WPA enterprise mode, the hotel doesn't have to distribute a common password to every customer making impossible to manage every users' access. Plus the ability of good quality software, the hotel can manage their customers and network users easily and immediately. And this method will also increase the security level of wireless network making it almost impossible to be hacked or using it unauthorized.

Reference;

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