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The Emerging Technologies both Nanotechnology and Cognitive radio and Cognitive Network Research are explained in this paper. The Age of Nanotechnology and the impact of business and society on it can be viewed and of course, the impact of business and society on Cognitive radio and Cognitive Network Research is also explained. The Nanotechnology applies a large group of materials and products mainly depend on the physical properties when the feature size decreases. The implications of Nanotechnology which relates the human affairs with some fields of engineering, computing, communication etc are also described. There have many major developments in this pasture of nanotechnology. While coming to cognitive radio and network research, in which the parameter is observed by wireless nodes or network can be observed. The main functions of cognitive radio such as sensing, detecting and transmitting are emphasized. The prime goals, interference processing, cost and some key features of cognitive radio are discussed. The cognitive network which is a network with a cognitive process that can detect the network condition and act on the situation is also mentioned in this paper.
The paper mainly discusses about the emerging technologies, the age of nanotechnology, the cognitive radio and cognitive network research and their impacts of business and society on each topic. The impact of business on nanotechnology and cognitive radio has many aspects to discuss which has been done here. And of course the impact of society on both technologies has much discussion in comparison. Nanotechnology is a study on organizing of material on an atomic and molecular scale. Cognitive radio is a concept for wireless communication in which either a network or wireless node varies its transmission to communicate efficient without any interference.
The Age of Nanotechnology
Nanotechnology is a design science that will benefit at the atomic level of organic and inorganic engineering. It has the potential over the next few decades to realign how business runs. We live in a world that is shaped daily by innovations, so what seems to be impossible today, becomes a reality tomorrow. If one could imagine for example, a nanochip developed tomorrow that has the speed of 50 gigahertz, with the processing power of ten supercomputers and its cost been that of a quartz watch.
Impact on business
The Institute of Global Futures (Canton, J 1999), company based in San Francisco, advises the US government on the impact of new technologies on businesses and markets. They did some preliminary findings through surveys, based on nanotechnology and found the following:
The level of awareness and readiness on the nanotechnology was low.
Less than 2% stated they knew what nanotechnology represented.
Another 2% surveyed stated that they knew what nanotechnology was.
When nanotechnology was explained to those surveyed, in basic terms, 80% of tem agreed that nanotechnology was an important technology with good potential in business terms.
Of those surveyed, 45% showed an interest in learning more about the technology.
As the global economy continuously becomes transformed by new technology, then competition will increase. The increase of use of nanotechnology will become a key factor in reshaping businesses, especially in how they compete and interact. They will have an affect in how new business models are formed.
Impact on society
Nanotechnology is the progression of scientific and technical trends that was started many years ago. Taking a pragmatic viewpoint when considering the social shaping of the term, when considering the social viewpoints, it does in effect not cause any damage currently to society (Porter, M 1985).
Investment is becoming evident within universities in building nanotechnology centres, but they are struggling to obtain people qualified to work within these centres.
Two main questions with regards the introduction of nanotechnology into society needs to be addressed; firstly, how do both the governments of each state and industry want nanotechnology to be understood by the public? In essence, what level of understanding do they wish them to have? Secondly, how should the term be globally defined, in terms of risk assessment?
A definition in terms of risk assessment is given as follows:
Nanotechnology is nonmaterial that contains nanoparticles. Nanoparticles are defined as devices or objects (typically less than 10nm), that behave with new properties (physical, chemical etc.) or changes to the existing material (Amato, I 2000).
Nanoparticles in future will be built molecule by molecule or atom by atom.
If one compares nanotechnology with that of micro technology, it is clear that what is defined as nanotechnology today, may not be defined as nanotechnology tomorrow. It would be best to leave the science and technology sectors to carry on and focus on developing the nanotechnology, developing new transistors etc. and possibly redefining nanotechnology separately in terms of the environmental and a human impact.
Cognitive Radio and Cognitive Networks Research
The term cognitive radio extends further than the idea of what is known as a traditional viewpoint of a radio frequency device that is capable of receiving or transmitting information over a wireless network. Cognitive radio is more like a complete system (software based), or even as a node within a network. The reason for it being a node within a network is because its cognitive functionality will have a direct impact on the entire communications stack (Mangold, S and Shankar, N and Berlemann, L 2005).
Impact on business
Within a communication network scenario, where technology creates opportunities for a new business models, users or businesses can benefit through increased communication coverage. Also businesses will have the opportunity to benefit financial credit from the operator by contributing also to the network infrastructure.
With a cellular network, customers device may be at lose if their devices are out of range of the base station. The network provider may not be allowed to erect a base station to help solve this problem due to planning laws possibly within that area. To ensure the network provider allows for Short Message Service (SMS), video call services and new wireless communication services, they must try and accommodate more subscribers whilst maximising their existing network capabilities avoiding excessive expenditure where possible.
Using cognitive radio offers a solution to this problem. This is achieved by allowing subscribers (or businesses) to become part of the network infrastructure themselves. They have the opportunity to upgrade after an initial investment. Businesses that are out of range of a base station, but within the range of another customer device, can route their messages and voice calls through one or more relays until their messages reach a base station and then continue on the existing network.
Impact on society
The emergence of information within society has now become part of our daily lives. For example, access to the internet has become a daily routine. Advancements in wireless communications have created further advancements in areas such as education, healthcare, and public safety. Use of such advancements on a daily basis means the expansion of wireless communications to cope with such demand. Therefore new wireless communication networks are looking at using significant amounts of radio spectrum to cop with the requirements (Mitola, J 2000). Radio spectrums will be required at various locations and times.
The use of cognitive radio helps the spectrum in terms mainly of efficiency and helps to overcome the current problem that exists with radio regulation (for example the part of the spectrum that is allocated to licensed radio stations called command and control). With the use of cognitive radio, licensing and spectrum alignment will become dynamic.
The concept of nanotechnology is more developed and to be frank there is still a lot research to be done and many hurdles to cross to make this technology commercially practicable. The cognitive radio should exploit the spectrum opportunities in spatial dimension. It has greater flexibility to respond to emerging information demands of society, as well as market requirements that will be needed.