Effect Processing And Actions Computer Science Essay

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WHAT ARE EFFECTS - Effects are the result of particular action, it can be defend as a change after the action. This effect could be anything if we talk about signals this might be signal distortion, signal loss, slow speed of the signal etc. . . .many methods are used to create and eliminate different types of effect this is called processing of effect. It helps in various sound recording, performances, musical instruments etc... Here we are going to discuss about sound and audio effects. Sound and audio effects are used to highlight artistically the content of films, T.V. shows, live performances, video games, music and other sources of media. These effects are use to produce different types of sound in television. In television shows or production the sound recording is called sound effect.

HISTORY: Sound recording or sound effect came into existence from theatres time. At theatre different sounds are produced using different techniques and by the help of different devices. After this various techniques has been developed by looking the success of sound effect. Sound effect more developed in 1920.Radio started the use of sound effect for their shows by the help of various sound effect techniques. After this it showed continues progress and used more and more in television and radios. This also increased the employment to the employees related to this field. At mid 1920 its progress increased by the use of electronic microphones.


The possibility of effects processing can be done by either devoted hardware device or with a stand-alone or plug-in software application. The effects of a single mono or stereo file, a mono or stereo track or a group of tracks all together can be applied on the computer depending on the capability of the device, application and /or the processing power of the device. One can reshape the waveform of the original sound by making use of these effects.

Once there is an availability of a WAV or AIFF sample in either RAM or in the hard disk, one can open and manipulate he digitized file Once the effects are applied on a track or series of tracks in real time, however, it may result in a "destructive" edit where the original recording and spectral profile is changed permanently.

A huge range of audio effects are applied by making use of variable - length delay lines. Following are the techniques that support it.

What is different category of effects?

 Following are six common classifications:



The effects which are used to modify volume of an instrument are called dynamic or volume and amplitude effect.

CLEAN BOOST VOLUME PADEL: by the help of electrical signal output it helps in increasing volume of an instrument. If one increase some of the aspects of an electrical signal output then instrument volume will get increased. By using clean boost volume can be boost during solos and by the help of clean boost signal loss in long effect chain can be prevented. A guitarist can use clean boost to switch from rhythm guitar to lead guitar.


A compressor's first use is to stabiles the volume. And the second use is to smooth the note's attack .This is done by dampening the onset amplifying it's sustain. To achieve compression signal strength is varied with in a specific dynamic range.


It is also called "mic preamp".It is a device which is used t increase the low voltage output of a microphone  that can be picked up and used by equipment such as mixing consoles and headphones.


By the help of tremolo effect variation in the volume of a node or chord can be produced. It consists of a rate knob which helps to change the speed of variation of a performer.

TIME BASED - These kinds of effects basically delay the sound or add echoes.

DELAY/ECHOS: echo effects can be produced by adding a duplicate instrument to amplifier electrical signal to the original signal at a slight time delay. These effects are of two types single echo called a " slap " and multiple echo called " slapback " .

LOOPER PADEL : This is also called phrase looper. It is used to record a phrase and passage from a song and replay it later. We can have on the spot created loop or pre recorded loops, one can also layer multiple loops. First these effects were created with wheel to reel tape using tape loop. To produce a vintage sound High-end boutique tape loop effects are used.

REVERB : These units are used to stimulate faded or decay sound by creating large number of echoes in an echo chamber.

Type of reverbs :

PLATE REVERBE : This unit uses electromechanical transducer to create vibration in a plate of metal.

SPRING REVERB : These are used to create vibration in a spring by the help of a transducer. Used in a guitar amplifier.

Various signal processing algorithms are use to produce digital reverb effect.


These effects are used to increase or reduce the sound distortion Overdrive. The tone of an instrument is distorted by these units. By the help of over tones these can be avoided and warm sound can be produced .There is a difference in distortion and overdrive distortion is same at any amount of volume but overdrive difference with the amount of volume it produces cleaned sound at quieter volume and distorted sound at large volume.


It changes the sound wave into a squrewawe which results a heavy distorted sound wave or fuzzy sound.


This effect emulates OR ADD static and poor sound quality.


This effect reduces noise and extra sound coming into the unit it eliminate the sound below a certain gain threshold to avoid hum , hiss and static.


The signals which pass through filer, it alters the pitch or frequency of those signals by boosting or weakening specific frequency region.


It is a set of filters. It is used to boost or cut the specific frequency regions. These are mainly used in stereos to adjust the bass and treble, it is also used by audio engineers into eliminate unwanted sound in highly sophisticated equalizer.

TALK BOX : BY the help of talk box we can say that a guitar is able to talk, because with the help of talk box sound can be directed to the mouth of the performer from the guitar or synthesizer. This helps to shape the sound into vowels and consonants to the performer. After that this new modified sound is picked up by microphone. Talk box has been used in various famous songs like " Living on a prayer " etc. .


A wah wah alters the frequency spectrum to create vowel like sounds.

PITCH (FREQUENCY) : This effect modifies the pitch. In order to modify a pitch it alters the sound wave contours or add new harmonics to the sound wave.

CHOURS : These are used to mimic the effect. this is done by provide slight difference in timbre which distinguish a sound from sound of same pitch and quality. This effects splits the instrument to amplifier electrical signal by adding frequency variation to only a part of a signal not to the whole parte of the signal.

FLANGER : It is used to produce sound like "jet plane" or "space ship". This is done when a studio effect is produced by holding the edge of the audio tape reel; by stimulating this studio effect to momentarily slow down the recording.

PHASE SHIFTER : It amplifies only some aspects of a tone to create rippling effect. This (amplification of some aspects and diminution of others )is done by the addition of duplicate out of phase sound waves to the original sound waves.


The work of a pitch shifter is to raise or lowers each note played by a performer by a preset interval. For example to increase a pitch by fourth a pre set pitch shifter raise each note to four diatonic intervals above the note actually played. We can have simple and sophisticated type of pitch shifter first type raise or lowers the pitch by one or two octaves and the second type provides a range of interval alteration. Harmonizer is a type of pitch shifter it combines the altered and original pitch and creates two or more note harmony. These can also create chores like effect.


A ring modulator mixes waveform of an instrument with the wave form produced by device's internal oscillator by this process it create signal's rich in overtones to produce a resonant metallic sound.

VIBRETO: This effect also produces variation in the pitch which are rapid and slight it also mimics the fractional semitone variation produced by opera singers and violinists when prolonging a single note. It also used to control rate of variation and difference in pitch. It can also produce ululating (lament loudly) sound when its setting are in extreme " depth ".


AUDIO FEEDBACK: To produce an audio feedback effect first amplified sound is picked up by a microphone and then this sound is played back by an amplifier by initiating feedback loop.This technique results high pitched overtones and difficult to sustain.


ENVELOPE FOLLOWER - This can only used to activate an effect once a designated volume is reached. It is used by "auto-wah ".


Used to control modulation by the help of multiple filters and envelop control knobs.

GUITAR AMPLIFIRE MODELING -It is a digital effect. This effect is used to replicate the sound of various amplifiers. It can also stimulate speaker cabinet and provide mimicking techniques.

PITCH CORRECTION - This effect is also called vocal effects. It is used to re-tune faulty intonation in a performance of an vocalist.

STIMULATORS - It provide the facility to electric guitar to mimic the sound of other instrument. These instrument may be electric bass, sitar, acoustic guitar etc. .

History of effect processing

Delay effect :-

In 1920 for production of delay a magnetic recording device was used. the mechanism to produce delay is that from one head it recorded audio and from another head reproduce the audio. Delay is determined by the spacing between the heads and the speed of the magnetic medium. So we can say that delay is few very repetitions .These reputations are not different they are very close to the original signal.Basicaly delay effect unit stores one copy of original sigil and then play it back according to predetermined intervals. We can use or process delay by various types for example we can use delay for sound enhancement. If we study delay and reverb there is not much difference in delay and reverb but the properties are different with the help of which they both are controlled both results different effect.


LINE DELAY - This was the first use of delay. In this method delay was used to improve the quality of radio broadcast. In the process of broadcast radio station first send the signal from the one end to the end of the country and then the signal come back after this process signal is broadcasted. In this process signal is mixed with the original signal. so the amount of time in which a signal travel from one end and come back to another end is the length of the delay. This method is not in use.


When tape recording came a new technology came in existence which is called tape delay. It was more or less same as line delay. To record a sound and then play it back produces tape delay. The tape recorder has a recording head and a back head. The work of recording head is to record the sound on the tape and the work of play back head is to play the recorded sound from the tape. The delay units which are produced are large. If we take an example of a guitar when guitar player plays the guitar, the recording head records the produced original signal and this signal is passes through the playback head. It goes to the playback head millisecond later this produce delay effect. The length of delay effect depends on the distance between the playback head and recording head. If distance is large then length is more otherwise less. So to make delay more flexible additional playback head and tape speed control had been provided.


The next delay which came into existence was analog delay. This day is portable and user friendly. In this the signal gets split into two parts upon entering the analog delay unit. These two parts used differently. Half part goes to the output phase and half part comes back or redirected. Then the speed of the redirected signal had been slow down by using different capacitors and then this new slow signal meet to the other half part at the output. This process causes the delay effect signal had been slowed down and passed through various capacitors it would reach the output phase just a little behind the point that the two signals had been split. These delay units are still used today.


The new delay technique which is used today is the most popular delay technique called digital delay. This was introduced in 1970'sIt has come into existence after the invention of digital signal processing. By the help of digital circuitry the recording and playing back of a signal at a specific time interval become very easy. Losing high frequencies on longer delay time was also solved by this process. This technique was more costly then analog delay, so it was not used by more musicians but after some time because of its wonderful features it became most popular technique today. There are various use of digital delay technology for example it provides flexibility and longer delay times in a smaller units it is also used in multi effect unit. There is some complaint with digital processing that it does not provide original sound as analog processing. Still this technique is more in use then analog.


Delay has many uses :

Delay is used to enhancement of sound.

It can be used in any instrument and on vocals.

To create a lush full sound short delay time can be used.

If you want a solo over your self than long delay time will be used.

Delay is a very simple effect time which is very easy to use.it is also very flexible effect.


We can also use delay as for sound reinforcement. Sound reinforcement helps in maintain quality of sound; this is not considered much as an effect. the reason that delay is used in sound reinforcement is the speed of electrical and sound signal. Electrical signal has higher speed as compare to the sound signals. Sound signals take much time to come in contact with you, so we use delay for sound reinforcement.


Study and analysis of various signal to perform dofferent signal is called signal processing. These signal could be any thing like sound, images, telecommunication signals etc; . Signals need to be processed so that the information that they contain can be displayed, analyzed, or converted to another type of signal that may be of use. In the real-world, analog products detect signals such as sound, light, temperature or pressure and manipulate them.



What is an Analog signal

When time varying quantities are represented in a continuous signal then these signals are called analog signals. Time variance is represented in the manner that information is passed using various methods. These method could be any type like electrical mechanical etc;. The representation of these signal are continues wave form.

For transmission analog signal take the use of small fluctuations produced inside the signal. Analog signal is different from digital signal in terms of this fluctuation. In the diagram shown above we can understand the difference between the representation of analog and digital signal. To transmit the information analog signal utilizes the property of particular medium. For example in thermal medium it uses the heat for the transmission of information. If it is used in electricity it uses the property of electricity like voltage is followed by current. In the method of sound recording signal is produced when fluctuation in the air pressure touches the diaphragm of a microphone, this induces fluctuation in the current produced by a coil in an electromagnetic microphone. So the voltage or current is called "analog".

Resolution and bandwidth: If we talk about analog signal than they have infinite resolution. But it has certain limitation in resolution and bandwidth because they are subjected to noise and finite slew rate. Analog signal's performance is not better then digital signal because it is more complex due to non linearity. But the complexity of an analog signal is less then digital signal. If any kind of degradation occurs in analog system it is very difficult to detect but it is easy to detect and also correct any degradation in digital system.

ANALOG SIGNAL PROCESSING: Analog signal processing is used for analog signal the signal that has not been digitized for example radio signals.

Analog signal processors are used to provide brief signal manipulation that can be very complex to handle any other way. A Comparator is used to offer level triggers correct down to microvolts with reaction times in the picoseconds. Analog filters offer anti-aliasing in sampled value systems as inputs and outputs, and can be as pre-filters in audio and communications. Analog multipliers and dividers are used to offer brief gain control, radiometric function, or continuous energy measurement, with surprising accuracy. Over-voltage protection applications can protect the front-end of analog transmission/receiver systems, multiplexers. Amplification and filtering for noise removal are the main feature of analog signal processing.

Introduction of digital signals

Digitals signal are those signals that are represented by discrete values. Digital signals are digitized analog signal or converted analog signal.These signals can be generated by the help of digital modulation produced by a modem.


In the method of digital processing signals are digitized and mathematically manipulated. A digital signal processor is used to perform various operations in digital signal. Digital signal processing is used to compress the analog signal, to measure the analog signal and to filter the analog signal. The basic step is the conversion from digital to analog signal, this is done by using analog to digital converter. The work of analog to digital converter is to convert the analog signal into digital signal that is in the form of stream of bits and the last or at the output stage this signal is converted again in digital form, by using digital to analog converter. Digital signal processing is more complex then analog signal processing but is better then analog signal processing.