E-management system

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In the fast moving and competitive world of computing technology, users are looking towards efficiency and effectiveness. Technology brings us efficiency and makes our lives easier and convenience. Although there are some companies still using traditional way to perform their daily operation but under cost consideration, computer is the best way for them to reduce cost, errors, manpower and time saving. Computerized is not only brings us the benefits on above, it is also benefit our environmental due to paperless.

Majority of people is getting used of computer, and technology is slowly taken place of traditional paper based system for companies, schools or colleges is using computerized system, such as student registration system, library system, inventory system and so on. All of these system has a same advantage which is lead user to complete their task in more efficiency, effectiveness way.

The main purpose to implement the Preschool E-management system is to turns the traditional paper based management system into E-management system. This is an offline management information management system. The current Preschool management system using traditional way for their student registration and keep track of student results which is using paper based. This leads to wastage of time, slow in response and data loss. The new system will cover in several modules for Preschool usage which is teacher registration, student registration, teacher leave application, student results, backup and restore function. The main focus of using computerized system is to ease user in daily procedure, produce accuracy data and prevent data loss.

Currently, there are some similar school management system existing in the market which is contains of basic functions such as add class, add student, add teacher, employees, attendance, appointment for student and teacher (headmastersoft.com 2009). Due to the system available in market is not mainly design for certain Preschool usage. Therefore, this idea comes out to implement a system customize to suits the Preschool for their daily usage. The system will be developed with database to keep track of teacher student and parents' personal particular, backup and restore function to prevent data loss.

Literature Review

Review of computerized management system


This chapter will discuss on the overview of computerized system used in management, overview of database and how management system works in Preschool.

Introduction of computerized system in management

With the rapid development of information and communication technologies, there are higher demands for software applications that help in term of quality, efficiency, effectiveness and accuracy of data. Computer has become a basic requirement in human daily life. As shown in Table 2.0, the statistics data of Asia internet usage and population has proved that there is significant growth of internet users in year 2000 compare to the year 2009 (Miniwatts.com, 2009). For example, Internet users on Year 2000 are 3,700,000 and on Year 2009 are 16,902,600. Apparently, this data proved that when the internet usage is growing, the demand for computer is also growing.

High usage of internet usually comes along with the generation of huge amount of data. Thus, companies or individuals in the business and education fields are using computerized system to enhance their works. For instance, a management system is commonly utilized to promise an effective and efficient workflow with better performance.

A management system is a set of program written by any programming languages. The main feature of a management system is to use database as storage to keep track of the company data. Database management is "...the process of storing data efficiently on the computer, keeping it updated, manipulating and processing it and making the information readily accessible..." (Skeete, 2004). It enables user to store, edit, and retrieve information from database. So far, there are lots of database management systems available in the market, for example, MySQL, Oracle database and Microsoft Access (Article Alley, 2009). The following are examples of management systems which required the use of database: computerized library system, computerized leave management system, cinema reservation system and membership registration system.

With the development of hardware industries which constantly producing high performance computer gadgets, the software industries are also growing by producing quality software applications to ease our daily tasks. There are many management applications sold in the market (Supershareware.com, 2005), however some companies opt to hired programmers to developed system that specially customized for their own usage. Chelsea Piers Golf Club online membership registration (Chelsea Piers, 2009) is one good example of computerized management systems. Once users submit the registration form, all personal particular will be saved in Chelsea Piers Golf club database. Another example of management system is employees leave application. Users can obtain Human Resource Management System from Software Company which can be used for organization, time, leave, payroll and employee information management (Silver Touch, 2009). With the leave management system, users no longer need to use or to do extra paperwork such as applying leave by using paper, keeping track the total entitled annual leaves or leaves taken by employees (singaporemirror, 2005). Using computerized management system also helps to ensure the company data is always up-to-date.

Why needs computerized management system?

Management Information Systems (MIS) is a system in an organization which designed to keep and provide information for their organization operations. Management information systems do not have to be computerized. However, with today's organization or education centres, computerization management is a must for a business to be successful (Answers.com, 2009).

Computerized system is basically used to keep track of records. An organizations or a education centre is normally consists of many employees, students, financial statements, reports or other important and confidential data which should not be simply reveal to people. Thus, by using traditional paper-based system to manage confidential data is highly insecure and there are no promises that all data will not be exposed. The cost of paper is also high and using paper products is not beneficial to our environment. In additional, paper-based registration can be slow and error-prone, due to handwriting records that usually do not go through validation process.

Apart from time constraint, there are inherent risks existed in traditional paper-based system. There will be no in-built disaster recovery provision. If the record is destroyed, there is no backup. According to CBR (2007), there was a fire case happened at "an Iron Mountain storage facility that destroyed millions of data" which used paper based system to keep track of all records. However, if user is using computerized management system, all records will be backup in server and there will be high possibility that this unfortunate disaster will not be happened.

So far it is clear that computerized system brings many advantages in solving our problems. The major benefits of a system are speed, accuracy, systematic, easy to update the data from time to time, reduce the possibility of data loss, and improve user experiences. There are also reasons why companies will have their own management system to keep track.

How computerized management system works in Preschool?

Traditional paper-based systems are a major security risk (Connect.co.uk, 2007), so computerized system is getting use among organizations or institute (WareSeeker.com, 2009). Preschool is an example of institute in the society, which also needs a management system to manage their data and information.

A typical Preschool computerized management system consists of several modules, such as students' information, student enrollment, teachers' information and reports (WareSeeker.com, 2009). The management system able to do analysis and generates reports from different type of data, which later can be easily printed out for documentation. Besides that, it protects confidential data by creating access level for different type of users.

Preschool computerized management system can be further classified into online based and offline based systems. There are differences between these two types of system based on their flow of works. For instance, in online based registration system, user needs to access the Preschool website to fill in all the required information, such as name, address, and parents' information before submitting it. The information will then be kept in the Preschool database (St Stephen, 2008). Whereas, in offline based registration system, user needs to personally walk-in to the Preschool to inform the staff. Then the staff will key in the entire student's information into their own computer to be save in the database.

Technical approaches in developing computerized management system


This section will discuss of technical approaches in developing computerized management, introduce the differences of online and offline based system, database management system that used for computerized management system and Human Computer Interaction (HCI) involved in computerized system.

Online and offline based computerized system

There are two types of system which are online and offline based system. Online based system is indicating to those applications that required internet or World Wide Web. So far, there are lots of online computerized systems can get from website (Chelsea Piers, 2009). For example, cinema reservation system, club membership registration system, school or colleges registration system. The online computerized system is dynamic so that user can access to it by just clicking the mouse to browse the website and submit their information from any computer which has internet access point.

Online based computerized system

Online based computerized system allowed user make payment through internet and the payment is shown in real-time, for instance, cinema reservation and internet banking services. Users able to check, reserve the cinema seat, purchase e-ticket through internet access to cinema website without go to cinema counter. De La Salle University Manila (2009) indicates that bank offers online banking services included balance inquiry, bills payment and fund transfer and history checking features for 24 on 7 which ease customer to do their payment.

Preschool online management make use of the online computerized system concept in the system, so that student able to register during weekends or non-working hour with any computers that has internet access to the school website (St Stephen, 2008).

Offline based computerized system

In general, offline based system is indicating to those systems that does not require internet usage or World Wide Web. The offline based computerized management system just need required a computer for installation and operate. Certain organizations (WareSeeker.com, 2009) use offline based computerized management system to manage their data due to the online based exceeds their requirement and to those employees who does not have knowledge with internet required extra time for training.

Risk of Online computerized system

Although online computerized management system is convenient, users can use the service as long as connect to internet. However, the risk of using internet could bring virus attack, such as Trojan horse or worm (Olzak, 2007). Shanghai Epoch Times (2008) reported that "... online banking in 2006 sustained losses of over 100 million (US$13 million)" and "May 2007, a well-known mainland online gaming company suffered a loss as high as 34.6 million (approximately US$4.6 million) caused by a 10-day network shut-down due to virus attack". Hacker manages to hack into company database steal customer information, such as bank user id and password. After review of the risks from internet, small organization which does not required online based computerized system will either get the offline management package from software company (WareSeeker.com, 2009) or developed own system to prevent data loss from virus attack from internet.

Database management system

Database is a collection of information that well managed and which allowed user to access and update records easily. Database management system is a computer programs that users use database to store and retrieve their data. Usually website and management system required to use database for data storage. Database management system features basically included manipulate backup and duplicate data. It able to managed large amount of data and retrieve information in short time.

Many database management systems can be found in the market, such as Microsoft Access, Oracle database, MySQL (Mike, 2009). But still, there are many management or tracking systems using Microsoft Access as database (Blue Claw Database Design, 2009). Microsoft Access is not recommended to be used in large organizations which contains of thousands or millions of data, and its capacity is only limited to 2GB. However, a small or medium size organization will use it due to the price is the cheapest compare to Oracle database and MySQL. Article Alley (2009) indicated that compare to Microsoft Access, Oracle needs a powerful hardware to manage the system with expensive license yearly. Usually Microsoft Access is bundled with Microsoft Office Professional. Therefore, user can get license once purchased Microsoft Office Professional.

HCI and its involvement in system design

Human Computer Interaction (HCI) is a main concern involves in developing website or applications that gives users efficiency, safety, satisfaction and user friendly to use it. A system that is not designed with HCI concept will leads to high error rate, not user friendly, and healthy safety issue, such as dry eyes, eye strain, shoulder pain and carpal tunnel syndrome. A case reported by Arthritis Foundation Malaysia (2009), indicated that Mrs T.L.H. aged 48 years old complaints to her doctor that tingling in her right hand, her doctor diagnosed she has carpal tunnel syndrome. HCI plays a very important role in design, with its concept, users actually can prevent or reduce suffer from the syndrome or errors.

The design should concern of human limitation and mental capabilities (memory). Icon use in website or applications must be meaningful as users should not have to remember all icons meaning when use the applications. For instance, recycle bin in Microsoft Windows is shows with a dustbin icon, which is simple and understandable by all users. By designing a menu list, developer must use chunking method which group the same function in one category, such as Microsoft Office, under View menu, user can select normal, web layout, print layout, and reading layout to reduce the burden on user's memory.

Besides, the font type and font size are also one of the concerns need to be considered in design a good system due to screens are less readable than paper as the lower resolution display. According to Hobo-Web (2009) survey done on year 2003, table 2.1 indicated the best font type use in design is Microsoft Sans Serif. This survey shows the easiest readable font that selected by user. Therefore, to develop a website should consider of these fonts.

Guideline for UK Government website says, "Use only clear, commonly used fonts. Avoid the use of small text." (Hobo-Web, 2009). According to Dr. Nielsen, the default font size for website should be 10 points but if the website is targeted to elder people, it is recommended to use 12 points. Website or article which using font size smaller than 10 points is difficult for user to read. In the end, user might give up browse the site. Dr. Nielsen is not recommended font tagged in icon as this is not readable and confuse (Nielsen, 2002).

According to the Hobo-Web (2009), website should not put any important information that required more than 3 clicks away from entrance page because people do not like to click when the result is not what they are expected. Therefore, users will not manage to complete the task successfully if the task takes 3 clicks to be completed.

System development life cycle


This section will discuss the system development life cycle such as waterfall model and spiral model which will be applied in the development process.

Waterfall model

There are various software development approaches in software development life cycle. Each process of the model is to ensure the success of the process in software development (Nilesh, 2005).

Waterfall model was the first process model introduced in software development life cycle which is most common and classic of life cycle (Nilesh, 2005). Figure 2.0 shows the waterfall model process is requirement and analysis, design, implementation, testing, development and maintenance.

According to Nilesh (2005), the first stage is to gather customer expectation to the new system. After gathered information, the next stage will be analyze and study on the requirements in the system to be developed. The second stage will be system design. Before start the actual coding, developer will have design the proper interface of the system and show to customer. If customer agreed with the design, the project can move on to next stage, else developer will have to design the interface again.

An implementation stage contains of coding. Once the design accepted by customer, developer will add in programming and implement the new system. Testing is required after implementation stage to ensure the new system is function and meet requirement. After tested the system is function properly, it will move on to deployment of system which is launch to customer. However, problems will come up after user uses the system, hence maintenance process is needed after deployment of system.

Although waterfall model is the oldest life cycle model, poor model design for long and ongoing project and it has high amount of risk. However, Table 2.2 indicates that waterfall model is simple to use and suitable for smaller project.

Spiral model

Spiral model is also known as Boehm's model which overcome the cons of waterfall model (Nilesh, 2005). This model is more emphasize on risk analysis. According to Nilesh (2005) indicated the four phases in spiral model are planning, risk analysis, engineering and evaluation. Figure 2.1 shows that "A project repeatedly passes through the phases in iterations" (Raymond, 2005). This help to understand the risks and problems when the project repeats in same phase next time.

Customer requirement are gathered in planning phase whereby the objectives are fixed in order to decide which strategies to follow. The following phase will be risk analysis, Nilesh (2005) indicated that this phase is the most important phase in spiral model as all possibilities which can help in developing a cost effective project are decided in this phase and prototype is also produced at the end of the phase.

Actual product or software is produced in engineering phase, along with the testing at the end of the phase. After the software completely tested, the last phase will be evaluation whereby customer will use the software and feedback to developer. After received feedback from customer, developer will start the spiral model again. Although spiral model overcome the disadvantage of waterfall model, but table 2.2 shows that spiral model is costly compare to waterfall model and it required high specific expertise.


Computerized system has become common these days as the statistics indicates that the growth of computer demand to human is getting higher. Computer brings efficiency and effectiveness to human in daily task. Organization uses computerized management software to help in managing data. Common computerized applications used in the market are such as school or membership registration system and human resource management system. The advantage of computerized software will ease user in data backup as all the information will be kept in database, saving time and reducing error rate and the fire incident proved that the disadvantages of using paper-based system causing data loss during accident or natural disaster. It is good to have a computerized system for organization management usage.

Online based system is convenient to users because the service is 24 on 7 and everyone can access to website from any computer which has internet access point. Although online based system is convenient for users but small organizations might not necessary to used internet for their business. Extra training could be required for those user that do not know how to use internet and the chances of virus infected are higher compare to offline based system. Thus, to design a customized system must base on the organization needs.

It is important to develop an application that includes HCI concept. A good system should be accessible to as many as possible. Sensible decisions need to made use of colour, font type and font size. Avoid from using those colours which are not suitable to colour blind people and preferable to use at least 12 points font size in design to ensure that the system is readable to all user groups included elder people. To improve the user friendliness of the system, memory is one of the main concerns. The same functions must categorize in same module such as add, edit, search, and delete functions for teacher must be categorized in teacher module.

System development life cycle is one of the important process take under consideration before the project begins. An appropriate plan brings a successful project. Therefore, it is important to review on system development life cycle model and select the most suitable model for new project. Although spiral model overcome the cons of waterfall model but waterfall model is most suitable for small project.

Review of existing products


This chapter will discuss the existing paper-based system uses in Preschool, computerized management system package designed for Preschool in the market and leave application features. A review on the existing system will helps in exploring constraints in paper-based system and the unnecessary features in Preschool computerized management system package.

Paper-based registration form

Allowing parents bring back the form is good. Sometimes, parents might not have time walk-in and get the form, friends and relatives able to do them favour. Besides, parents can consider whether want to register this Preschool and submit this form when made up mind. However, the reception is not only hired one employee. Chances of misplaced the form is possible and once the previous form misplace, employee might assign wrong student number or they might not able to contact parents when class starts.

The registration form can be retrieved from Joykids Preschool reception at 53 Jalan Terasek, Bangsar, Malaysia.

School Management System

This software does not provide access right for login which means the information is visible to whoever using this system. Users can make use of the functions provided and keep personal information in database such as students, parents, teachers and salary info. This system uses Microsoft access as database to keep all the information. The school management system function is easy to use. However, it does not clearly stated which information is required to fill in and not provided a good verification for information filled by users.

The school management system is able to produce three types of report that are student per class, class list and student info. Report will then be generated in Microsoft excel and able to print out by users.

This management software provides two types of user interfaces (UI), which are in Arabic and English formats. When the English option is selected, the menu will be able to be view in English language. However, when the Arabic option is selected, only the icons are shown and there are no texts (figure 3.4).

A demo version for 45 days trial can be found on the following link http://headmastersoft.com/download.htm and it costs €119 upgraded to Pro version.

School Management System 3.0

School Management System 3.0 able to perform student registration, teacher registration and course registration functions. All information will be saved in database once registration done. The toolbar below menu bar perform exactly same function as options in menu bar. However, there are difficulties to differentiate the form by using toolbar, unless users point the mouse cursor to the icon and wait for the tooltips display.

System will auto generate ID for new registration to prevent same ID found in future. Although this system looks simple but it has all the validation function for every single field. In additional, school management system 3.0 also offers school's fee and library forms, which can be used to record those books kept in library.

Same as other management system, it also has a report function, which enable user to print student report, employee report, book detail report, and pay slip. This system provides login function, which only allows authorized users have access to it. Admins are allowed to create and remove users by using user management function. Besides, this system is able to do backup and restore function, but this is only available in the full version.

School Management System 3.0 with 90 days free trial can download from http://wareseeker.com/Network-Internet/school-management-system-3.zip/3b537f44ee but the full version needs to email [email protected] or [email protected] to purchase.

IIHM School Management System

IIHM is a totally free offline school management system and is developed by VB6.0 with Microsoft Access as database. It suitable to be used for secondary school and college, other than the basic registration function for teachers, students, time table, school fees and search. User can search students and teachers information in shortest time by using this function. Apart from that, this system added exam details such as exam time and venue and also student performance report.

A simple library function implemented in this system able to view all books available library, books borrowed, books returned, and also due date. This system located the commonly use function as buttons below menu bar, it ease user select from button instead of clicks on menu bar option search one by one. Generally, this is a complete school management system for education purpose. However, this program is too complicated for Preschool.

Free IIHM school management system can be downloaded on the following link

http://www.bitwavesolutions.com/BIT%20WAVE%20School%20Management.htm, this package itself has 37MB.

E-Leave Web Application

E-Leave web application is an online application for employees to apply their leave. Most companies has their own leave system, and it is either online, offline or paper-based. For paper-based, employee who applies leave have to fill in the form and submit to Human Resource (HR) for approval. By using online web-based system, once the employee login to the system, it will show the employee their leave details, such as name and leave balance. After users give their proper reason, select their leave type, date and submit, the request will be send to Supervisor or HR.

Leave application system is used in organization. HR can online check the employee status. However, the leave application function alone used in company management system is too simple. School management system will ease employee leave application and approval process if added with this function.

The E-leave web application can be found from the following link http://ncsis.dynalias.com/leaveapplication/MainPage2.aspx which required employees' login ID.


Although paper-based registration forms are allowed to be taken anywhere, but the risks of keeping data in files are high. They need to be manually validated by human and ineffective file system might cause data duplication or data loss. There are many management systems available in the market but not all of them fit to purpose. In fact, most systems are too complicated for a small model Preschool to use it and not all the functions are required. IIHM school management system (figure 3.7) is an example that shows us that even with full complete functions it is too complicated for Preschools application, but it might beneficial for secondary schools or colleges.

School management system (figure 2.1) and school management system 3.0 (figure 3.5) is easy to use and the functions is not complicated, it is able to perform Preschool daily tasks and keep all necessary data. Based on research, leave application management is required in all organizations, no matter large or small organizations, as long as there are employees. Traditional paper-based leave systems are difficult to be trace, especially in large organization. Human Resource management system usually bundled with leave application functions. However, some organizations will develop their own web-based or offline leave system. Unfortunately, leave application functions cannot be found after reviewing three school management systems. It would be better to include leave application function in management system.

These examples have a lot of important functions such as teacher, student registration, backup and restore functions. After reviewing existing products, a unique input is required for each module such as ID or e-mail address, to enable users for retrieving the most accurate records through search function. Although there are products that exist in market but not all meet customer requirements. Complex functions are needed to be removed and the implementation of leave application into the management system will lead to user friendliness and meet the Preschool requirements.



This chapter will briefly discuss on the research from literature review, existing products found and also the Preschool computerized management system survey from Preschool employees. The information will be used to set for the requirements of new system.

Selection of method

The system development life cycle which apply on the new system using waterfall model. During analysis stage, questionnaire survey is required. Therefore, Appendix E contains of 5 questionnaires answered by Preschool employees. From the survey, 4 out of 5 employees stated that they knew what a computerized management system is. The only one employee who does not know what a computerized system is an elderly woman that has been using traditional system for the past 20 years and she does not has a chance to expose herself to technology. Since there is one employee do not know what a computerized management system is, developer must consider this factor and provide some simple instructions into the system.

Benefit of survey brings more accurate analysis result and by using waterfall model will ease the software developer. Because in every single stage, developers will check system interface design and functions with end users. If any of the stage not meet user requirement, it should be start all over again until the issue fix, then only will go to next stage. Many software developers still choose this model as part of the system analysis stage is because issues can be found in early stage and to prevent time wastage for rework after enter to new stage.


The literature review highlighted many areas why need to use computerized management system and how the computerized system take over traditional paper based system. Other than the facts finding from literature review, questionnaire survey from Preschool employees also indicated that computerized management system plays the important role in Preschool daily management task. Appendix E contains of 5 employees survey answer which included Principal, full time teachers and part time teachers' opinions. Most of the employees know what management system is and some of them have difficulties on paper based system. According to survey, this Preschool does not need online management system but backup function is important due to data loss happened. Besides, the research also specified the interface design, colour, font type and font size that fulfill the HCI requirements.

Review on existing products revealed important functions across majority of Preschool system. The Preschool management system should be included registration function, backup and restore, student exam result and basic manipulation features such as add, edit, delete and search for users. Some of the management system provides poor design which is not user friendliness and also comes with extra unnecessary functions such as library book borrow status or birthday reminder. Therefore, the new system must overcome these weaknesses and remove unnecessary functions. Most of the management system does not included leave application function. However, this new system will implement with this function as this is a customize management system for Joykids Preschool which should fulfill Preschool requirements.

Requirements of specification

The requirement specification breaks into three parts which are general requirements, technical requirements and specific requirements. General requirements are referring to essential features of the system. Technical requirements are concerned with technical issues. For example, the system must contain of validation to check for user input. The last requirements are specific requirements; this includes requirements that are specific to the functionality of the implementation. For example, auto generated ID.

General requirements

Ø The entire system must comply with HCI requirements, so that the system will be more user friendly.

Ø Basic manipulation functions is necessary for each module

Ø The system needs to fulfill user requirements, such as registration must be appeared in this system.

Ø Database is required to keep track of all data.

Technical requirements

Ø Bug-free system

Ø Must contain as much as validation for user input in order to get an accurate data.

Ø The system should not have duplicate data

Specific requirements

Ø ID must be auto-generated

Ø Provide user login

Ø Able to generate teacher and student report

Ø The system must contains of backup & restore function



This chapter will shows the design for Preschool E-Management system. There will be total 5 modules in the system which is teacher registration, student registration, exam results, leave application and utilities. The registration function will be implemented with function such as add, edit, delete and search. Besides, privilege access will be assigned based on teacher's position. Different level will have different access to the system.

System design

The Preschool computerized management system will consist of following pages:

The Preschool contains of 3 types of position which is Principal, Full Time Teacher and Part Time Teacher. Different position will have different access to the system. For example, if user log in with Principal, the system will gives full authorize but if user log in with Part Time Teacher, user not able to access teacher function. Therefore, only Principal and Full Time Teacher allow to add new teacher into the system. For example, to add new teacher, user must either use Principal Teacher ID: T001 and password: 123 or use Full Time Teacher ID: T002 and password: 123 to login.

There will be 4 subjects for each of the student, which is English, Malay, Mandarin and Mathematics. Report module allows teacher to print out all students result information.



The beginning of the chapter will cover the selection of method. It gives an overview of the method that had been chosen for using it.

The implementation section provides the information on features that have been achieved for leave application module compare to existing product reviewed.

Selection of method

This system will be implemented by using Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0, Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 ware chose for many reasons. Visual Basic 6.0 is an event-driven programming language because the programming itself is done in graphical environment. It is an easy to learn and understandable programming language compare to other languages such as C++ or Java. For example, things that may be difficult to write by using other programming language but it can be done easily by using Visual Basic. And yet, it is powerful programming language because Microsoft Visual Basic is an ideal programming for develop professional application for Microsoft Windows. Besides, it is also a user friendly tools which enabled user to design interface quickly by drag and drop feature. So the desired look and feel of the implementation is easier to be achieve, what you see is what you get.

During the research stage, Microsoft Visual Basic is a popular programming language that can be easily found on internet. There are many resources such as tutorial, sample coding that can helps developer to learn the programming in more easily and quickest way. New features that implemented in Visual Basic 6.0 compare to older version of Visual Basic such as faster compiler, new data report designer which allow user to generate report in easiest way, new package & deployment wizard which enables user to package their system to installation package. Besides, version 6.0 also added more support for database programming.

Database creation

Many database management systems can be found in the market, such as Microsoft Access, Oracle database, MySQL (Mike, 2009). But still, there are many management or tracking systems using Microsoft Access as database (Blue Claw Database Design, 2009).

The Preschool Management System chose Microsoft office access as database. As mentioned in previous research stage, Microsoft office access capacity is limited to 2GB. However, a small to medium size organization will chose to use it due to the price is cheaper compare to Oracle database and MySQL. Also, it bundled with Microsoft Office Professional. Therefore, user can get license once purchased Microsoft Office Professional.

Microsoft office access user does not required in-depth computer knowledge to use it. Tables, queries, interface and reports provide user friendly method due to the interface of Microsoft access is similar to other Microsoft Office programs. All of the Microsoft Office programs does provide office assistant to user in case user needs help on execute the task. Microsoft Access apply simple interface of database table and SQL command so that it is easily and readily integrates with other Microsoft programs.

Visual Basic 6.0 implementation

Overview of implementation achieved

The Preschool E-Management system implement by using Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0. As research from early stage, there is lots of Preschool Management systems exist in market but none of them include leave application into it. Also, the Management system that exists in market includes too many functions that are not required by Joykids Preschool such as library function, birthday event or appointment feature. Therefore, the customized system that created for Joykids Preschool Management system is implemented fully followed by user requirements. Other than the basic registration feature, the special feature for this new system is implemented with leave application module.

Explanation of implementation

The leave ID is unique and it is auto generated by using coding. The maximum of leave ID cannot be more than 1000 else the system will prompt a message to notify user that "Leave cannot be exceeded 999".

The code below is the auto generated ID for leave application:

There is a table called Leave_AutoId use to keep the leave Id, each time when the leave added into the database, the coding will give an instruction to Leave_AutoId table to add 1 into the table. Therefore, the ID is unique and will not duplicate. It will keep increase until 999.