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Design Strategies for senior citizens focused on E-Learning design for senior citizens, Websites design for senior citizens and Mobile Application design for senior citizens.
Due to the rapid development of IT, the role of senior citizens' learning has changed from the face-to-face classroom to online learning methods, such as web based learning. However, E-Learning for senior citizens is different from one implemented in universities and companies, where learners can be subjective while having clear objective. Because of, Learners might not always have clear objectives. So, it is very important to help learners' choosing and joining learning activities easily and promoting their e-learning motivation. Moreover, besides of learning function, community function is another important element among learners and teachers.
5.1.1 Navigation and Layout for seniors
The E-Learning skills of senior citizen students have experienced between linear text models (the older model), but not within logical models of non-linear. In order to control the number of information, the less quantity of hypertext should be used as a first level of needs. Moreover, the buttons and icons should be added clearly because it will help to get finer performance for senior citizens. And, there are generally need to order for links and also need in layout in their respective order levels (e.g. logical). Furthermore, the giving information for senior citizens should be covered within one page frame because it can be helped less scrolling for senior citizens.
5.1.2 Cognitive Function of seniors
The most of senior citizens are commonly faced hearing loss and visual loss. So, there are many helpful sound and sound files helped for senior citizen who loss the hearing by showing the suitable text within the sound files. And, there are many another important designs such as text design (e.g. font type, font size and the frame of text) for visual loss seniors. Another most important aspect is the color usage for visual loss citizens of senior citizens. Moreover, most of the senior citizens have less experienced the using of web applications, so should be avoided the using of complex applications.
5.2 Mobile Application design for senior citizens
Mobile application design is coming as an important role for mobile users, such as senior citizens. For example, mobile phone is specially designed for senior citizens with considerations of a senior-friendly user-interface (big button, simple operations), alarm features and emergency contact. There are many mobile application design features for senior citizens. Memory aids are appointments, reminders, address book with photos, personal Information and an alarm are considered to be very useful. In addition to standardised menus, the demand for personalised menus and design was mentioned to aid old people with reduced cognition. Visual aids are backlight, large text, bold colour, colour scheme and big buttons are rated as high priority features. Especially, dual user interface output and input are preferred (e.g. blinking screen and ringtone for incoming calls). Features to minimise user error: keypad auto-lock, extra confirmation dialog and noticeable reminders (when battery is low) are desirable.
5.3 Web Applications design for senior citizens
Web applications design for senior citizens is also important. Because, most senior are not well-served by most websites. So, basic usability designs increase the chances that senior citizens will use its' web applications.
5.3.1 Design for beginners of seniors
Most of the senior citizens have less experienced in web technologies. Therefore, the most important aspect of the first access and use to the Web applications is to know very well to use the web applications. So, the good explanation of the web applications is also needed (e.g. help menu). And should be used the distinguished colours for showing the 'links' and should underlined the links for senior citizens. And, the correct and suitable font type and font size in visual design field of web applications. The font size should be used minimum 12 point or larger because anything smaller is hard to read, especially for senior citizens. And information text should be covered in one page by didn't scrolling and it should not be used automated scroll. The font type also should be displayed by bold. Moreover, it should be avoided the use of brightening colour in seniors' web applications, so the use of against a bright background is the best for seniors. And, the font colour should be white in the black background colour. Furthermore, web applications' buttons or symbols and information of web applications should be obviously big quite enough and clearly mention the about of web applications information.
6. Senior citizens and Online Challenges
E-Learning provides both a challenge and an opportunity for senior citizens. E-Learning also provides to refresh their mind, knowledge and increase their life experiences opportunity for their social life. Senior citizens can learn the best by doing face to face learning (e.g. contributing the group activities and sharing their own knowledge, experience and interests). Moreover, the design of the E-Learning material should help for ageing- related functional decline. There are many E-Learning material designs for ageing-related function decline by incorporating adaptable interfaces, design rules and integrating assistive technology into the applications.
Mobile Application also gives many advantages for senior citizens in their social life, health monitoring, personal information, leisure and even their safety and privacy. Although there are many challenges to use the mobile applications for senior citizens, they can widely use the mobile applications for specific senior citizens and suitable interface design for seniors (e.g. hearing problems, visual problems).
Today, senior citizens have less Web applications experience than any other age groups because of their physical and cognitive challenges. There are many visual challenges for senior citizens such as small font size, colour differences and design of layouts. And, another important challenge is hearing. And cognitive difficulties are memory impairments, attention problems, distraction by visual clutter, not relevant information and animation. However, the latest technologies design made easy to use the web applications for their social life.