Discuss Five Operating Systems Computer Science Essay

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I would like to talk about the operating system. We need to discuss five operating systems. So I would like to only discuss one company currently creating operating systems. Macintosh with Apple developed and reformed by Steve Jobs. To start with I would discuss the five new versions MAC OS X. Entitled as Panther, Jaguar, Tiger, Leopard and the latest Snow Leopard.

I would like to discuss the system or operating system the features introduced in them and what actually do they lack in. The fields they need improvement as a user how would its compatibility and easy to use function would help me and as a computer science student.

Introduction to MAC OS X:-

MAC OS X is a line operating system developed, marketed and sold by Apple Inc., and has been included in the Macintosh systems from 2002. Apples primary operating system since 1984 was MAC OS 9 also known as classic. MAC OS X is a UNIX based application operating system they are all closed source operating systems. The first release of Server 1.0 was in 1999 by Apple inc.

MAC OS X is based upon the Mach Kernel. Mach Kernel is a microkernel, which is used to primarily distribution and parallel computation. It is one of the earliest examples of Microkernel. Its derivatives are used in modern day operating systems as Mac OS x and GNU Hurd.

Certain parts are taken from FreeBSD's and NetBSD's these two open source operating systems were used by Mac OS x in order to create a server based operating system were incorporated in Nextstep. Nextstep is an object oriented operating system.

System requirements

The system requirements for Mac OS X v10.0 were not well received by the Macintosh community, as at the time the amount of RAM standard with Macintosh computers was 64 megabytes of RAM, while the Mac OS X v10.0 requirements called for 128 megabytes of RAM. As well, processor upgrade cards, which were quite popular for obsolete Power Mac G3 computers, were not supported (and never officially have been, but can be made to work through third-party utility programs).

Supported Computers: Power Macintosh G3, G3 B&W, G4, G4 Cube, iMac, PowerBook G3, PowerBook G4, iBook (The original "Kanga" PowerBook G3 was the only G3-based Mac not to be supported by Mac OS X).

RAM required:

64 MB minimum

128 MB recommended

Hard Drive Space: 1.5 gigabytes

800 MB for the minimal install

Features Of Cheetah-

Dock: - The DOCK was the new way of organizing the OS X application and user interface it was a change from the classic method into the the new generation.

XNU-Kernel: - It was Unix based Kernel was the first time introduced for the Macintosh systems. It proved to be the largest changes

Terminal: - It was a feature include in the Mac OS X which allows the user to access the underpinnings, that is it allows access to the UNIX-core.

Mail (e-mail client)

Address Book

Text Edit: - text editor was the word processor replacing the old version of the word processor called the simple text.

Preemptive Multitasking: - The first time implementation was one of the long awaited feature of the Mac OS X. It could switch the task of any system without requiring the permission of the program this type of switching is known as context switching

OpenGl: -It is a language open source that has developed the GUI of the operating system.

Supports Carbon and Cocoa API's the carbon and cocoa are the application programming interfaces that are developed by the Macintosh machine in order to access the C language as well as other programming application.

Sherlock it was the newest feature included by the OS it performs search results for internet as well as desktop utilities.

Protected Memory one of the most powerful feature included by the Apple OS is that of the protected memory system unlike any other or the worlds leading OS Windows it has protected memory so that if an application crashes then only that application crashes the rest of the system is up and running.


File-sharing client - The system can only use TCP/IP,[1] not AppleTalk, to connect to servers sharing the Apple Filing Protocol. The System cannot use SMB to connect to Windows or Samba servers.

File-sharing server - as a server, the system is set up to share only the afp (over TCP/IP), http, ssh and ftp protocols.

Shortage of native applications - While the System can run Classic Mac applications (in the Classic environment), and has some support for Java applications and ported UNIX applications, there are few if any native Mac OS X applications available for this version of Mac OS X. Most applications for Cheetah were ported using the Carbon libraries, and subsequent application releases required features present only in later versions of Mac OS X.

Mac OS X version 10.3 "Panther"

is the fourth major release of Mac OS X, Apple's desktop and server operating system. It followed Mac OS X v10.2 "Jaguar" and preceded Mac OS X v10.4 "Tiger". Apple released Panther on October 24, 2003.

System requirements

Since a New World ROM is required for Mac OS X v10.3 ("Panther"), certain older computers (such as beige Power Mac G3s and "Wall Street" PowerBook G3s) are unable to run Panther by default. Third-party software (such as XPostFacto) can however override checks made during the install process; otherwise, installation or upgrades from Jaguar will fail on these older machines.

The system requirements are:

PowerPC G3, G4, or G5 processor (at least 233 MHz)

Built-in USB (indicative of a New World ROM being present)

At least 128 MB of RAM (512 MB recommended, 96 MB supported unofficially)

At least 1.5 GB of available hard disk space

CD drive

Internet access requires a compatible service provider; iDisk requires a .Mac account

Video conferencing requires:

333 MHz or faster PowerPC G3, G4, or G5 processor

broadband Internet access (100 kbit/s or faster)

Compatible FireWire DV camera or web camera

Panther still supported the Classic environment fully for running older Mac OS 9 applications.

New and changed features

End-user features

Apple advertised that Mac OS X v10.3 Panther had 150+ new features, including:

Finder - Updated with a brushed-metal interface, a new real-time search engine, customizable Sidebar, secure deletion, File labels and Zip support built in. Finder logo changed.

Fast User Switching - Allows a user to remain logged in while another user logs in

Exposé - Helps the user manage windows by showing them all as thumbnails

TextEdit - TextEdit now is also compatible with Microsoft Word (.doc) documents.

Xcode developer tools - Faster compile times with gcc 3.3.

Preview - Increased speed with PDF rendering

QuickTime - Now supports the Pixlet high definition video codec

New applications in Panther

Font Book - New application that functions as font manager

FileVault - On the fly encryption and decryption of a user's home folder

iChat AV - The new version of iChat. Now with built-in Audio- and video-conferencing.

X11 - X11 is built into Panther

Safari - New browser made to replace Internet Explorer for Mac OS X, developed when the contract between Apple and Microsoft ended. Internet Explorer for Mac was still available but not supported by Microsoft or Apple. This was included in an update on 10.2 but was used as the default browser in Panther.

Mac OS X Tiger (version 10.4)

is the fifth major release of Mac OS X, Apple's desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers. Tiger was released to the public on 29 April 2005 for US$129.95 as the successor to Mac OS X Panther (version 10.3), which had been released 18 months earlier. Tiger was succeeded by Mac OS X Leopard (version 10.5) on 26 October 2007, after 30 months, making Tiger the longest running version of Mac OS X.[1] Some of the new features include a fast searching system called Spotlight, a new version of the Safari web browser, Dashboard, a new 'Unified' theme, and improved support for 64-bit addressing on Power Mac G5s.

System requirements

The system requirements of the PowerPC edition are:

A PowerPC G3, G4, or G5 processor running at 333 MHz or more

Built-in FireWire

At least 256 MB of RAM (512 MB or 1 GB recommended)

At least 3 GB of available hard disk space; 4 GB of disk space including the Xcode 2 Tools

DVD drive (CD media exchange was available; offer ended 19 March 2007)

New and changed features

End-user features

Apple advertises that Tiger has 200+ features, including:

Spotlight - Spotlight is a full-text and metadata search engine, which can search everything from Word documents to iCal calendars to Address Book cards, as well as any text within PDF files. The feature is also used to build the concept of smart folders into the Finder. Spotlight will index files as they are saved, so they can be quickly and easily found through a search-as-you-type box in the menu bar. As a side-effect it adds hidden folders and indexing files to removable media like USB flash drives.

iChat AV - The new iChat AV 3.0 in Tiger supports up to four participants in a video conference and ten participants in an audio conference. It also now supports communication using the XMPP protocol. A XMPP server called iChat Server is included on Mac OS X Tiger Server.

Safari RSS - The new Safari 2.0 web browser in Tiger features a built-in reader for RSS and Atom web syndication that can be accessed easily from an RSS button in the address bar of the web browser window. An updated version of Safari, included as part of the free Mac OS X v10.4.3 update, can also pass the Acid2 web standards test.

Mail 2 - The new version of Mail.app email client included in Tiger featured an updated interface, "Smart Mailboxes" which utilize the Spotlight search system, parental controls, as well as several other features.

The Dashboard allows for miniature applications called "Widgets" to appear and disappear rapidly from the screen.

Dashboard - The Dashboard is a new mini-applications layer based on HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, which returns the desk accessories concept to the Mac OS. These accessories are known as widgets. It comes with several widgets such as Weather, World Clock, Unit Converter, and Dictionary/Thesaurus. More are available for free online. Its similarity to the Konfabulator application caused some criticism.

Automator - A scripting tool called Automator to link applications together to form complex automated workflows (written in AppleScript, Cocoa, or both). Automator comes with a complete library of actions for several applications that can be used together to make a Workflow.

VoiceOver - VoiceOver is an accessibility interface that offers the user magnification options, keyboard control and spoken English descriptions of what is happening on screen. VoiceOver enables users with visual impairment the ability to use applications via spoken commands. It also allows a user to work collaboratively with other users on a single Mac by allowing multiple users give voice commands to scroll text, etc. VoiceOver is capable of reading aloud the contents of files including web pages, mail messages and word processing files. The complete keyboard navigation lets the user control the computer with the keyboard rather than mouse, a menu is displayed in a window showing all the available keyboard commands that can be used.

A complete built-in Dictionary/Thesaurus based on the New Oxford American Dictionary, Second Edition, accessible through an application, Dictionary, a Dashboard widget, and as a system-wide command (see below).

.Mac syncing - Though this is not a new feature, .Mac syncing in Tiger is much improved over Panther. Syncing tasks in Tiger are now accomplished through the .Mac system preferences pane rather than the iSync application.

QuickTime 7 - A new version of Apple's multimedia software has support for the new H.264/AVC codec which offers better quality and scalability than other video codecs. This new codec is used by iChat AV for clearer video conferencing. New classes within Cocoa provide full access to QuickTime for Cocoa application developers. The new QuickTime 7 player application bundled with Tiger now includes more advanced audio and video controls as well as a more detailed Information dialog, and the new player has been rebuilt using Apple's Cocoa API to take advantage of the new technologies more easily.

New Unix features - New versions of cp, mv, and rsync which support files with resource forks. Command-line support for features like the above-mentioned Spotlight are also included.

Xcode 2.0 - Xcode 2.0, Apple's Cocoa development tool now includes visual modelling, an integrated Apple Reference Library and graphical remote debugging.

New applications in Tiger

Automator - Automator uses workflows to process repetitive tasks automatically

Grapher - Grapher is a new application capable of creating 2D and 3D graphs similar to that of Graphing Calculator.

Dictionary - A dictionary and thesaurus program which uses the New Oxford American Dictionary. It has a fast GUI for displaying the Dictionary, and allows the user to search the dictionary with Spotlight, to print definitions, and to copy and paste text into documents. Dictionary also provides a Dictionary service in the Application menu, and Cocoa and WebKit provides a global keyboard shortcut (ctrl-⌘-D by default) for all applications that display text with them. Its use was furthered in the next version of OS X by providing definitions from Wikipedia. The Dictionary application is a more feature-filled version of the Dictionary widget.

Quartz Composer - Quartz Composer is a development tool for processing and rendering graphical data.

AU Lab - AU Lab is a developer application for testing and mixing Audio Units.

Dashboard - Dashboard is a widget application. Tiger widgets include: a calculator, dictionary, a world clock, a calendar, and more (full list). A user can also download and install more widgets, including one for the Wikipedia encyclopedia.

Mac OS X Leopard (version 10.5)

is the sixth major release of Mac OS X, Apple's desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers. Leopard was released on 26 October 2007 as the successor of Mac OS X Tiger (version 10.4), and is available in two variants: a desktop version suitable for personal computers, and a server version, Mac OS X Server. Steve Jobs stated at Macworld 2008 that over 20% of Macs use Leopard as their operating system. Leopard was superseded by Mac OS X Snow Leopard (version 10.6). Leopard is the final version of Mac OS X to support the PowerPC architecture as Snow Leopard solely functions on Intel based Macs. With the release of Snow Leopard, Leopard will only be maintained with security updates until the next shipping version of Mac OS X.

System requirements

Apple states the following basic Leopard system requirements, although, for some specific applications and actions (such as iChat backdrops) an Intel processor is required:

Processor must be any Intel, PowerPC G5 or G4 (867 MHz and faster)

DVD drive (for installation of the operating system)

At least 512 MB of RAM (additional RAM (1 GB) is recommended for development purposes)

At least 9 GB of disk space available.

New and changed features

End-user features

Apple advertises that Mac OS X Leopard has 300+ new features, including:

A new and improved Automator, with easy starting points to easily start a workflow. It also can quickly create or edit workflows with new interface improvements. Now it can use a new action called "Watch Me Do" that lets you record a user action (like pressing a button or controlling an application without built-in Automator support) and replay as an action in a workflow. It can create more useful Automator workflows with actions for RSS feeds, iSight camera video snapshots, PDF manipulation, and much more.

Back to My Mac, a feature for MobileMe users that allows users to access files on their home computer while away from home via the internet.

Boot Camp, a software assistant allowing for the installation of other operating systems, such as Windows XP (SP2 or later) or Windows Vista, on a separate partition (or separate internal drive) on Intel-based Macs.

Dashboard enhancements, including Web Clip, a feature that allows users to turn a part of any Web page displayed in Safari into a live Dashboard widget, and Dashcode to help developers code widgets.

New Desktop, comprises a redesigned 3-D dock with a new grouping feature called Stacks, which displays files in either a "fan" style, "grid" style, or (since 10.5.2) a "list" style. R.L. Prior, on the ThinkMac blog, criticized the shelf-like Dock along with a number of other changes to the user interface.

Dictionary can now search Wikipedia, and a dictionary of Apple terminology as well. Also included is the Japanese-language dictionary Daijisen, Progressive E-J and Progressive J-E dictionaries, and the 25000-word thesaurus "Tsukaikata no Wakaru Ruigo Reikai Jiten", all of which are provided by the Japanese publisher Shogakukan.

A redesigned Finder, with features similar to those seen in iTunes 7, including Cover Flow and a Source list-like sidebar.

Front Row has been reworked to closely resemble the interface of the original Apple TV.

iCal calendar sharing and group scheduling as well as syncing event invitations from Mail. The icon also reflects the current date even when the application is not running. In previous versions of Mac OS X, the icon would show 17 July in the icon any time the application was not running but the current date when the application was running.

iChat enhancements, including multiple logins, invisibility, animated icons, and tabbed chats, similar to features present in Pidgin, Adium and the iChat plugin Chax; iChat Theater, allowing users to incorporate images from iPhoto, presentations from Keynote, videos from QuickTime, and other Quick Look features into video chats; and Backdrops, which are similar to chroma keys, but use a real-time difference matte technique which does not require a green or blue screen. iChat also implements screen sharing, a feature previously available with Apple Remote Desktop.

Mail enhancements including the additions of RSS feeds, Stationery, Notes, and to-dos. To-dos use a system-wide service that is available to all applications.

Network file sharing improvements include more granular control over permissions, consolidation of AFP, FTP and SMB sharing into one control panel, and the ability to share individual folders, a feature that had not been available since Mac OS 9.

Parental controls now include the ability to place restrictions on use of the Internet and to set parental controls from anywhere using remote setup.

Photo Booth enhancements, including video recording with real-time filters and blue/green-screen technology.

Podcast Capture, an application allowing users to record and distribute podcasts. It requires access to a computer running Mac OS X Server with Podcast Producer.

Preview adds support for annotation, graphics, extraction, search, markup, Instant Alpha and size adjustment tools.

Quick Look, a framework allowing documents to be viewed without opening them in an external application and can preview it in full screen. Plug-ins are available for Quick Look so that you can also view other files, such as Installer Packages

The Finder, showing files in Cover Flow View and viewing a file using Quick Look

Safari 3, which includes Web Clip.

Spaces, an implementation of virtual desktops (individually called "Spaces"), allows multiple desktops per user, with certain applications and windows in each desktop. Users can organize certain Spaces for certain applications (e.g., one for work-related tasks and one for entertainment) and switch between them. Exposé works inside Spaces, allowing the user to see at a glance all desktops on one screen.) Users can create and control up to 16 spaces, and applications can be switched between each one, creating a very large workspace. The auto-switching feature in Spaces has annoyed some of its users. Apple added a new preference in 10.5.2 which disabled this feature, but there were still bugs found while switching windows. In 10.5.3, this problem was addressed and was no longer an issue.

Spotlight incorporates additional search capabilities such as Boolean operators, as well as the ability to search other computers (with permissions).

Time Machine, an automated backup utility which allows the user to restore files that have been deleted or replaced by another version of a file. Though generally lauded in the press as a step forward for data recovery, Time Machine has been criticized in multiple publications for lacking the capabilities of third-party backup software. Analyzing the feature for TidBITS, Joe Kissell pointed out that Time Machine does not create bootable copies of backed-up volumes, does not back up to AirPort Disk hard drives and will not back up FileVault encrypted home directories until the user logs out, concluding that the feature is "pretty good at what it does" but he will only use it as part of a "broader backup strategy". One of these issues has been resolved, however; On 19 March 2008, updates were released for AirPort and Time Machine, allowing for Time Machine to use a USB hard disk which has been connected to an AirPort Extreme Base Station.

Universal Access enhancements: significant improvements to applications including VoiceOver, along with increased support for Braille, closed captioning and a new high quality Speech synthesis voice.

Many changes to the user interface. R.L. Prior, on the ThinkMac blog, criticized a number of changes to Leopard's user interface, including the transparent menu bar and the new folder icons. Decreased transparency of the menu bar, along with the ability to disable the menu bar transparency were added with the 10.5.2 release on 11 February 2008.

Russian language support, bringing the total to 18 languages.

Leopard removes support for Classic applications. Classic will not run natively on Intel-based Macs in any case.

Mac OS X Snow Leopard (version 10.6)

is the seventh major release of Mac OS X, Apple's desktop and server Unix-based operating system. Apple CEO Steve Jobs announced Snow Leopard at WWDC on June 9, 2008, and it was privately demonstrated to developers by Senior Vice President of Software Engineering Bertrand Serlet. The first public demonstration was given at WWDC 2009 by Serlet and Vice President of Mac OS Engineering, Craig Federighi.

System requirements

Apple states the following basic Snow Leopard system requirements, although, for some specific applications such as QuickTime H.264 hardware acceleration support and OpenCL, a supported GPU is required (NVIDIA GeForce 8600M GT or ATI Radeon HD 4850 and newer):

Mac computer with an Intel processor (IA-32 "Yonah" processors such as Core Solo and Core Duo will only be able to run 32-bit applications; later x86-64 architecture processors such as Core 2 will also be able to run 64-bit applications)

1 GB of RAM

5 GB of free disk space

DVD drive (also accessible via Remote Disc) or external USB or FireWire DVD drive for installation

Snow Leopard does not support PowerPC-based Macs (e.g., Power Macs, PowerBooks, iBooks, iMacs (G3-G5), all eMacs, plus pre-February 2006 Mac minis and the Power Mac G4 Cube), although PowerPC applications are supported via Rosetta, which is now an optional install.


Snow Leopard includes the following changes:

New features

Boot Camp now allows Windows partitions to read and copy files from HFS+ partitions. The new version also adds support for advanced features on Cinema Displays and a new command-line version of the Startup Disk Control Panel.

The Finder has been completely rewritten in 64-bit Cocoa to take advantage of the new technologies introduced in Snow Leopard. This has resulted in a much smaller OS footprint, taking up about 7 GB less space than Mac OS X v10.5. A smaller amount of recovered disk space (~250MB) has also been attributed to the fact that printer drivers are now downloaded or installed only as needed, rather than being pre-installed. The default install only contains those drivers needed for existing printers and a small subset of popular printers.

iChat enhancements include greater resolution video chats in iChat Theater and lowered upload bandwidth requirements.

Microsoft Exchange support is now integrated into the Mail, Address Book, and iCal applications. However, only Microsoft Exchange 2007 is supported and customers using prior versions of Exchange must either upgrade or use Microsoft Entourage.

Full multi-touch support has been added to notebooks prior to those introduced in October 2008. While the original MacBook Air and other early multi-touch enabled notebooks had support for some gestures, they were unable to use four-finger gestures. This limitation has now been removed in Snow Leopard.

Preview now has artificial intelligence algorithms that allow it to infer the structure of a paragraph in a PDF document.

QuickTime X, the next version of QuickTime player and multimedia framework, has been completely rewritten into a full 64-bit Cocoa application and builds on the media technologies in Mac OS X, such as Core Audio, Core Video, and Core Animation, to deliver playback. Apple has redesigned the QuickTime user interface to resemble the full-screen QuickTime view in prior versions, where the entire window displays the video and all controls including the title bar fade in and out as needed. QuickTime X also supports HTTP live streaming and takes advantage of ColorSync to provide high-quality color reproduction.[15] If Snow Leopard is installed on a Mac with an nVidia GeForce 9400M graphics card, QuickTime X will be able to use its video-decoding capabilities to reduce CPU load.

Safari 4 features Top Sites, Cover Flow, VoiceOver, expanded standards support, and built-in crash resistance, which prevents browser crashes caused by plug-ins by running them in separate processes. Safari 4 is not new to Snow Leopard, as it is available for free in Mac OS X 10.4 (Tiger) and 10.5 (Leopard).

Time Machine connection establishment and backups are now much faster.

VoiceOver has also been greatly enhanced in Snow Leopard. Reading of web pages is improved with Auto Web Spots - areas of a page automatically designated for quick access. On newer Apple portables, trackpad gestures can be used to control many VoiceOver functions, including the "rotor" gesture first seen in VoiceOver for the iPhone 3GS, allowing for the changing of certain VoiceOver navigation options by rotating fingers on the trackpad. Braille Display support is also improved, with Bluetooth displays supported for the first time.

New wallpapers

As with most upgrades of Mac OS, new wallpapers are available. There are new wallpapers in the Nature (two of which are of snow leopards), Plants and Black and White sub-folders under the Apple folder. Furthermore, there are new Apple wallpaper sub-folders with multiple wallpapers:

Art: Dancer on the Stage, Nighthawks, Poppies Blooming, Sunday Afternoon, Suprematism, The Great Wave, and Water Lilies.

Patterns: Pinstripe and Saree.

New solid colors can be used as wallpapers as well. There is a new blue and gray, as well as a solid kelp which serves as the "green wallpaper." The default "space nebula" wallpaper has been updated as well.

Dropped features

It is no longer possible to change an application's language using the Finder "Get Info" dialogue. While there are workarounds for some applications, others (such as Adobe After Effects) will not be able to be run in a different language than the one installed.