Development Of Telemetry System Computer Science Essay

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The wing of an aircraft is used to do various maneuvers and generate lift for the flight. And most of the lift produced by the wing is a result of the air pressure under the wing being greater than that above it. So it has become significantly important to know the pressure data in an aircraft's flight path. This report presents a wireless telemetry system that will collect pressure data from multiple sensors in the wind tunnel and send the data to a PC outside the wind tunnel using Bluetooth. Telemetry is a science by which object characteristics are automatically measured, recorded and stored for future use. The transmission of the data can be done by using wire or via radio wave. In this experiment Bluetooth (Radio wave) will be implemented for the data transfer. With this system data can be wirelessly transferred from various pressure sensors to an access point outside the wind tunnel's test section. This system will be a potential alternative of the current stage wind tunnel. That can possibly replace the long length of cable used in a wind tunnel by using Bluetooth and can have more accuracy in data collection by cutting down the induced noise of the cable.

The system will be consisting of local portion and the ground equipment. In the local portion data will be collected from different external measuring devices and will be processed in the microcontroller and send via a Bluetooth network. In the ground equipment data will be received by a Bluetooth adopter and the data will be stored and analyzed. The main part of the project work will be programming an Arduino microcontroller to collect the data and transmit it via a wireless link and it should be possible for a nearby PC with a Bluetooth adaptor to display the received data using a standard terminal program.

This work gave a clear idea on how the telemetry system works and task that need to be performed by the microcontroller.

Aims:

Development of a wireless telemetry system to collect wing pressure data and transmit the data via wireless Bluetooth link to a PC.

Build the embedded system and test it in the wind tunnel.

3.0 Objectives:

Understanding the Wireless telemetry system.

Develop a wireless telemetry system for a wing to measure pressure and transmit data to a PC by using wireless Bluetooth link.

Study useful schemes to use a microcontroller for wireless telemetry system.

Programming a microcontroller to collect pressure data and transmit the data via wireless link.

Record the result from the wind tunnel experiment and verify it with the wind tunnel data.

4.0 Introduction:

Aircraft on their flight path has to do verity of maneuvers such as climbing, quick turning and descending. These maneuvers are made possible by the aerodynamic forces that act on their wings [1]. Therefore, it is important to know about the pressure distribution in order to understand their flight mechanism. Today , no aircraft, spacecraft or recent vehicles will develop a model until their being thoroughly tested in the wind tunnels [2]. With the high demand for the wind tunnels test time, it is important to reduce the system installation time as well as systems usability become apparent. In this circumstances the proposed telemetry system can be used, which would have an onboard signal conditioning and analog to digital signal conversion and can use the Bluetooth to send the data to the Located PC outside the wind tunnel. And the data can be send and received in real time.

A system in its most general form is defined as a combination and interconnection of several components to perform a desired task [4]. The proposed system will have two separate units that can be called as Telemetry unit and the Remote device. The telemetry unit will be a remotely battery powered unit and the sensors will be directly connected to it. However, the data communication with the remote unit will be done using Bluetooth connection. As the system is easily portable it can be placed on the required place with the sensors and the data processing unit (PC) can stay in the range of Bluetooth connection. So it is easy to monitor the portable unit [3].

The remote device will be a PC with a Bluetooth adaptor which can communicate with the telemetry unit by using Bluetooth connection. The remote device can receive data from the telemetry unite and can store them for future analysis.

4.1Telemetry System:

Fig 2: The above picture shows the basic components of a telemetry system. [11]

Pressure Sensor: A pressure sensor is a device that works as a transducer. It measures the physical parameter of pressure and converts it to an electrical signal, which can be read and observed by instruments [5].

Frequency division multiplexing: A multiplexer is a device that performs multiplexing; it can select one or many digital or analog input and pass the logic level of that input to the output. In frequency division multiplexing two or more input can be transmitted by using the same channel. Amplitude, phase and frequency modulation can be employed as a subcarrier of the available frequency band [6].

Fig 2: The above picture shows the basic components of a telemetry system. [11]

Transmitter: A transmitter is electronic devices which will use an antenna to send the multiplexed data that have been separated in the frequency domain.

Receiving antenna: At the receiver end the RF (Radio frequency) modulated signals will be received and send to the receiver. The received signal will be then amplified at the RF frequency.

De-multiplexer: A de-multiplexer will simply do the opposite of a multiplexer. It will enable the telemetry operator to observe individual digital frequency output of the multiplexer by removing the digital signal from each subcarrier.

Fig3: Flow chart of the transmitted Radio frequency. [12]

Data processing and display: once the data from the various sensors have been separated and inserted into the correct data channel, the data are now available for display, recording and processing [5].

5.0 Technology will be used:

Trough the research it was decided that the proposed system will be developed by having a combination of microcontroller, Bluetooth and a slandered personal computer with commercially available software for data collection and display in real time. This section will give a brief introduction and the reason for the technologies chosen.

Microcontroller: To control the telemetry system a microcontroller will be used. There are some key features which makes the microcontrollers ideal for this application:

Low cost

Widely available

Less power consumption

Re-programmable

Easy to use

Integrated ADC

Can be connected with the Bluetooth

Bluetooth: A stable and reliable wireless link is essential to stablish a high performance telemetry system. In the proposed system Bluetooth was adopted. Bluetooth was adopted for the following reason:

It has a sort range and low power communication.

It can achieve a high data rate (up to 3 Mbps)[7]

It enables the wireless network to be formed in a small are, depending on the signal it can be 1-100 meter.

It has robustness in noise and interference because of its high hopping speed (1600 Hz) [8].

6.0 Hardware and software:

The following hardware and software was chosen for the proposed telemetry. this included two sensor, a microcontroller, Bluetooth, wind tunnel, remote device and software packages.

6.1 Hardware:

This section gives the information about the hard ware will be used in the development process.

Sensors: Sensors will be used to collect the pressure data; a sensor can convert the physical parameter of the pressure into an electrical signal. For this data acquisition system MEMS sensors were selected. The selected MEMS sensors are small in size, low in cost and commercially available. The smaller sensor ranged in size, from altitude sensor it can measure 27*28*6mm to pressure sensors can measure 3.2mm diameter[8].

Remote device: During the development a single remote device will be used. This will be an Acer ASPIR 5720 laptop with a Bluetooth adopter

Wind tunnel: In order to test the system is working correctly, it need to be tested in a wind tunnel. And the facility will be used in the wind tunnel in University of Hertfordshire.

Microcontroller: The microcontroller board will be used is the Arduino BT, the microcontroller board is based on the ATmega168 microcontroller, and the Bluegiga WT11 Bluetooth model. It has 14 digital input/output pins, 6 analog inputs,a 16MHz crystal oscillator, 16kb Flash memory and 512 bytes EEPROM.[9]

.

Fig4: Arduino Bluetooth [13]

6.2 Software: This section gives an idea about the programming language and the Software package of the proposed system.

Arduino programming language: ATmega168 microcontroller can be programmed by using Arduino programming language which is based on c++. The program was chosen because it is a third generation language. and it is easy to program and develop then the assembly language. It has a simple and clear programming environment. It has open source tools and a c++ library. [10]

.

7.0 Work flows:

The project can be divided into six stages described as follows:

Background Studies

Background reading will be done and dispersion techniques will be familiarized. Literature review will be done to see how this types of embedded systems were done in the past.

Learning Arduino programming

In second phase, Anduino Programming will be learned and the different techniques of programming will be learned.

Exam

During this time first semester exam will be held.

Programming:

During this session, program will be written and the debugging will be done.

Analysis

In this phase, wind tunnel testing will be done and the data will be analyzed to see the objectives are achived.

Documentation

During this period, Final report will be written and all the work done will be documented.

8.0 Project Schedule:

Fig 11: Gantt Chart

As mentioned in the Gantt chart, background studies will be done for 5 weeks. Then on the next phase programming will be learned. After learning the programming it will be time for the first semester exam. On the fourth phase of the project programming will done and it will be done for 5 weeks.

After finishing the programming and debugging the model system will be tested in the wind tunnel and data will be collected. And in the last phase of my project all of my work will be documented and the final report will be submitted.

9.0 Resources Required:

In order to do the programming Arduino programming software need to be installed. As because the software is open source in can be downloaded from the Arduino web-site or it can be used in the final year project lab.. A basic configuration of the system should be a PC with Pentium III processor or equivalent running Microsoft windows 2000 operating system or Microsoft XP operating system with minimum 400 MB free hard disk space, 128 MB of RAM (recommended) and graphic resolution of 1024 x 768 (65536 colors). Also the system should contain Internet Explorer 5.5 or higher & DirectX 8.1 or higher [9]. And the same PC can be used for receiving the signal outside the wind tunnel.

10.0 Project Risk Assessment:

There are fallowing types of risk can be considered:

Arduino programming is robust and third generation program, trying to learn it in two/ three weeks time can be very hard. If it happens then it will affect the implementation stage in my project.

Learning the program implementing it and test it in the wind tunnel is a huge task and in the given time it could be very hard to achieve. So that could lead the project being incomplete.

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