Internet is an integral part of man's life. It is necessary to integrate the various internet- enabled objects so as to make man's life simpler. These internet enabled objects interact with each other to provide a web service. Internet of Things is an internet application that provides the thing's information on a global platform. The construction of Internet of things involves two tasks: the pre-processing of the thing's information before uploading into internet and designing of a RFID system. Agriculture is the backbone of any country. In the present scenario, farmers, researchers, especially those from the remote areas require an internet-enabled system to gain the latest information like humidity, temperature, and soil about their field. In order to solve this problem, we propose a secure framework for monitoring an agro-system based on Sensors and Internet of things. The technical advantage of RFID is coupled with the essence of internet of things. Here, the things like smart phones are used by the farmers to access the agro related updates. We believe this framework is useful to understand the significance of internet of things and proves to be a boon to farmers and research scholars.
Keywords: RFID, Internet Of Things, Sensors
2. A Internet Of Things
The Internet of Things is regarded as the third wave of information technology after Internet and mobile communication network, which is characterized by more comprehensive interoperability and intelligence. The technologies of the Internet of Things can effectively facilitate the integration of material production and service management, the integration of the physical world and the digital world. With development of IOT technologies, the most important IOT application areas cover infrastructure construction, public security, environment protection, modern agriculture, intelligent industry, urban management, business service and other fields.
Internet of Things is networked interconnection of everyday objects. It is described as a self configuring wireless network of sensors whose purpose would be to interconnect all things. It can able to identify the objects so that Such a system could greatly reduce the chances of a company running out of stock or wasting products, as all involved parties would know exactly which products are required and consumed.
2. B. RFID (Radio Frequency Identification)
RFID is a technology that uses communication via radio waves that exchange data between a reader (interrogators) and an electronic tag(labels)attached to an object, for the purpose of identification and tracking. It has its own unique identification number. Most RFID can contain atleast two parts: integrated circuits, used for storing and processing information i.e. Modulating and Demodulating a Radio-frequency Signals and other is Antenna, for receiving and transmitting the signal. RFID can be of passive (using no battery) and active (using battery assisted passive) "BAP", a small battery on board that is activated when in the presence of an RFID reader.BAP tag contains sensor capability like temperature and humidity. RFID has many applications like enterprise supply chain management ,healthcare industry, vehicular management etc.,
The basic principles of the RFID system are:
Firstly, the readers send certain frequency RF signals by antennas, then the tags generate induced currents and are activated when they reach the workplace of the antennas.
secondly, the tags send their own codes information out through built-in antennas.
thirdly, the antennas receive the carrier signals sent by the tags and sent to the readers. The readers demodulate and decode the signals, and then sent to the background of the main system.
fourthly, the main system judges the legality of the card by logistic operation, carries out corresponding processing and control according to different settings, and sends out instruction signals to control the actions
2. C Wireless Networks
Sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument. It receives and responds the signals. An important parameter of a sensor is its sensitivity which indicates how much the sensors output changes when the measured quantity changes. Sensors also have an impact on what they measure like temperature, force, and vibration and so on. Sensors need to be designed to have a small effect on what is measured; making the sensor smaller often improves this and may introduce other advantages. Applications include cars, machines, aerospace, medicine, manufacturing and robotics.
3. Related Work
Internet Of Things is associated to a new type of internet application that provides the thing's information on a global platform like Internet. It is a combination of the thing's information and its entity.The sharing of the thing's information constitutes three basic steps: information uploading, information transmitting and information downloading..The information is expressed using standardized UID or EPC code..These two serve as universal identification mechanism. The information is recorded and stored into an electronic tag which can either be a bar code or the RFID electronic tag. The uploading step is done using a RFID reader which facilitates non-contact scanning and thus reading the thing's information from the electronic tag. The RFID tag and the reader together make up the RFID system. The two models which describe IOT are the graphical model that describes the basic steps of information sharing and the set expression model that describes IOT in an abstract form.
The important contents of supply chain management for any product are Monitoring and anti-counterfeiting. The enterprises should offer consumers a real-time information inquiry platforms on commodity and to allow people have a clear understanding of the whole life cycle of the products they consumed. It also provides the customers a convenient channel to identify the authenticity of the products. Thus the solution to above issues is obtained by developing product life cycle monitoring information system based on RFID and internet of things.
When the product is completed by the manufacturer, it will be affixed with a RFID tag storing the records of the EPC as well as the production date and other information. Thereafter, the EPC becomes the only logo in its entire life cycle. According to the EPC code, we can not only query and update the real-time information of product in the EPC network, but also monitor the product in all aspects of its circulation.
The process of anti-counterfeiting for products is done as follows: In the system, the enterprises will distribute their products information such as RFID anti-counterfeiting labels information, directory of services and directory of products to the public platform of the RFID anti-counterfeiting through the Internet. When the consumers receive the product with RFID anti-counterfeiting label, they use the label code to access to the corporate anti-counterfeiting information services address through RFID-enabled mobile phones or Internet-connected computers equipped with read-write RFID tags, and then call the services to attain product-related information to identify the authenticity of the product .
Mobile Communication network and internet are mainly used in the transmission of information among the people, whereas Wireless Sensor Network gives the short range communication between the objects by constructing the wireless networks in a adhoc manner .To overcome this problem IOT Gateway is invented which is based on Zigbee-GPRS protocols and working as the bridging between the telecommunication network or internet and the WSN. Here it not only receives the data from the sensor node but also executes the command from the gateway to configure the mote's parameter.The data should start with '\x7E\x45' and end with '\x7E'.This design provides two modes of interactions with the remote server ,GPRS and Ethernet. Once we start with the GPRS mode which receives the data from the sensor network and uses the 2g/3g ,dsl and other network interfaces send the packets to the telecommunication .Ethernet establishes the socket connection by setting the remote server's IP address and listening port.
4. Proposed System
By analyzing the techniques involved in the Internet of Things, we herewith propose
An Agro based monitoring system. Thus the agro-based products are always with updated information since every product is issued with a RIFD tag. The RFID system and the sensors collect the temperature, humidity information and are stored in the database. The remote client sends a request to the server by mentioning the RFID tag. The server after authenticating the client, retrieves the corresponding temperature or humidity value from the database and sends it as a response. The system also sends automatic updates to the client. The client on receiving the desired values takes the necessary steps. This system is extremely helpful for farmers and research scientists who need to periodically monitor their fields. Moreover, the communication of this information is through air medium, the intruders might modify the secure data. To prevent this, we use a cryptic algorithm that encrypts the data from data warehouse before sending to the user. The user applies decryption algorithm on the gathered data to retrieve the original information.
5. System Architecture
The system architecture consists of three parts: RFID and Sensor System, Server and client. The RFID system consists of the RFID electronic tag and the RFID reader. The electronic tag has the thing's information expressed in terms of UID or EPC. The sensors periodically sense and check for information changes. This information is uploaded into the internet with the help of an RFID reader. This reader uses non-contact scanning mechanism. Once the information is available on the server, it is stored in the database. The remote client uses a mobile phone which is equipped with this application. After the authentication process, the client can request for the temperature or humidity of a particular RFID tag. Moreover the client also gets automatic updates from the server. The client on receiving the desired values takes the necessary steps.
6. Technologies Used
6.1 J2ME (Java 2 Micro Edition)
Sun Microsystems defines J2ME as "a highly optimized Java run-time environment targeting a wide range of consumer products, including pagers, cellular phones, screen-phones, digital set-top boxes and car navigation systems." J2ME brings the cross-platform functionality of the Java language to smaller devices, allowing mobile wireless devices to share applications.
J2ME uses configurations and profiles to customize the Java Runtime Environment (JRE). The configuration defines the basic run-time environment as a set of core classes and a specific JVM that run on specific types of devices. Currently, two configurations exist for J2ME. Connected Limited Device Configuration (CLDC) is used specifically with the KVM with limited amounts of memory. An example of such a device is smart phones, laptops, mobile phones. Connected Device Configuration (CDC) is used with the C virtual machine (CVM) requiring more than 2 MB of memory. An example of such a device is a Net TV box.
The profile defines the application; specifically, it adds domain-specific classes to the J2ME configuration to define certain uses for devices. Profiles are built on top of configurations. Two profiles are KJava and Mobile Information Device Profile (MIDP). These profiles are equipped towards smaller devices. A skeleton profile on which we create our own profile, the Foundation Profile, is available for CDC.
The back end is designed using MySQL . MySQL is an open source, Relational Database Management System. It has important features like reliablity ,flexibility and speed. MySQL was developed to manage large volumes of data at very high speed .It provides high performance and is multi threaded and a multi user Relational Database management system.. It is free and is available on almost all the platforms. The MySQL can run on Unix , window, andÂ MacÂ OS. It has a MySQL command line tool which is powerful and can be used to run SQL queries against database. This database is used for internet applications as it provides good speed and security. It can also be usedÂ for a variety of applications but it is mostly used for the web applications on the internet. In our work, we store the RFID tags with their respective temperature and humidity values got from the RFID system in the MySql database. These values are retrieved from the database and given to the server.
7.1 RFID System and Data Gathering:
The RFID system, using the wireless sensor networks collects the temperature changes and assigns a RFID tag to each datum. This gathered information is sent to the data base and is stored. When the user makes a request, this data in the RFID tag is sent.
. The application is developed using J2ME. The executable jar file is stored in the mobile. The application can now be used by the client. Once the client becomes an authenticated user of the application, he is given an user name and password which is his entry point to the agro system. The client gets frequent updates of temperature, humidity from the server. Based on the update, the remote client takes necessary actions required.
The server used is Glassfish server. The server connects to the MySql database using the jdbc connection and fetches the user details as well as updated information.
8.1 Research Work on Medicinal Plants
When a scientist wants to experiment the effect of a particular plant for medicinal use, the study of different temperatures and humidity on the plant helps to develop a better solution for the disease.
8.2 Study the Growth of Crops
Farmers need to know the different climatic conditions under which the growth of crop varies.
9. Conclusion and Futurework
We thus proposed an agro system based on Internet Of Things and sensor networks. The usage of IOT makes the application different from the traditional web applications. The system helps the farmers and research scientists to periodically monitor their fields from a remote location using smart phones. The RFID system proves to be the main component through which the thing's information is shared. However, only temperature and humidity is taken into consideration. In future other conditions that define growth of a plant can be considered. Moreover, fault tolerance can be implemented in this system. The request sent to the server can be timed. Within a timeout, if the client does not get the response, it retransmits the request. This helps to recover lost requests and responses.