This report is about to design a rear wings for race car and do analysis on it and the analysis is based on stress, displacement and factor of safety. For the design of the rear wings solidworks software is used. Then the rear wings should be analysed by the tool solidworks simulation and solidworks flow simulation. By the completion of this report an engineers are able to design, model and analyse a component using finite element analysis of rear wings of single seater formula Renault car. The company will be looking for the rear wing design, angle of attack, dimension of the rear wing and support and the material for it.
Software used for design (Solidworks 2010)
Solidworks 2010 version is going to be used for the design of the rear car wings. Ruiz (2010) demonstrates that solidworks 2010 is the one of the accepted 3D mechanical CAD software in the market. It has ability to create parametric 3D solid geometry which can be used in different industry. It was introduced in 1993 by the Solidworks Corporation as a competitor to the other 3D CAD software like AutoCAD and Pro/ENIGEER. Solidworks focused on helping to make better and faster design. 3D CAD helps design to be more productive and PDM software helps in avoiding costly errors and simulation software helps in prototyping process.
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Rear wings are usually made of carbon fiber and used in race car to create downforce. Air flows onto the rear wing with a speed of the car in straight direction and as following the Newton's Law every action has a reaction, by which the aerofoil is pushed towards the ground by the air. And the force which is created by the wings so the car is pushed onto the ground is known as downforce. (http://www.f1technical.net/articles/9)
The efficiency of the rear wing is depending on some parameter which is as follows
Aspect ratio: The amount of the downforce generated by the rear wing is calculated by the size of wing. If the rear wing size will increase the downforce will be increase as well. The ratio of length and width of wing is known as Aspect ratio and higher the Aspect ratio efficient of the wing will more.
Angle of attack: The amount of the downforce generated is depending on the angle of attach as well. The greater the angle of attack the more downforce will generate.
Drag: when the downforce increase at the same time some unwanted drag increase by the angle of attack. Actually the downforce generated by the wing works in a vertical downward direction however the drag works in opposite direction.
Design of rear wing through Solidworks
The car rear wing is designed in solidworks 2010 SP 3.0 and assembled. There is some specification given by the author to be designed and calculate. The dimension of wing is taken from the race car in workshop of the university and the height of the wing from ground, the thickness and height of support and material should be taken by own. To get the accuracy, the design of wing should be created by the NACA profile software. By the help of NACA profile software the user can design the wing based on chord length as shown in figure.
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Figure 1 NACA profile cord length
And the user can export the design directly to the solidworks as shown in figure.
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Figure 2 wing profile sending to solidworks
As the design of the wing come on the solidworks by the help of move entities tool need to be fixed with the required angle and position. As the requirement of the author there should be two wings, the base wing need to be at 30 degree angle of attack and the second wing need to be at 50 degree angle of attack. So by the help of copy entities tool need to make another copy of wing and put them at the required angle by rotate entities as shown in figure.
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Figure 2 wing designs in solidwork
After designing the rear wing in sketch, there are some tools in solidworks like boss-extrude and selecting the plane from reference geometry and the mirror tool by the help of them design of rear wing will complete as shown in figure.
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Figure 3 Design of rear wing
The dimension of the wings and the support of the wings are shown in figure.
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Figure 4 Rear wing and support dimension
Now the rear wing and the support need to be assembled. By the help of (assembly part) insert the both the component and then apply the required mates to the component. The mates which is used is shown in figure.
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Figure 5 Showing assemblies of wings and support
Flow simulation is the fluid flow simulation and thermal analysis system which is totally fixed in solidworks. It takes the difficulty out of computational fluid dynamics. The user can easily simulates flow of fluid, transfer of heat and the force applied by the fluid on any particular design. It save time and cost for different design by eliminating the error in CFD (computational fluid dynamics). It helps the engineer to have a brief information about the design before the production.
Solidworks Flow simulation
To add the solidwork simulation and flow simulation in the solidworks, there is an Add-ins tool which is shown in figure.
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Figure 6 showing Add Ins tool
By clicking the Add-ins option the user is able to add the flow simulation and the solidwork simulation. After getting the flow simulation in solidworks the next step is to create new study by clicking the wizard as shown in figure.
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Figure 7 Wizard Unit
In this step user can defined the unit of design which is SI unit.
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Figure 8 Wizard Analysis
In this step the flow of air is chosen as the external and close cavities consider as both exclude cavities without flow and exclude internal space and the flow is chosen as air simulation.
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Figure 9 Initial conditions (speed of air)
In this step user is able to use the air flow parameters and direction. The speed of the car is 80 Mph, so it is 35.7 m/s. The velocity is -35.7 m/s in the direction of x axis the face of the rear wing. However the negative sign stands for the direction of the air towards the front face of rear wing. And in the next step and in last the mesh should be taken as 5 standard and click finish.
After finishing the wizard tool, the user need to identify the dimension computational Domain where the air will flow as shown in figure. (Input data)
The user needs to apply goal for the direction of force and pressure for design which is shown in figure.
The last step of flow simulation is to click on the run tools to run the flow simulation analysis which is shown in figure.
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Figure 13 The arrow showing the air impacting on the rear wing
Flow simulation of the different phase for the rear wing
Solidworks simulations utilize a different number of mechanization tools to simply the analysis process which help to work more efficiently. It meshes both the parts and assembles them. The user can apply the fixed and directional restraints. In the result user will get the analysis of safety factor, displacement and stress.
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The user needs to choose the material for the wing and the support for the wing. As for the selection of material CES software is used and as the requirement of company the material of wing should be composite and for support is aluminium. The material selected for wing is BMI/HS carbon fiber which properties are shown in figure.
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Figure 14 The material properties for wing
The material selected for the support of the wing is aluminium alloy 6063-T6.
After selecting the material for the both the component user need to fix the support by the help of fixed geometry tool and in last run the simulation. In the result the user will get the whole analysis which is shown in pictures.
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The blue colour shows the minimum displacement which is 1.000e-30 which is nearly 0.
The red colour shows the maximum displacement which is 1.36748 mm which is occurred on the rear wing
Figure 15 Displacement Study
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Figure 16 Factor of safety study
Dimarogonas (2000) states the factor of safety is the ratio of a certain limiting stress of material and the number greater than unity.
Factor of safety =
Factor of safety of rear wing is 24.73.
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The maximum stress (8.5314e+06 N/m^2) is located on the corner of the wing where it facing a lot of stress as shown in figure Figure 17 Stress analysis study
After performing all the design and analysis it seems like the design is suitable for the car rear wing and it's accomplish the entire requirement and the condition. By completing this report it is clear that solidworks software is very helpful in design field and it is necessary to analysis the design before sending to the production. Softwares keeps the stress analysis result while the car is in motion by the result the engineer can make the necessary changes to make it for effective and economical.