Designing A Server Infrastructure Computer Science Essay

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In this assignment a report had to be produced to describe what requirements are needed for a server infrastructure and justifying the choices made. And the dependencies which are needed for DHCP to work in a Windows 2008 environment.

A client has requested an upgrade from their Windows 2003 domain consisting of a single server which acts as a domain controller and file server. The client's business is expecting a 100% growth over the next 2 to 3 years.

Centralised Administration

This means that all the resources are controlled from one place, the Server, this makes it easier and time saving for the administrator to manage the server resources like back-up's, deployment, create and delete client accounts, to assign rights to clients who request services. To go through a centralised system, it makes for a more secure environment because the administrator is central and in one place on a client machine, so hence it is easier to protect one site on the network that needs protecting (Raaga, n.d.).

DHCP

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol server provides IP addresses automatically. Every device on a network needs an IP address to access the network to use the resources of servers and other devices. Within a large network giving IP addresses to every device would take valuable time to individually do, but with DHCP this is done automatically and can be managed centrally, can also be assigned to give a range of IP addresses, this is very useful when adding or taking away a device or for redundancy in a large network because there is no need to administratively change any configurations it is all done automatically. But DHCP can also reserve IP addresses for the likes of printers or any device that may need a static address (microsoft technet, 2013).

DNS

Domain Name System server changes domain names to IP addresses over a network and also reverses the same. The DNS server translates the domain name (words), easier for humans to remember words, to a numeric value because devices on a network communicate by numbers DNS is important for AD (Active Directories) (Appendix 3) because it allows for it to centrally manage and share information on a network (microsoft technet, 2013).

Note: For redundancy purposes at least two servers should be implemented with DNS, DCHP in the likely event of failure, also, the load can be distributed between the servers and can act as a domain Controller for the network.

File and Print

A network server can provide a file service, this can centralise file storage that allows clients to share files among domains or groups and lets users access their files from any workstation. It can also provide a single point of back-up of files if the need arises. The same server can also hold a print service which is commonly done to avoid administrative overheads. The software on the server makes a physical printer visible to the network and print jobs from client computers. With this, printing resources can be shared over the network and clients on varied platforms can send print jobs to printers across the internet, intranet or network printers connected to a network using a Network Interface Card on a PC (microsoft technet, 2013).

Note: DFS (see Appendix 1) could also be implemented for easier access to data on a network.

Email

Email can provide one means of communication over a network, either over a LAN, WAN or the Internet. This is done via a mail server (e-mail server) which handles and delivers emails from client computers and sends them to other mail servers within a network, to other client computers. The client computer is usually where you read your email from i.e. a works PC, Home PC, Mobile phones etc.

There are two main protocols associated with emails

POP3 (Post Office Protocol version 3)

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)

When you create an email and send it (upload) within an e-mail program (e.g. outlook) the program will connect to a mail server on the network/internet called a SMTP server which will deliver emails to other servers within a network. When emails are downloaded to an email program (e.g. outlook) the program will connect to a server called a POP3 this protocol collects the stored emails from the server and places the emails in the clients email program (Larramo, n.d.).

Web for Intranet only

This is a private network that is only contained within an business and its employees, this can be done through a dedicated web server which could be connected to other servers for redundancy and to improve bandwidth if more employees join the company. The main purpose of an intranet within a company is to share information, computing resourcing among employees and to allow users within an intranet to access the internet through firewall servers that filter messages in both directions so that the business intranet and information is protected. When part of the intranet is made accessible to its customers or anyone outside of the company this becomes part of the extranet (See Appendix 2) it should be noted that the intranet uses internet protocols and looks like a private internet (rouse, 2006).

When providing any of these services they can be stored on dedicated servers or split resourcing between servers. It is always important to provide redundancy and back-up within a network for the likely event of failure.

Dependencies (services) for DHCP in Windows Server 2008

For DCHP to work properly it needs dependencies i.e. a dependencies means that a component dependents on another component to work properly.

RPC (Remote Procedure Call) is a (protocol) that a program can use to ask for a service from a program in another computer on a network without having to know all the details of that network. RPC uses the client, server model setup, the asking program is the client and the service providing program is the server (Rouse, 2009).

SAM (Security Accounts Manager) is a database on the OS (windows) that contains user names and passwords. Each user account can be given a LAN and Windows password both are encrypted and when a user logs on to the system, the user name and password match the entry on the SAM and then allows the user to access the system. If no match is found then no entry is allowed (rouse, 2007).

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) this is needed to get data from one network device to another without this, information cannot traverse a network. It is the standard that the internet and networks abide by (rouse, 2008).

COM EVENTS SYSTEMS these are files that store events about your computer, when a user logs on or when a program crashes, the OS records the event in the event log so that a user may read the error in an event viewer, the details may be helpful in troubleshooting a problem with a program or the OS itself (microsoft, 2013).

Bibliography

Larramo, M., n.d. what is a mail server. [Online] Available at: http://www.samlogic.net/articles/mail-server.htm [Accessed March 2013].

microsoft technet, 2013. file and print services. [Online] Available at: http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc750353.aspx#XSLTsection126121120120 [Accessed March 2013].

microsoft technet, 2013. what is dhcp. [Online] Available at: http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd145320(v=ws.10).aspx [Accessed March 2013].

microsoft technet, 2013. windows server. [Online] Available at: http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc787921(v=ws.10).aspx [Accessed March 2013].

microsoft, algin technology, 2013. AD/Gobal categories. [Online] Available at: http://utools.com/help/WhatIsAd.asp:// http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc728188(v=WS.10).aspx [Accessed March 2013].

microsoft,technet, 2013. distributed file system. [Online] Available at: http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc753479(v=ws.10).aspx [Accessed March 2013].

microsoft, 2013. event viewer. [Online] Available at: http://windows.microsoft.com/en-us/windows-vista/what-information-appears-in-event-logs-event-viewer [Accessed March 2013].

Raaga, n.d. pro and cons of centralised network systems. [Online] Available at: http://computer-networks.blurtit.com/q460432.html [Accessed March 2013].

rouse, m., 2006. intranet. [Online] Available at: http://searchwindevelopment.techtarget.com/definition/intranet [Accessed March 2013].

rouse, m., 2007. extranet. [Online] Available at: http://searchenterprisewan.techtarget.com/definition/extranet [Accessed March 2013].

rouse, m., 2007. sam. [Online] Available at: http://searchenterprisedesktop.techtarget.com/definition/Security-Accounts-Manager [Accessed March 2013].

rouse, m., 2008. tcp/ip. [Online] Available at: http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/TCP-IP [Accessed March 2013].

Rouse, M., 2009. rpc. [Online] Available at: http://searchsoa.techtarget.com/definition/Remote-Procedure-Call [Accessed March 2013].

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