Design Animation Advanced Techniques Computer Science Essay

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Storyboards are graphic organizers such as a sequence of images or illustrations displayed in sequence for the reason of pre-visualizing a motion picture, animation, motion graphic or interactive media sequence, as well as website interactivity.

The storyboarding progression can be very boring and complicated. The form generally known today was developed at the Walt Disney studio during the early 1930s. In the memoirs of her father, The Story of Walt Disney (Henry Holt, 1956), Diane Disney Miller explains that the first complete storyboards were created for the 1933 Disney short Three Little Pigs. According to John Canemaker, in Paper Dreams: The Art and Artists of Disney Storyboards (1999, Hyperion Press), the primary storyboards at Disney evolved from comic-book like "story sketches" created in the 1920s to illustrate concepts for animated cartoon short subjects such as Plane Crazy and Steamboat Willie.

A film storyboard is mainly a big comic of the film or some section of the film produced earlier to help film directors, cinematographers and television commercial advertising clients envisage the scenes and find prospective problems before they take place. Frequently storyboards include arrows or instructions that indicate movement.

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In creating a motion picture with any degree of loyalty to a script, a storyboard provides a visual layout of events as they are to be seen through the camera lens. And in the case of interactive media, it is the outline and sequence in which the user or viewer sees the content or information. In the storyboarding procedure, most technical details involved in crafting a film or interactive media project can be efficiently described either in picture, or in additional text.

A few live-action film directors, such as Joel and Ethan Coen, used storyboard lengthily before taking the pitch to their funders, stating that it helps them get the outline they are looking for since they can show exactly where the money will be used. Alfred Hitchcock's films were strongly believed to have been widely storyboarded to the finest detail by the majority of commentators over the years, although recent research indicates that this was exaggerated for publicity purposes. Other director’s storyboard only convinced scenes or none at all. Animation directors are frequently required to storyboard extensively, sometimes in place of writing a script.

Theater

A widespread misconception is that storyboards are not used in theater. They are commonly special tools that directors and playwrights use to understand the layout of the scene. The immense Russian theatre practitioner Constantin Stanislavski developed storyboards in his detailed production plans for his Moscow Art Theatre performances (such as of Chekhov's The Seagull in 1898). The German director and dramatist Bertolt Brecht urbanized detailed storyboards as part of his dramaturgical method of "fabels."

Animatics

In animation and special effects work, the storyboarding part might be followed by cut down mock-ups called "animatics" to give a better idea of how the scene will look and feel with motion and timing. At its simplest, an animatic is a sequence of still images edited jointly and displayed in sequence. More often, an uneven dialogue and/or rough sound track are added to the sequence of still images (generally taken from a storyboard) to test whether the sound and images are working efficiently together.

This gives the directors and animators to work out several screenplays, camera positioning, shot list and timing issues that could exist with the current storyboard. The storyboard and soundtrack are amended if necessary, and a new animatic might be formed and overlooked with the director until the storyboard is perfected. Editing the film at the animatic stage can evade animation of scenes that would be edited out of the film. Animation is typically an expensive process, so there should be a minimum of "deleted scenes" if the film is to be completed within budget.

Often storyboards are animated with easy zooms and pans to simulate camera movement (using non-linear editing software). These animations can be united with available animatics, sound effects and dialog to create a presentation of how a film could be shot and cut together. Few feature film DVD special features include production animatics.

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Animatics are also used by advertising agencies to create reasonably priced test commercials. A disparity, the "rip-o-matic", is made from scenes of existing movies, television programs or commercials, to simulate the look and feel of the proposed commercial. Rip, in this sense, refers to ripping-off an innovative work to create a new one.

Generally, a voice-over, soundtrack and sound effects are supplemented to the piece to create a presentation to show how a film could be shot and cut together. Even more used by advertisers and advertising agencies to do research the efficiency of their proposed storyboard before committing to a 'full up' television advertisement.

The photomatic is generally a research tool, related to an animatic, in that it represents the work to a test audience so that the commissioners of the work can measure its efficiency.

Initially, photographs were taken using colour negative film. A selection could be made from contact sheets and prints made. The prints would be placed on a podium and recorded to videotape using a standard video camera. Any moves, pans or zooms should have to be made in camera. The captured scenes should then be edited.

Digital photography, web access to stock photography and Non-linear editing programs has had a marked impact on this way of film making also leading to the tenure 'digimatic'. Images can be shot and edited especially fast to allow important creative decisions to be made 'live'. Photo composite animations can build complicated scenes that would normally be beyond many test film budgets.

The phrase 'photomatic' is probably derived from 'animatic' or photo-animation.

3.1.2.2 Comic Books

Few writers have used storyboard type drawings (albeit rather sketchy) for their scripting of comic books, frequently on behalf of staging of figures, backgrounds and balloon placement with instructions to the artist as desired often scribbled in the margins and the dialogue/captions indicated. John Stanley and Carl Barks (while he was writing stories for the Junior Woodchuck title) are known to have used this style of scripting.

3.1.2.3 Business

Storyboards were tailored from the film industry to business, purportedly by Howard Hughes of Hughes Aircraft. Today they are used by industry for planning ad campaigns, commercials, a suggestion or other projects intended to convince or compel to action.

A quality storyboard is an method to help out the introduction of a quality improvement process into an organisation.

Design comic strips are a kind of storyboard used to comprise a customer or other characters into a narrative. Design comics are most often used in designing web sites or illustrating product usage scenarios during design.

3.1.2.4 Interactive media

More recently the idiom storyboard has been used in the fields of web development, software development and instructional design to present and describe, in written, interactive actions as well as audio and motion, particularly on user interfaces and electronic pages.

3.1.3 Benefits

One benefit of using storyboards is that it permits (in film and business) the user to experiment with changes in the storyline to suggest stronger effect or interest. Flashbacks, for instance, are often the result of sorting storyboards out of chronological order to help build suspense and interest.

The course of visual thinking and planning allows a group of people to brainstorm together, placing their ideas on storyboards and then arranging the storyboards on the wall. This fosters more ideas and generates agreement inside the group.

3.1.4 Creation

Storyboards for films are fashioned in a multiple step process. -- They can be created by hand sketching or digitally on the computer.

If sketched by hand, the first step is to create or download a storyboard template. These look a lot like a blank comic strip, with space for comments and dialogue. Then draw a "thumbnail" storyboard. Few directors sketch thumbnails directly in the script margins. These storyboards get their name since they are rough sketches not bigger than a thumbnail. For a few motion pictures, thumbnail storyboards are sufficient.

Even though, several filmmakers rely deeply on the storyboarding process. If a director or producer needs, more detailed and elaborate storyboard images are created. These can be fashioned by qualified storyboard artists by hand on paper or digitally by using 2D storyboarding programs. Numerous software applications even provide a stable of storyboard-specific images making it doable to quickly create shots which express the director's intent for the story. These boards lean to contain more detailed information than thumbnail storyboards and convey more of the mood for the scene. These are then provided to the project's cinematographer who achieves the director's vision.

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At last, if desired, 3D storyboards are created (know as 'technical previsualization'). The advantage of 3D storyboards is they show precisely what the film camera will see using the lenses the film camera will use. The flaw of 3D is the quantity of time it takes to build and construct the shots. 3D storyboards can be created using 3D animation programs or digital puppets within 3D programs. Several programs have a collection of low resolution 3D figures which can aid in the process. Some 3D applications permit cinematographers to create "technical" storyboards which are optically-correct shots and frames.

Whereas technical storyboards can be helpful, optically-correct storyboards may limit the director's creativity. In classic motion pictures such as Orson Welles' Citizen Kane and Alfred Hitchcock's North by Northwest, the director created storyboards that were initially thought by cinematographers as to be impossible to film. Such inventive and dramatic shots had "impossible" depth of field and angles where there was "no room for the camera" - at least not until creative solutions were found to achieve the ground-breaking shots that the director had envisioned. It is significant that the director not be limited to what is just "possible" or "normal" to the cinematographer. Technical 3D programs can occasionally help the cinematographer plan what challenges the director has created for them to achieve complex storytelling shots.

SELF CHECK 3.1

Define the usage of Storyboarding and animatics?

b) Explain how the Photomatic animation is used?

3.2 Kinestasis and collage

Kinestasis (Kin-e-sta'-sis)

An animation method using a series of still photographs or artwork to create the illusion of motion.

Kinestasis is a film making technique lying somewhere in the twilight zone between animation and live-action filmmaking. The technique uses the single frame operation of a camera to show still photographs, magazine cut outs, slides, and sometimes even movie clips. The intent is not so much to animate the individual pictures, but to present many pictures within a short space of time.

Collage

An animation collage is a absolute reassembly of the original animation in a new abstract visual style that imitates the spatio-temporal shape and deformation of the input.

Image 3

http://animatedtv.about.com/od/showsaz/ss/animation101_3.htm

Easy animation used on TV is generally a combination of cutout and collage techniques. Cutout animation uses, precisely, models or puppets that have been cut from drawing paper or craft paper, perhaps drawn or painted on. The pieces are then arranged freely, or connected by fasteners and then arranged. Every pose or move is captured, then the model repositioned, and shot again.

Collage animation uses essentially the same process, except the pieces that are animated are cut from photos, magazines, books or clipart. Using collage can carry a variety of textures to the same frame.

Image 3 uses cutout and collage animation. The characters are cutout, and infrequently collage animation is used, such as when creators Matt Stone and Trey Parker use photos of Mel Gibson or Saddam Hussein to animate characters.

Creating animations with collage figures is a quick and effective way to create hilarious short films. Because you are animating a collage, you do not have to draw every frame by hand. As an alternative you can create what amounts to a two-dimensional puppet that can be easily manipulated by hand to create all the sequences of animation. A immense idea is to take an old picture or painting that is easily recognizable and make a collage out of that. People will be astonished to see a familiar piece of art talking back to them with your animation.

3.3 Motion graphics

Motion graphics (Figure 3) are graphics that use video and/or animation technology to create the illusion of motion or a transforming appearance. These motion graphics are typically combined with audio for use in multimedia projects. Motion graphics are generally displayed via electronic media technology, but may be displayed via manual powered technology (e.g thaumatrope, phenakistoscope, stroboscope, zoetrope, praxinoscope, flip book) as well. The term is valuable for distinguishing still graphics from graphics with a transforming appearance over time without over-specifying the form.

Figure 3: Motion graphics

Source: http://www.bradley.tv/pics/motion_graphics.jpg

3.3.1 Motion graphics versus film

Motion Graphics comprise animations, movies, etc. The phrase "motion graphics" has the potential for less ambiguity than the use of the term "film" to describe moving pictures in the 21st century. Film is also used to exemplify photographic film, the progression of recording footage, and the industry it mainly serves. Though, digital video recording and digital projection to display motion graphics have the potential to make photographic film obsolete. The phrase "capture" is often used instead of "film" as a verb to describe the process of recording footage, perhaps due to the term's compatibility with digital video and motion capture technology. The motion picture industry is the official term for what used to be recognized as the "film industry".

3.3.2 Scope of the term

Motion graphics enlarge beyond the most commonly used methods of frame-by-frame footage and animation. Computers are competent of calculating and randomizing changes in imagery to create the illusion of motion and transformation. Computer animations can use a smaller amount information space (computer memory) by automatically tweening, a process of rendering the changes of an image at a specified or calculated time. Adobe Flash uses computer animation tweening as well as frame-by-frame video and animation.

3.3.3 Computer generated motion graphics

The phrase motion graphics originated with video editing in computing, perhaps to keep pace with newer technology. Before computers were broadly available, motion graphics were expensive and time consuming, limiting their use to only high budget film and TV projects. With the condensed cost of producing motion graphics on a computer, the discipline has seen more widespread use. With the accessibility of desktop programs such as Discreet Combustion, Adobe After Effects, and Apple Motion, motion graphics have become increasingly accessible.

The phrase Motion Graphics was popularized by Trish and Chris Meyer's book about the use of Adobe after Effects, titled "Creating Motion Graphics". This was the beginning of desktop applications which specific in video production, but was not editing or 3D programs. These new programs composed equally special effects, compositing, and color correction toolsets, and primarily came between edit and 3D in the production process. This in-between concept of motion graphics and the resulting style of animation is why sometimes it is referred to as 2.5D.

Motion graphics persist to develop as an art form with the incorporation of sweeping camera paths and 3D elements. Maxon's CINEMA 4D is recognized for its ease of use, plugins such as MoGraph and integration with Adobe After Effects. Despite their relative complexity, Autodesk's Maya and 3D Studio Max are also widely used for the animation and design of motion graphics. Maya â€" conventionally used for high-end special effects and character animation â€" has the advantage of including an extremely robust feature set and wide-ranging user base. 3D Studio Max has many of the advanced features of Maya and uses a node-based particle system generator similar to Cinema 4D's Thinking Particles plugin. There are also some other packages in Open Source panorama, which are ahead more features and adepts in order to use in a motion graphics workflow. Blender and its node-editor are becoming more and more influential.

Numerous motion graphics animators study numerous 3D graphics packages for use according to each programs' strengths. Even though numerous trends in motion graphics tend to be based on precise software's capabilities, the software is only a tool the designer uses while bringing the vision to life.

Lending greatly from techniques such as the Pastiche or the Collage, motion graphics has begun to incorporate numerous traditional animation techniques as well, including stop-motion animation, cell animation or a combination of both.

Technology

The altitude of this art form is largely due to technology improvements. Computer programs for the video and film industry have become greatly more powerful and more available. Most likely the leading program used by motion graphic designers is Adobe After Effects, which allows them to create and modify graphics over time. Adobe After Effects is occasionally referred to as "Photoshop for film." A relatively recent product in the market is Apple Inc. Motion, now a part of last Cut Studio. Motion is an cheap and user-friendly program that promises to hugely enlarge the ranks of motion graphic designers. Adobe Flash is extensively used to create motion design for the web.

A distinctive motion designer is a person trained in traditional graphic design who has learned to integrate the elements of time, sound and space into his/her existing skill-set of design knowledge. Motion designers can also come from cinematography or animation backgrounds.

Motion graphics Tutorials:

1. How to draw EYELASHES (Slow motion)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iJIo2D_yjUk

2. How to draw REALISTIC MOUTH

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C5p1B2Z9hKQ&feature=SeriesPlayList&p=2010F0BDC411BDC9

3. How to draw REALISTIC EAR

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oUZN57Jcbpw&feature=SeriesPlayList&p=2010F0BDC411BDC9

4. How to draw REALISTIC HAIR

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2ZwNXaL3cmk&feature=SeriesPlayList&p=2010F0BDC411BDC9

3.3.4 Tools used for motion graphics:

Motion Design applications include:

Adobe After Effects

Jahshaka

Autodesk Combustion

Apple Motion/Shake

Max/MSP

Apple Quartz Composer

Various VJ Programs

Smith Micro Software Anime Studio

Adobe Flash

3D Programs used in Motion Graphics include:

Maxon Cinema 4D

Softimage XSI

Autodesk 3d studio max

Autodesk Maya

NewTek Lightwave

e-on Vue Infinite

The Blender Foundation Blender software

EI Technology Group Electric Image Animation System

SELF CHECK 3.3

Explain the various usages of Motion graphics in animation?

List the various tools and their features used for motion graphics?

3.4 Sand and paint-on-glass animation

Paint-on-glass, sand-on-glass, drawing using pastels or charcoal and other direct under-the-camera techniques can be slackly described as 'experimental' or 'alternative' animation. These techniques are almost nearly always undertaken by an individual artist / animator rather than by a production studio using factory-like processes.

Paint-on-glass animation is a method for making animated films by manipulating various sort of wet media. Oil paint is most frequently used because it dries extremely slowly, enabling the animator to keep working with the medium across some days. Oil paint can be watery with linseed oil and mineral turpentine is used to clean up various sections of the glass. Water based paints like Gouache are occasionally mixed with glycerine to slow down the speed at which it dries. It is also probable to animate in a similar fashion using dry mediums such as sand, brick dust, whiteboard markers and other art materials like charcoal and pastels.

These techniques communicate a unique quality and richness to animation that comes not only through the distinctive graphic look that the characteristic of medium itself imparts to the image, but also from the individual personal approach of the animator and the way she or he is obliged to make things move. These techniques very frequently leave behind a history of the gestures and marks progressively made when the animator manipulates the medium. They are not a series of 'clean' images of the type produced by other animation techniques, but contain a record of their making, which is part of the great charm of this method.

As the middle is pushed around directly under the camera and recorded frame-by frame, each image seems to combine from the previous one and melt into the next resulting in movement that can be very fluid and organic - a repeated process of metamorphosis. Characters may move from place from place not by walking, but by being encrusted away to re-form out of the background at the required location.

Artwork is incessantly destroyed as new artwork is created. There is no leaving back. Without the aptitude to rehearse and refine the animation as in the key pose drawing on paper method, or the ability to set and edit keys within a computer program, the animator must plough on regardless incorporating any errors into the sequence. With a brave heart, this limitation can lead to spontaneity and work that is very fresh and distinctive as it celebrates the method of its making.

Tutorials:

1. Animal Planet Sand Art

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jvFBcUb9mZ0

2. Sand Animation

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WpIgCzgKjwY&feature=related

3. Sand Painting

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k43xQ7VfmTQ&feature=related

SELF CHECK 3.4

a) Define how Sand and paint-on-glass animation is used?

3.5 Summary

This is the third module for the Principles and Design of Animation course. This module explains the graphic organizer that is a series of illustrations or images displayed in sequence which is called as story boarding.

In this chapter you have learnt aspects of animation and special effects work named animatics. Additionally you have learnt about photomatic a series of still photographs edited together and presented on screen in a sequence.

In addition, this chapter also explains Motion graphics, a way to create the illusion of motion or a transforming appearance with the help of graphics.

Finally this chapter also illustrates the concept of 'experimental' or 'alternative' animation. This technique is usually undertaken by an individual artist / animator.

KEYTERMS

Animatics

Photomatic

Motion graphics

Storyboarding and animatics