Design An Intelligent Mouse Computer Science Essay

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Intention of the project is to introduce an intelligent mouse for presentation. When a person is doing a presentation, he/she has to stay near the computer table. If the person wants to do a successful presentation he should move and must get the eye contact with audience.

But when a normal computer or a laptop is used, it's an agony to move around the computer table. As a solution for this matter, nowadays a wireless mouse can be used. It looks like a remote controller and also a button should be pressed if the cursor of the mouse is required to be moved. When the presentation is being done, it is difficult to hold the cursor for a moment. This is the reason for designing the intelligent mouse for presentations. The use of this helps it users to move the cursor according to the hand movement wirelessly.

1.4 Objectives.

1. To design an intelligent mouse for the presentation at a low cost.

2. To minimize the stress.

3. To save the time.

4. To increase the liking to do the presentations.

5. To minimize the errors which can occur when manipulating the cursor.

6. To attract the audience.

1.5 Expected features of the system.

1. Range up to 50 meters.

2. Interface with Ps\2 connector.

3. Mouse cursor can be moved without pressing button.

4. User friendly and small.

5. Easy to control.

6. Not necessary to hold the mouse.

1.6Advantage.

Range up to 100 meters

Comfortable to do presentations.

Working voltage: 5V

Not necessary any laser point.

1.7 Disadvantages.

Not support for USB.

For mouse activate, have to press the button.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATUREREVIEW.

2.1 Literature Survey of Techniques.

There are products that implement wireless mouse, but no patents, copyrights, or trademarks to prevent from producing our own version.

X-Pointer 210(Full Mouse Control / Laser Pointer and 64 Meg USB Flash Drive) ((Fig .2.1.1)  

Source:

Figure: 2.1-X-pointer 210.

X-pointer RF wireless presenters were first introduced to the Korean market back in 2001. They quickly gained a reputation for quality and reliability. Even with cheap imitations and low cost name brands made in China, X-pointer has dominated the domestic market ever since. X-pointer only makes presenters and all products are designed and manufactured in Korea to the highest standards. X-pointers are now available in the US with a range of products to meet all needs of presentation. By using Radio (RF) instead of Infra-red (IR) communication, X-Pointer offers greater range, reliability and freedom of movement.

Product Description.

X-Pointer 210 consists of a Transmitter and a Receiver.

The Transmitter has 6 input buttons, 1 switch and 1 laser button.

The Receiver consists of USB Plug, LED and 64 Megabytes of Flash Memory.

2.1.1.2 Feature.

X-Pointer 210 functions as a laser pointer and a PC remote control. It enables to make presentations without any assistance.

X-Pointer 210 can control multimedia programs such as Win Amp, Windows Media player as well as MS PowerPoint.

X-Pointer 210 minimizes directional and installation problems of the existing infrared devices, by applying RF to the data transmission.

X-Pointer 210 can control multimedia programs such as Win Amp, Windows Media player as well as MS PowerPoint.

X-Pointer 210 minimizes directional and installation problems of the existing infrared devices, by applying RF to the data transmission.

Maximum detecting area is 15M (50ft.) so can move freely during presentations.

2.1.2 USB Wireless presenter/presentation with LCD time display and multimedia mouse.

Figure: 2.2-USB Wireless mouse.

2.1.2.1 Product Description.

1. Laser pointer.

2. Wireless smart Presenter (Remote control Page up/down).

3. Wireless mouse.

4. PowerPoint display.

5. Wireless presenter (remote control blank screen)

6. Clock.

7. Self-definite timing alarm.

8. Fixed timing alarm.

9. Second counter.

10. Built-in flash memory (optional).

2.1.2.2 Feature.

1. USB plug-and-play, no driver required.

2. System: WINDOWS98/2000/ME/XP Linux & Mac OS.

3. Technology: Radio Frequency.

4. Control distance: up to 20m.

5. Working voltage: 3V.

6. Sleep current: 1uA.

7. Wavelength: 650nm.

8. Max output: < 1mW or < 5Mw.

2.1.3 LTD 27-008 Wireless Presenter Mouse.

Source:

Figure: 2.3-LTD 27-008 Mouse.

LTD 27-008 Wireless Presenter Mouse has an eight directional cursor and lets control note book at a distance during presentation and can use the mouse as a laser pointer when needed. Another major feature of this mouse is its black screen function that can be used at convenience if required to get the attention for speech rather than the screen.

2.1.3.1 Product Description.

Eight directional cursor.

Black screen function.

Laser pointer.

Wireless mouse.

Wireless accelerometer based 3-D Game mouse.

Source: Figure: 2.4-3D game mouse.

This project is designed 3-axis accelerometer and CYWM6935 Wireless integrated module with AVR micro controller. Simple low cost, low power sensor inèrsyèl based on mouse and wireless capabilities will provide ease of use. It can be used is useful in 3-D gaming applications. It may well use the Recognition and jèst jiroskop additional and complete 6-degree of freedom there. Accelerometer-based 3-D mouse would help in many ways to the navigation screen, and small QFN package size can even be easily entered the mobile interface with Blue tooth.

Figure: 2.5-3D Mouse movement.

2.1.4.1 Feature.

Can control 3-axes, special for 3-D game playing.

Interface with Bluetooth.

Range of up to 50 meters.

Operating voltage from 2.7V to 3.6V.

CHAPTER 3

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION.

3.1 Explanation of the proposed method.

Shown below in figure 3.1.1 is the block diagram layout of the design.

The proposed system is divided into main two parts.

Wearable gloves module (Transmitting part).

Base station (Receiving part).

The wearable sensor will take the X and Y direction data produced by the accelerometer and make determinations on the speed, distance, and acceleration. The wearable component will send its interpreted data wirelessly to the base station.

Figure: 3.1-Block diagram of Wearable module.

3.1.1 Wearable Module (Transmitter Unit).

The wearable module consists of an accelerometer, microcontroller, Encoder IC and transmitter unit according to the block diagram illustrated in the figure: 3.1.1, when the hand is moved to X direction or Y direction. Acceleration is measured by the accelerometer according to X direction or Y direction. Then this acceleration value is converted into the digital value using PIC 16F877A Microcontroller. After that, this data is sent to the HT12E IC to assign the address and send to the RF module.

Figure: 3.2-movement of hand.

3.1.2 Base Station (Receiving Unit).

The base station is the output section of the project design. It consists of the RF receiver unit, microcontroller and PC for displaying the output data received from the wearable glove sensor.

Figure: 3.3-Block diagram of Base station.

3.2 Conceptual Design.

3.2.1 Accelerometer Sensor Unit.

The implementation of the intelligent mouse system is centered on the analog devices ADXL330 double axis accelerometer. Which is mercury or electrolytic sensor could have been used in place of the accelerometer to detect movement of our hand. Accelerometers a sensor or a transducer which converts the effects of mechanical motion into an electrical signal that is proportional to the acceleration value of the motion. The basic principle of accelerometer based positioning is double integration of accelerations to changes in position.

Figure: 3.4 ADXL 330 accelerometer.

The device that enables this is a tiny teeny IMEM [Micro Electro-Mechanical System] which can be measured anything between ±1g to ±20g. [Some of the high g accelerometers measure ±20g to ±250g]

What's a "g"?

A "g" is a unit of acceleration having a value of 9.8

Its equivalent to:

1g = 1*9.8 = 9.8 m/s2

2g = 2*9.8 = 19.6m/s2

"g" in reality :

The following describes the two most popularly used accelerometers.

Both of these accelerometers work on the same principle, but using different technologies.

3.2.2 The Principle of Analog Devices ADXL330.

The ADXL330 has a movable mass inside it which responds to vibrations, tilt or jerks.The sensor element is a differential capacitor whose output is proportional to acceleration. The beam is made up of many interdigitated fingers. Each set of fingers can be visualized as shown below:

Figure: 3.5-accelerometer.

The movement of the beam is controlled by the poly silicon springs holding the beam. These springs and the beam's mass obey the laws of physics.

The force (F) on a mass (m) subject to acceleration (a), according to Newton's Second Law, is

F = m a

The deflection (x) of a restraining spring according to Hooke's Law is proportional to the applied force:

F = k x

From the above two equations…

a(acceleration) is proportional to x(displacement)

It is helpful to compute the acceleration.

3.2.3 Output of an Accelerometer.

The ADXL provides two forms of data output.

PWM output.

Analogue output

3.2.4 Calibration of Accelerometer.

The calibration data is needed to convert the ADC readings into real-world values. The acceleration sensor should read applied force and return a calibrated value in g. The ADXL 330 has a full scale range of 3g. With a 3 V supply, the typical sensitivity is 330mV/g. The center or zero level of the ADXL330 is Vdd /2 or 1.5V.

However, IEEE 1451.2 specifies that all transducer data must be in terms of SI units. Recall from college physics that 1g is 9.81m/s2. So the acceleration sensor will be set to read 9.81m/s2. The amount of calibration data to take is application dependent. For the pedometer we used 2nd order polynomial, with data taken at each major accelerometer orientation. For estimating the calibrating values, the following equations can be used.

Table 3.1

Voltage Vs is 3 V, if the acceleration increase by 1 g, the output voltage will increase 330 mV (typical).

3.2.5 Distance Calculation.

The basic principle of accelerometer to determine the distance is double integrating the acceleration. To approximate a good parabolic equation's integral, Simpson's rule was used on every set of three samples, with the third sample of one data set being the first sample of the next data set.

3.2.6 Simpson's Rule.

Figure: 3.2.3 show the accelerometer output signal, by finding the area under the curve of the accelerometer data, the distance can be determined which user has travelled. In order to perform this calculation accurately, Simpson's Rule is used to improve our numerical approximation. Simpson's Rule states that;

 

Figure: 3.6 - Accelerometer output signal.

According to the figure:3.2.3 is the initial value of the axis acceleration, f((a+b)/2) is the middle value, and f(b) is the end value As a result, It is required to take 3 samples of the acceleration information in order to perform such integration. The time interval between each sample is 16ms, hence our numerical integration becomes:

Where f(x) is a signal such as

CHAPTER 4

FABRICATION OF HARDWARE.

4.1 Details about the components/ICs going to be use.

PIC 16F 877a SMD is planned to take as the main microcontroller for transmitter unit and receiver unit.

High-performance, Low-power PIC 8-bit Microcontroller.

Advanced RISC Architecture32 x 8 General Purpose Working Registers.

Fully Static Operation Up to 16 MIPS Throughput at 16 MHz

Nonvolatile Program and Data Memories 32K Bytes of In-System Self-Programmable Flash.

Byte-oriented Two-wire Serial Interface.

Programmable Serial USART.

Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface.

Low cost.

Figure: 4.1-PIC16F877A micro controller.

4.2 Transmitter Unit.

Relevant status information is transmitted wirelessly to a base station using a TLP-434A transmitter. The wearable module uses PIC16 F 877A microcontroller as the main interface component to the accelerometer.

4.2.1 Wireless Transmitter Module.

Figure: 4.2-RF transmitter Module.

Power-15mW.

Operating Current - 25mA.

Modulation- ASK (Amplitude Modulation).

Operating Temperature Range-10oC~+60oC.

Interface - 3PIN (pitch 2.54mm).

Input Signal Interface - TTL level.

Radiated Power - 15MW.

Special Point - small size, high power, long range (open to 100 meters).

Modulation Rate-3kHz and WorkswithHT12E Encoder.

Figure: 4.2.2pin diagram of RF module.

Table: 4.1

Receiver module oscillates randomly and adds the noise data, external interferences when there is no transmitter on. Therefore the data can't be directly transmitted or received using microcontroller. As a solution of above matter it is important to assigning address for transmitter and receiver data. HT 12E and HT 12D encoder and Decoder are provide the 8 bit address and 4 bit data for the Data transmission.

4.3 HT 12E encoder IC.

Figure: 4.3-Encorder IC.

Figure: 4.4-Frequency vs voltage diagram

4.3.1 Calculation for the Data transmission time.

Supply voltage =5v

Rocs =750K

According to graph Oscillation frequency= 3.9 KHz

There for Tosc=1\3.9KHz

= 256uS

Data Bit Time=3xTosc

= 768uS

An information word consists of 4 periods as illustrated below

Figure: 4.5

Pilot period=12x768us

Sync time =256us

Address code period=8x768uS

Data Code period=4x768uS

Total time for the information data word=19.3mS

Figure: 4.6-flow chart of Encoder.

Information data word transmits the four time .There for total time for one information data word.

=19.3x4

=77.2mS

4.4 Schematic for transmitter unit.

Figure: 4.7- Schematic for transmitter unit.

In the implementation of this project it has been selected carefully a microcontroller so that it could effectively support accelerometer currently available as well as any others that may be added in the future. Thus, first of all, a general low cost and high performance microcontroller must be selected. It was decided to use PIC16 F 877A micro controller. The chip is equipped with several features that have proven exceptionally useful for the purposes in this project.

It is essentially that the central processing unit and handles all computations or I/O capabilities necessary for the system. According to figure 14 accelerometer connect the microcontroller analog pin RA3, RA4.acceleomete get the analog voltage according to X or Y direction. After that Micro controller converts to the digital value using ADC. Above ADC value send to the HT12E IC. After that assign the address for the ADC value and transmit data using RF module.

4.5 Base Station (Receiving Unit).

The base station is the output section of the project design. It consists of the RF receiver unit, microcontroller and PC for displaying the output data received from the wearable glove sensor.

4.6 Receiver Unit.

The main function of the receiver unit is to detect the RF signal transmitted by the TLP-434A and give the response according to the received data from the receiver. Varies components of the receiver unit has its own function. RLP-434 receives the RF signal, PIC16 f 877A processes the input data and produces a corresponding response, PC considered as the output unit displays the processed data from the microprocessor.

Source:

Figure: 4.8-Receiver unit.

Antenna: Length = 22.6cm for 315MHz; Length = 17.2 cm for 433.92MHz.

Ideal for 315/433.92MHz Remote Keyless-Entry Receives.

Works with HT12D or other Decoder.

Dimensions: Width - 43.4mm, Height - 11.5mm (Excluding Pins).

4.8 HT12D Decoder IC.

Figure: 4.9-Decorder IC.

Figure: 4.10

Figure: 4.11Frequency vs voltage diagram.

Supply voltage=5v

Rosc=33k

According to graph oscillation frequency=200 KHz

Tosc=20uS

Time for the one communication=77.2mS+2^ (12)x20uS

=97.68mS

4.9 Schematic for Receiver unit.

Figure: 4.12- Schematic for Receiver unit.

According to the schematic diagram illustrated in figure: 18 the Receiver unit data pin connect to the HT 12D decoder IC and after send to microcontroller Using above data microcontroller convert to the X distance and Y distance using Simon's rule. After that generate the Ps\2 mouse protocol and send to that data computer.

4.10 PS/2 mouse interface.

Following inputs are supported by the standard PS/2 mouse interface: X (right/left) movement, Y (up/down) movement, left button, middle button, and right button. The mouse periodically reads these inputs and updates various counters and flags to reflect movement and button states. There are many PS/2 pointing devices that have additional inputs and may report data differently than described in this document. One popular extension covered later in this document is the Microsoft Intelligent mouse, which includes support for the standard inputs as well as a scrolling wheel and two additional buttons.

The mouse has two counters that keep track of movement: the X movements counter and the Y movements counter. These are 9-bit 2's complement values and each has an associated overflow flag. Their contents, along with the state of the three mouse buttons, are sent to the host in the form of a 3-byte movement data packet. The movement counters represent the mouse's offset relative to its position when the previous movement data packet was issued, or when the last non-"Resend" (0xFE) command was successfully sent to the host.

Movement Data Packet.

The standard PS/2 mouse sends movement/button information to the host using the following 3-byte packet.

Figure: 4.13-Ps/2 data packet.

The movements values are 9-bit 2's complement integers, where the most significant bit appears as a "sign" bit in byte 1 of the movement data packet. Their value represents the mouse's offset relative to its position when the previous packet was sent, in units determined by the current resolution. The range of values that can be expressed is -255 to +255. If this range is exceeded, the appropriate overflow bit is set.

Figure: 4.14-Ps/2 protocol.

CHAPTER 5

TESTING ANDIMPLEMENTATION.

5.1 HT 12E and HT 12D decoder.

Under the test condition character letter "H" was transmitted continuously by transmitter unit and it was received by the computer, following figure is illustrate the received data.

Figure: 5.l-Received data.

5.2 Accelerometer output analogue signal.

Following figure illustrate Accelerometer analogue output.

Figure: 5.2-Accelerometer output signal.

5.3Designing the printed circuit board.

Main circuit board design using ironing method using sticker paper.

Figure: 5.3-printed circuit board.

5.4 Transmitter unit.

The hand movement is being identified by the circuit using accelerometer & converts that value ADC. Using RF transmitter transmit above ADC value to Receiver unit.HT 12E IC is used to reduce noise when data transmission.

Transmitter unit is powered by 9V battery and voltage regulation is done by the popular 7805 voltage regulator IC (5V and 1A full-load current).all integrated circuits include the Master circuit are working under the dc 5V supply.

Transmitter unit is driven by the Microchip® PIC16F877A 8 bit microcontroller; it has an on-chip Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) and 256 byte EEPROM. 4MHz external crystal resonator provides the clocks for the microcontroller, under this clock frequency micro controller can maintain 1MHz instruction cycle.

5.5Main circuit board for the Receiver unit (Base Station).

The base station is the output section of the project design. It consists of the RF receiver unit, microcontroller and PC for displaying the output data received from the wearable glove sensor.

5.6Wearable module for the Hand.

The wearable module consists of an accelerometer and mouse activation button. When the hand is moved to X direction or Y direction, acceleration is measured by the accelerometer according to X direction or Y direction. Then this acceleration value is converted into the digital value using PIC 16F877A Microcontroller.

CHAPTER 6

DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS.

6.1 Low baud rate of Transmitter Receiver Module

The transmitter receiver modules which are used here are not enough baud rate (2400bps) to transmit the acceleration data. RF module can't be used without Encoder and Decoder IC .Therefore the HT12E Encoder and HT12D decoder IC were used. The Encoder and Decoder IC are only supported by 4bit.Approximately 100ms are taken by one transmission.

6.2 Noise reduction of Accelerometer.

When the Accelerometer is moved to X or Y direction, noise signal is added. The mean value of acceleration was used to reduce the noise. When the Accelerometer angle X direction or Y direction, tilt angle comes as acceleration. The range of tilt angle was considered as a solution for this matter.

6.3 Conclusion and Future work.

Intention of the project is to introduce an intelligent mouse for presentation. When a person is doing a presentation, he/she has to stay near the computer table. If the person wants to do a successful presentation it is required to move and get the eye contact with audience.

But when a normal computer or a laptop is used, it's an agony to move around the computer table. As a solution for this matter, nowadays a wireless mouse can be used. It looks like a remote controller and also a button should be pressed if the cursor ofthe mouse is required to be moved. When the presentation is being done, it is difficult to hold the cursor for a moment. This is the reason for designing the intelligent mouse for presentations. The use of this helps it users to move the cursor according to the hand movement wirelessly.

The intelligent mouse was designed for presentation. It helps to presenter to do the presentation which the mouse curser can be moved according to the hand movement with wirelessly. This mouse can be used to control computer remotely.

The project was completed successfully. The mouse on any computer with Ps/2 port could be controlled wirelessly using acceleration and tilt angle of hand. The sensitivity of the cursor in response to hand movement was moderate giving the user fairly controls good and smooth. In addition, the project can be used to play mouse controlled game and many other interactive game.

The overall operation of device complied with the entire requirement set out in the original design proposal reflecting on some of the decision there. Firstly It is expected to consider the USB connection rather than Ps/2 connection .The reason is that as opposed to modern desktop computer almost all modern laptop do not have Ps/2 port.

It would be valuable to include an auto power off mode such that the current consumption would be reduced by the transmitter dramatically when the device is not in use.

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