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This is the incident happened with Maya a girl, who is a big fan of music and she likes the most Black Eyed Beas, Blue and Girls Aloud band. Once, her favorite band Girls Aloud was coming to UK to perform for raising the fund for Haiti. She got wondered and not believing about their visit to UK until one of her friend confirms this news to her when she was at college. She was very exciting and did not want to miss the show. Then, she made a call to her sister to ask if she would be interested to come and available for tonight show, her sister told that she was free.
When she would return back from college, Maya decided to book the tickets online by using her PC. Unfortunately, she is running out of time as she missed her bus. Suddenly she got remember that she has her iphone with her which can also be used to book the tickets online and has a Wi-Fi connection but she needs to be in hotspots(wirelessly enabled public) to access the internet at that time she was at the bus stop which is next to the college.
To get her work done safely and securely, she needs to know what is required to her iphone for all this process i.e. hardware specifications, software applications, network measurements and security measurements. All these parts - hardware, software and network communication make up the structure of Maya's iphone.
2. Description of Mobile Hardware:-
2.1 General Description:-
Hardware components include devices that perform the functions of input, processing, data storage, output and communication.
"Computer hardware consists of physical and tangible parts of the computer system. These parts are input devices, output devices, and processor"
Maya needs to have the above mentioned components of computer hardware for her iphone such as by executing instructions; processor processes data and information (store and move) between different I/O devices so that computer system can be accessible to the users. In addition to this, she will also need memory for storing data permanently as well as temporarily and other elements like battery.
"CPU (Central Processing Unit) is used in the iphone is an ARM Cortex A8 processor running at 412 MHz speed. It is necessary for Maya to have this processor in her iphone as it is the brain of the any computer. It is responsible for reading instructions from the memory, executing it and storing it back in the memory of iphone. This processor also controls the I/O devices of the iphone. This can also be stated that processor of iphone is considered to be a dual processor:-
One - handling the communication stack
Other - handling the application software"
ï‚®By Mohns (2009)
"CPU used in iphone is an ARM Cortex A8 which has a good power management for larger battery life and powerful processing for 3D graphics. It has 32KB of instruction and data cache memory which is twice the size of the ARM 11(processor for the older phone) and 256KB level 2 MB cache memory whereas the ARM 11 had no cache memory"
ï‚®Argued by Mohns (2009)
2.3 Memory: -
Well, definitely if a computer has a brain (CPU), it must have the facility which we can call memory. This is the memory which stores data and instructions permanently for later use and temporarily during processing.
2.3.1 Primary storage:-
For the required purpose, Maya will also need an adequate RAM (RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY).It is like a predefined working place, where it temporarily keeps data and information to facilitate its performance. It is a temporary and volatile memory.
"Although she can sustain with 128 MB RAM at 412MHz speed, but 256 MB RAM at 600MHz speed will be better choice for her as this memory will provide some free space in the RAM to her iphone which can be further used in swapping memory because the OS (Operating System) of the iphone does not support swapping memory pages to flash memory"
ï‚®By Casasanta (2009)
2.3.2 Secondary storage:-
Maya will also need auxiliary memory or secondary memory besides RAM, a primary memory to store the OS which will make her iphone run and application software like browser allows her to access the internet to book the tickets for the show. OS only takes about half a GB, application software takes about 1 to 2 GB or may be between that and the remaining is used for files. As Maya does not need more than that capacity, so 8GB memory would be more than sufficient for her.
She could actually have more memory but that would be more expensive for her"
â†’By Topolsky (2009)
2.4 Input/output Devices
It is one of the output devices which will enable the user to record and to hear the voice. This device will also be needed by Maya for her iphone. Basically, there are two internal speakers in the phone.
One - located a headset right above the screen.
Two - located on the bottom right facing the microphone.
Usually, they are used for-
a) Hands free operations b) media play back
2.4.2 Touch screen
One more basic feature in the iphone is its touch system means tapping, swiping, pinching through which Maya can easily & enjoyably interact with the device. It is designed for a base finger or multiple fingers for multi -touch sensing.
It is one of the input device s that Maya will certainly need to let her voice sound loud & clear while talking the microphone is in built device in the iphone as similar to the speaker. It is located right at the bottom & next to the USB port.
2.5 Other Elements
Maya's iphone features an internal rechargeable battery that she must have in her iphone to keep it working.
"There is one point which differs the battery of iphone from the other phones is that its battery is not user replaceable like an iPod that is users are not free to replace the battery .The iphone can not only be charged by using the normal charger but also can be charged by connecting it to the computer for syncing across included in USB to dock connecter cable. Number of third party accessories are also available for the same purpose like car charger, stereos etc.
The battery is stated in proving up to 8hrs of talk time, 7hrs of video, and 2hrs of music, 300hrsof standby & 6hrs of web browsing on Wi-Fi"
â†’By Apple (2010)
2.5.2 USB Port
Universal Serial Bus is a serial bus used to connect devices (Input/ output) to a computer. These devices are printers, scanners, MP Players, mobile phones etc. It also facilitate you to connect multiple peripherals at one time through the USB .Having USB port by Maya will allow her to copy or transfer her college work, music & other files from her iphone to the PC or vice versa .In addition to this it also allows her to copy any recorded footage of the concert of her favourite band as well as transmits data without powering down the equipment, it can be plugged & unplugged.
3. General description
3.1 The fruitfulness of computer hardware depends a lot on the performance of software available on the system .Maya's iphone needs computer software in addition to the hardware requirements .It is the set of programs which govern the operation of the computer system and make the hardware run.
Computer software is of 2 types:-Â
1. System software - software to manage computer resources.
It controls access to hardware. The System software is one which controls the internal computer operations. It consists of low level programs which interact with the computer at a very basic level such as Operating System, compilers, utilities, Windows 98 and Windows 95Â
2. Application software - software to perform user specific tasks.
Â Â Â It basically works through the system software to operate. It contains the programs or set of programs which will enable the user to perform a specific task for the users. It includes Word processing, inventory control, medical accounting, financial accounting, spreadsheet, antivirus software and computer games.Â
Even though both of them are different entities (hardware and software) but there is often tradeoff between them. Maya will need an OS to make her iphone more accessible, control the hardware operation, good browser which will facilitate her to browse the internet and enable her to book the tickets to attend the concert of her favoriteÂ band and lastly, antivirus software for identification and elimination of any computer viruses.Â
3.2 Operating system
An OS is one of the important & major components of a computer system which solely controls all other components of the computer system.
OS is like our secretary like in the office, the boss b orders to his secretary& the secretary does all the work for his boss ï‚®How to do? What to do? When to do? Etc. In the same way, user pass his/her orders to OS & operating system does it for him /her. It itself decides ï‚®what to do? How to do? When to do?
Goal of an Operating system:ï‚®
Primary Goal- To make the system convenient to use
Secondary Goal-To use computer hardware in an efficient manner. addition to above mentioned objectives ,it also controls as well as coordinates the hardware use among various application programs for the multiple users .It develops the capabilities of the system for parallel processing of various programs .
"An Operating System is a program which acts as an interface between a user and the hardware that is all computer resources"
The OS is the Iphone is the cooperative OS which works with the Iphone. It does not take more than 500 megabytes of the iphone memory. Other OS will not run as they are not supported like Microsoft Windows. It is based on touch system for the intermediary such as tapping, pinching
Application software pertains to one specific application. These are the programs /set of programs that are necessary to out the operations for a specified application. In other words, it is made up of programs which are designed to direct the computer what to do to complete specific tasks for the programmers. It enables the computer to do specific work the user such as inventory control, word processing spreadsheet, accounting etc.
Maya will need a Web Browser to allow her for surfing the internet & assist her to her tickets to attend her attend her favorite band. Though the iphone uses Safari web browser but Sky fire is one of the most recommended on iphone as by far, it is fastest browser among all. It loads web pages much faster than other browsers. Additionally, it supports for robust web pages which will make Maya to think that she will take her system browse & put it on her iphone.
"The screen of iphone is needed to be zoomed in while browsing the internet as it is relatively small. Second, function of having Sky fire on iphone is that it is a bit clear when zooming in the web pages than any other browsers. In other words, it is also less blurry than Safari & Opera.
Safari is also a good option but one cannot play flash games or view movies as it does not support flash completely which Sky fire does"
3.5 Antivirus software
Maya will also need antivirus software along with the web browser .As everyone knows, viruses can be found everywhere .Maya iphone is infected by virus via opening email, visiting websites, accessing any media .that why there is necessary to have a high quality &updated anti viruses software is required in Maya case McAfee antivirus software is recommended because it can be the best solution which will keep her iphone safe, protected & guarded from various viruses
3.4 Network Connection
"Network is an interconnected collection of autonomous computers"
"A network is connection of two or more computers through a cable so that they can communicate with one another &can exchange information, software application and various devices like printers & scanners"
4.1 Network Requirements
Maya 's iphone is required to be connected to the internet to achieve her goal i.e. to book the tickets online, so definitely she will need a networking system through which she will able to access the internet for whatever she wants to do. For accessing the internet Maya would also need a communication channel like Wi-Fi
Maya will also need a quality firewall which is installed in her iphone to block any attempt at accessing or disabling the computer system as the iphone has a range of different hacks for different reasons.
The firewall is a system which is designed to protect and manage computer networks includes mobile phones from unauthorized access and malicious attacks.
"Firewall IP is the recommended firewall for her iphone because in addition to being reliable and easy to maintain, it monitors the outbound connections of iphone as well as allows blocking it. App store and Cydia provide the applications of it. If the app wants to start a connection to a host, Firewall IP will give you a warning and shows you the hostname. Further, it is your wish to allow or deny all connections"
â†’By Patrick 2009
The use of encryption is to save message from being red if anyone gets hold of the device. There are many ways of doing encryption like as replacing characters with others or switching them. It is required them to use in combination to make encryption more secure. In other words, it is sufficiently difficult to crack or get through.
Two ways of encryption techniques:-
Private Key encryption which is also known as symmetric encryption, in this type of technique users shares a common technique.
Public key encryption which is also known as asymmetric encryption and it is contrary to private key in which different keys are used for decryption and encryption.
"Iphone offers encryption based on hardware and uses AES 256 bit encoding which keeps all the data safe from being hacked on the device. Encryption cannot shown by users and is always enabled"
â†’opinion of iphone in business 2009
Unauthorized access to a network can be disastrous, it is important that you should take some extra security measurements like setting up password for the device. One should mix characters and numbers wisely to avoid these mistakes and it must be easy to remember and difficult to guess. Whenever one thinks it is necessary to change passwords, he can change it wisely.
To conclude, Maya wants to attend the concert of her favorite band GIRLS ALOUD but due to certain circumstances, she was not able to book the tickets. Luckily, she has her iphone with her and decided to book them online by using her iphone. For all this process, she needs to ensure that she has all the required hardware, software and elements of network.
She needs hardware such as RAM memory which will enable the OS to run and secondary memory to save the data and application. She also needs software consists of OS to run the iphone or system, web browsing or surfing the net, antivirus software which keeps her iphone safe and secure and also protects it from various viruses.
Her iphone also has network requirements including network communication and security measurement like installing a firewall and using various techniques for encryption.
It was quite well and interesting experience for doing this report mainly for 2 reasons:-
Firstly, it was a motivating source to investigate what actually Maya needs to have for her iphone to achieve her goal.
Secondly, it also enhanced my knowledge about mobile requirements especially iphones and personally, I got it very informative.