Databases for the academic human resources department

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

INTRODUCTION

The database required to be built is for the Academic Human Resources department for a local college in order to keep records of the responsibility of the AHR department and their academic posts and the personal and work related information on an academic. When developing the database it requires, keeping records of the academics, departments, posts, senior posts, roles, academic data, head roles, academic head roles and academic roles.

ENTITY RELATED DIAGRAM

Entity relationship diagrams or ERD is used to show the entities within a system and the relationships between the entities and how they react. Mainly it is used to showcase the database design and the entities within the database is used as a table and the relationships are identified as keys and the other related data in other tables created in the database. The entities are used within the data model. To represent the entities are rectangular boxes with the identified entity in it.

Relationships are showcased by the use of lines between the two entities that are connected or has any relation to one another.

STEP 1of the ERD

Above in Fig. 1 the different entities are identified as, department, academic, head role, role, posts, senior posts and academic data. The relationships are indentified as the lines between for example, Academic, Department and Posts. As it can be seen between those three entities it is known as a one to many relationships. Other one to many relationships are Academic and Academic Data, Senior Posts and Department. Many to Many relationships are the, Roles and Head Roles.

ENTITY RELATED DIAGRAM STEP 2

Above in Figure 2 shows the different entities are identified as, department, academic, head role, academic head role, role, academic role, posts, senior posts and academic data. The relationships are indentified as the lines between for example, Academic, Department and Posts. As it can be seen between those three entities are known as one to many relationships. Other one to many relationships are Academic and Academic Data, Senior Posts and Department. Many to Many relationships are the, Academic Roles and Academic Head Roles.

DATA DICTIONARY

According to S.Atre and Wikia Technology, Data Dictionaries can also be named as metadata. Data dictionaries are compared to as catalogues that keep track of information on the tables recorded in the database. The Data Dictionaries records information about the name description of the entity, the previous time the data was reached and the date the data dictionary was made. The essential aim of a data dictionary is to display all the different types of data together with its attributes and where the data can be stored. The assortments of data that can be found in a data dictionary are data elements, data structures, and data flow and data store. It includes the primary keys and the foreign keys to be in the database consistency. A well designed layout of a data dictionary will help in the easy development of building the database to its standards. Also not using a data dictionary it is incomplete because of using it helps in knowing the requirements of the system, therefore this purpose is very important in building the system. There are two types of data dictionaries namely, active data dictionary and passive data dictionary. Active data dictionary is where the database is always automatically updated when the database is opened. And passive data dictionary is where the database is not automatically updated and required for the database is a batch process to be done.

In representing the Entities the entities are to be named, the description of the entity, the attributes that are indentified as the primary key and the other attributes. In representing the Relationships are the relationship ID, relationship name, the description of the relationship, the participating entities, cardinality, optionality, the participating entity, the cardinality and optionality

REPRESENTING ENTITIES

The Entity: Academic

Description of Entity: Any Person that is being recorded on the database in the Academic Human Resources Department

Identifying Attribute(s) within the entity: Academic ID

Associated Attributes: Full Name, Address, Age, Nationality, Qualifications, Posts ID.

REPRESENTING RELATIONSHIPS

Relationship Idenitification: r1

Relationship Name: Recorded

Description of Relationship: Associates Academics with the Academic Human Resources Department

Participating Entity: Academics

Cardinality: Many

Optionality: Mandatory

Participating Entity: Posts, Academic Data, Academic Head Roles, Academic Roles, Head Role, Roles, Senior Posts and Department

Cardinality: Many

Optionality: Optional

REPRESENTING ATTRIBUTES

Attribute: Database Status

Description: Allowable status for the Database

Type: Character

REPRESENTING ENTITIES

Entity Name: Department

Description of entity: Any Person that is assigned to a department on the database in the Academic Human Resources Department

Identifying Attribute(s): Department ID

Associated Attributes: Department Name

REPRESENTING RELATIONSHIPS

Relationship Identification: r2

Relationship Name: Recorded

Description of Relationship: Associates Academics with the Department they are assigned to

Participating Entity: Academics

Cardinality: Many

Optionality: Mandatory

Participating Entity: Academic, Posts, Academic Data, Academic Head Roles, Academic Roles, Head Role, Roles and Senior Posts

Cardinality: Many

Optionality: Optional

REPRESENTING ATTRIBUTES

Attribute: Database Status

Description: Allowable status for the Database

Type: Character

REPRESENTING ENTITIES

Entity Name: Posts

Description of Entity: Any Person that is being recorded on the database in the Academic Human Resources Department to their respective posts.

Identifying Attribute: Post ID

Attributes together: Current Post, Previous Post, Dates of Post Held, Lecturer, Posts, Grades

REPRESENTING RELATIONSHIPS

Relationship Identification: r3

Relationship Name: Recorded

Description of the relationship: Associates Academics with the posts they belong to

Participating Entity: Academics

Cardinality: Many

Optionality: Mandatory

Participating Entity: Academic, Academic Data, Academic Head Roles, Academic Roles, Head Role, Roles, Senior Posts and Department

Cardinality: Many

Optionality: Optional

REPRESENTING ATTRIBUTES

Attribute: Database Status

Description: Allowable status for the Database

Type: Character

REPRESENTING ENTITIES

Name of Entity: Academic Data

Description: Any Salary information being recorded is stored on the database in the Academic Human Resources Department

Identifying the Attribute: Academic Data ID

Other Attributes: Salary, Academic ID

REPRESENTING RELATIONSHIPS

Relationship Identification: r4

Relationship Name: Recorded

Description: Associates Academics with their salary information stored on the database from the Academic Human Resources Department

Participating Entity: Academics

Cardinality: Many

Optionality: Mandatory

Participating Entity: Academic, Posts, Academic Head Roles, Academic Roles, Head Role, Roles, Senior Posts and Department

Cardinality: Many

Optionality: Optional

REPRESENTING ATTRIBUTES

Attribute: Database Status

Description: Allowable status for the Database

Type: Character

REPRESENTING ENTITIES

Entity: Academic Head Roles

Description: Any Person that is being recorded on the database in the Academic Human Resources Department showing the many to many relationship between academic and head role.

Identifying Attribute(s): Academic ID, Head Role ID

Other Attributes: None

REPRESENTING RELATIONSHIPS

Relationship ID: r5

Relationship Name: Recorded

Description: Associates Academics with the head roles

Participating Entity: Academics and Head Roles

Cardinality: Many

Optionality: Mandatory

Participating Entity: Posts, Academic Data, Academic, Academic Roles, Head Role, Roles, Senior Posts and Department

Cardinality: Many

Optionality: Optional

REPRESENTING ATTRIBUTES

Attribute: Database Status

Description: Allowable status for the Database

Type: Character

REPRESENTING ENTITIES

Entity: Academic Roles

Description: Any Person that is being recorded on the database in the Academic Human Resources Department describing their roles

Identifying Attribute(s): Academic ID, Roles ID

Other Attributes: None

REPRESENTING RELATIONSHIPS

Relationship ID: r6

Relationship Name: Recorded

Description: Associates Academics with the Roles they play in the local college

Participating Entity: Academics and Roles

Cardinality: Many

Optionality: Mandatory

Participating Entity: Academic, Posts, Academic Data, Academic Head Roles, , Head Role, Roles, Senior Posts and Department

Cardinality: Many

Optionality: Optional

REPRESENTING ATTRIBUTES

Attribute: Database Status

Description: Allowable status for the Database

Type: Character

REPRESENTING ENTITIES

Entity: Head Roles

Description: Any Person that is being recorded on the database in the Academic Human Resources Department describing the Head Roles they do

Identifying Attribute(s): Head Roles ID

Other Attributes: Head of Department, Associate Head, Senior Posts ID

REPRESENTING RELATIONSHIPS

Relationship ID: r7

Relationship Name: Recorded

Description: Associates Academics with the Head Roles they do in the Academic Human Resources Department

Participating Entity: Academics

Cardinality: Many

Optionality: Mandatory

Participating Entity: Academic, Posts, Academic Data, Academic Head Roles, Academic Roles, Roles, Senior Posts and Department

Cardinality: Many

Optionality: Optional

REPRESENTING ATTRIBUTES

Attribute: Database Status

Description: Allowable status for the Database

Type: Character

REPRESENTING ENTITIES

Entity: Roles

Description: Any Person that is being recorded on the database in the Academic Human Resources Department describing the Roles they do

Identifying Attribute(s): Roles ID

Other Attributes: Research Leader, Programme Director, Course Leader

REPRESENTING RELATIONSHIPS

Relationship ID: r8

Relationship Name: Recorded

Description: Associates Academics with the roles they play in the Academic Human Resources Department

Participating Entity: Academics

Cardinality: Many

Optionality: Mandatory

Participating Entity: Academic, Posts, Academic Data, Academic Head Roles, Academic Roles, Head Role, Senior Posts and Department

Cardinality: Many

Optionality: Optional

REPRESENTING ATTRIBUTES

Attribute: Database Status

Description: Allowable status for the Database

Type: Character

REPRESENTING ENTITIES

Entity: Senior Posts

Description: Any Person that is being recorded on the database in the Academic Human Resources Department describing the senior posts that they are assigned to

Identifying Attribute(s): Senior Post ID

Other Attributes: Roles

REPRESENTING RELATIONSHIPS

Relationship ID: r9

Relationship Name: Recorded

Description: Associates Academics with the Senior Posts that they are assigned to in the Academic Human Resources Department

Participating Entity: Academics

Cardinality: Many

Optionality: Mandatory

Participating Entity: Academic, Posts, Academic Data, Academic Head Roles, Academic Roles, Head Role, Roles and Department

Cardinality: Many

Optionality: Optional

REPRESENTING ATTRIBUTES

Attribute: Database Status

Description: Allowable status for the Database

Type: Character

According to databasedev.co.uk, Primary Keys and Foreign keys are the main parts in a relational database. Primary Keys are identified and shown as an attribute in the entity. You have to confirm the primary keys and relationships. Then move the primary keys to create foreign keys. Attributes are characteristics of the entity and the primary key can be described as an attribute of a specific entity. Every entity in the database must have a primary key so it can uniquely identify it. For primary keys it must have the following properties. It requires a non null value, the value must be unique number for the entity and the values should not alter or become null in any entity. A set of primary keys are known as a candidate key.

Foreign Keys are described as attributes that showcases a relationship between the parent entities. The foreign keys are used to maintain the data integrity and to show where the different instances are of an entity. Any data model must have a foreign key and these are identified by where they have a relationship within the entity. The foreign key is associated with the parent entity.

The diagram above shows how primary keys and foreign keys are identified. The primary keys identified above in the diagram are, Posts ID, Academic Data ID, Academic ID, Roles ID, and Head Role ID, Senior Posts ID and Department ID. The foreign keys are in Academic Head Roles, Academic ID and Roles ID. In Academic Head Role the foreign keys are Academic ID and Head Role ID. Academic shares a relationship with Academic Data so the primary key of academic moves to academic data. The senior posts shares a relationship with head role so the senior posts ID are moved to the head role entity. The posts share a relationship with academic so the post ID is moved to in the academic entity.

NORMALIZATION

According to Mike Chappel, Normalization is known as the process of keeping tables in a layout that is organized. The main aim of normalization of a database is to get rid of any repetition of data and the dependencies of the data has to make sense; therefore storing data in the table has to be associated to the data. With these two aims reduces the space of the data in the database. Normalization has four steps, which are namely the first normal form, second normal form, third normal form and the fourth normal form.

Step one of normalization is to display the set of un-normalized tables. The un-normalized set of tables report all the repeated data that was found on the database.

The first normal form is the process where the repeated data has to be removed from the non repeated data in the database. The columns of data through the database have to show the repeated groups and is removed from the whole table, or simplified into separate tables, where the data have their own ID to identify them, and this is known as a primary key.

The second normal form is the further removal or simplifying of the data that is repeated in the database system tables. If the first step of normalization is completed, the second step of normalization is used to eliminate all subsets of data and develop new relationships by associating foreign keys with the tables.

The third normal form is the common to be the last stage of the normalization. At this stage all the attributes that is found in the database system's table that are not relying on the primary keys in the tables are to be eliminated, so they are separated from the table and that creates a new set of tables.

STEPS ON NORMALISING THE TABLES-UNF

Academic - (Academic ID, Full Name, Address, Age, Nationality, Qualifications, Post ID, Department ID

Department ID, Department Name,

{Academic ID, Head Role ID

Head Role ID, Head of Department, Associate Head, Senior Posts

{Senior Posts ID, Roles

{Academic ID, Roles ID

Roles ID, Research Leader, Programme Director, Course Leader

Post ID, Current Post, Previous Post, Dates of Post Held, Lecturer, Grades

Academic Data ID, Salary})

First Normal Form

Academic- (Academic ID, Full Name, Address, Age, Nationality, Qualifications, Posts ID, Department ID

Department ID, Department Name,

Post ID, Current Post, Previous Post, Dates of Post Held, Lecturer, Posts, Grades,

Academic Data ID, Salary, Academic ID)

Academic Roles- (Academic ID, Roles ID,

Roles ID, Research Leader, Programme Director, Course Leader,

Academic Head Role-(Academic ID, Head Role ID,

Head Role ID, Head of Department, Associate Head of Department, Senior Posts ID)

Second Normal Form

Academic- (Academic ID, Full Name, Address, Age, Nationality, Qualifications, Posts ID, Department ID

Department ID, Department Name,

Post ID, Current Post, Previous Post, Dates of Post Held, Lecturer, Posts, Grades,

Academic Data ID, Salary, Academic ID)

Academic Roles- (Academic ID, Roles ID,

Roles- Roles ID, Research Leader, Programme Director, Course Leader,

Academic Head Role-(Academic ID, Head Role ID,

Head Role- Head Role ID, Head of Department, Associate Head of Department, Senior Posts ID)

Third Normal Form

Academic-(Academic ID, Full Name, Address, Age, Nationality, Qualifications, Posts

ID, Department ID)

Department- (Department ID, Department Name)

Post- (Post ID, Current Post, Previous Post, Dates of Post Held, Lecturer,

Grades)

Senior Post- Senior Posts ID, Roles

Academic Data (Academic Data ID, Salary, Academic ID)

Academic Roles (Academic ID, Roles ID)

Roles (Roles ID, Role Name)

Academic Head Roles (Academic ID, Head Role ID)

Head Role (Head Roles ID, Head of Department, Associate Head of Department, Senior Post ID)

DATABASE MANAGEMNT SYSTEM

According to SearchSqlServer.com, The database management system is used to record, edit and extract any information within the database. There are many types of database for small databases to large ones. There are different terms to describe their layouts which are the relational which is used in this database system being developed, network, hierarchical and flat. The relational database or RDBMS is a database system that allows the users to enter records and store them in tables that are in an organized manner and the information in each table can be rearranged in a different order. The relational database management system is described as a structure query language, which is used for gathering data to create reports and creating queries. An advantage of RDBMS is that it can be easily expandable meaning it can create new tables to the database making it easier to add in information at later stages. Data in each tables can be defined as to what data type and the size of characters to be permitted. In the columns of each table there are data entered in different columns to identify a certain entity within the database. The rows of each table represent the attributes of the entity described in the table. For example in the database created for this assignment has an entity named Academic and this entity would have columns with the Academic ID, Full Name, Address, Age, Nationality, Qualifications, Post ID, and Department ID. The rows underneath these heading now will have the appropriate information assigned to each column based on the name in the column. Other tables can be like Department, Head Roles just to name a few.

The following print outs are from the database created for the task 4. The different tables created are for each entity namely Academic, Department, Academic Head Roles, Academic Roles, Head Roles, Roles, Senior Posts, Posts and Academic Data. The attributes of Academic are Academic ID, Full Name, Address, Age, Nationality, Qualifications, and Post ID. The attributes of Department are Department ID, Department Name. The attributes of Academic Head Roles are Academic ID and Head Role ID. The attributes of Head Role are Head Role ID, Head of Department, and Associate Head of department and Senior Posts ID. The attributes of Academic Role are Academic ID and Roles ID. The attributes of Roles are Roles ID, Research Leader, Programme Director and Course Leader. The attributes of Senior Posts are the Senior Post ID and Roles. The attributes of Posts are the Posts ID, Current Post, Previous Post, Dates of Post Held, Lecturer, Posts and Grades. The attributes of Academic Data are the Academic Data ID, Salary and Academic ID.

Also are the queries that were created for task 5. The first query was to show the names of all heads of department with the other roles the academic had occupied and showing the current post they held. This was done by creating relationships with the tables and then clicking on the query wizard selecting the criteria from each table which was the heads of department from the roles table and the roles with the current posts pulled from the posts table.

The second query was to show the current Senior Lectures, showing the name of department they belong too and their full salary together with any additional payments the academics might have received for their other roles. That was done via the query wizard and the criteria need to be displayed was selected from the tables that shared the relationship and when finished the query showed the list of he current Senior Lectures, showing the name of department they belong too and their full salary together with any additional payments the academics might have received for their other roles.

The third query required to show all the heads of the mathematics department with showing the date that the academics were employed from 2000 to current year. It is to show their names, the current post and qualifications. This is completed through the query design and selecting the criteria of the shared relation tables and creating a query list displaying all the heads of the mathematics department with showing the date that the academics were employed from 2000 to current year and their names and current post with the qualifications.

Department Table

Department ID

Department Name

222013

Computer Science

222014

Arts

222015

Business

222016

Physics

222017

Mathematics

Academic Table

Academic ID

Full Name

Address

Age

Nationality

Qualifications

Post ID

Department ID

111011

Emma Roland

#12 Old Road Grande

27

Trinidadian

MBBS Mathematics

111113

222017

111012

Rodrigo Nine

St Thomas Street

31

Canadian

MBBS Business

111116

222015

111013

Wendy Lui

#4 Hickery Lane

44

American

MBBS Physics

111114

222016

111014

Riley Adams

Green Gables Street

32

Canadian

MBBS Arts

111116

222014

111015

Ava Daniel

46 Donavon Lane

55

British

MBBS Computer Science

111114

222013

111016

Ethan Thames

Brickfield Drive

51

British

MBBS Computer Science

111113

222013

111017

Derrick Lanley

77 Fruitwalk Road

49

Trinidadian

MBBS Mathematics

111117

222017

111018

Dianna Sands

Hilltop Avenue

38

American

MBBS Business

111116

222015

111019

Stuart Rody

Running Avenue

34

British

MBBSArts

111112

222014

111020

Tina Jewel

Willford Town

56

American

MBBS Computer Science

111117

222013

111021

Jimmy Karr

Rabbit Road

58

Canadian

MBBS Mathematics

111113

222017

111022

Maria Sanchez

54 Cake Walk Lane

43

Trinidadian

MBBS Arts

111116

222014

111023

Xuxa Filan

Alucard Yatch Drive

39

Trinidadian

MBBS Physics

111112

222016

111024

Anna Salerno

21 Sixten Road

53

American

MBBS Business

111116

222015

111025

Edward Maya

Foldin Half Lane

48

British

MBBS Computer Science

111113

222013

Head Role Table

Head Role ID

Head of Department

Associate Head

Senior Posts ID

Roles

Current Post

888567

Principal Lecturer

Principal Lecturer

333125

Research Leader

Principal Lecturer

888568

Reader

Reader

333124

Programme Director

Reader

888569

Professor

Professor

333126

Course Leader

Professor

888570

Professor

Professor

333128

Quality Leader

Professor

888571

Reader

Reader

333129

Learning and Teaching Leader

Reader

888572

Principal Lecturer

Principal Lecturer

333127

Recruitment Office

Principal Lecturer

Academic Roles Table

Academic Role ID

Academic ID

Role ID

555415

111012

211013

555416

111013

211014

555417

111015

211015

555418

111022

211016

555419

111025

211019

Roles Table

Roles ID

Roles

211011

Learning and Teaching Leader

211012

Recruitment Office

211013

Examinations Officer

211014

Research Leader

211015

Programme Director

211016

Course Leader

211017

Head of Department

211018

Associate Head of Department

211019

Quality Leader

Posts Table

Posts ID

Current Post

Previous Post

Dates of Post Held

Grades

Lecturer

111112

Professor

Reader

2008-09

A

Rodrigo Nine

111113

Principal Lecturer

Lecturer

2007-09

B

Ava Daniel

111114

Reader

Reader

2008-08

A

Stuart Rody

111116

Senior Lecturer

Lecturer

2008-09

A

Xuxa Filan

111117

Lecturer

Professor

2007-09

B

Ethan Thames

Senior Posts Table

Senior Posts ID

Roles

Department

Other Roles

Salary

Additional Payments

333124

Principal Lecturer

Computer Science

Recruitment Office

30000

TT$5,000.00

333125

Reader

Arts

Research Leader

26000

TT$4,000.00

333126

Professor

Business

Head of Department

35000

TT$5,000.00

333127

Principal Lecturer

Arts

Course Leader

25000

TT$4,000.00

333128

Professor

Mathematics

Associate Head of Department

32000

TT$6,000.00

333129

Reader

Physics

Research Leader

22000

TT$8,000.00

Academic Data Table

Academic Data ID

Salary

Academic ID

444321

TT$30,000.00

111012

444322

TT$25,000.00

111014

444323

TT$32,000.00

111016

444324

TT$35,000.00

111024

444325

TT$26,000.00

111022

444326

TT$22,000.00

111019

Academic Head Role Table

Academic Head Role ID

Academic ID

Head Role ID

666879

111013

888567

666880

111012

888568

666881

111014

888569

666882

111015

888570

666883

111016

888571

666884

111017

888572

Full Name

Head of Department

Roles

Current Post

Wendy Lui

Principal Lecturer

Research Leader

Principal Lecturer

Rodrigo Nine

Reader

Programme Director

Reader

Riley Adams

Professor

Course Leader

Professor

Ava Daniel

Professor

Quality Leader

Professor

Ethan Thames

Reader

Learning and Teaching Leader

Reader

Derrick Lanley

Principal Lecturer

Recruitment Office

Principal Lecturer

Heads of Department Query

SELECT Academic.[Full Name], [Head Role].[Head of Department], [Head Role].Roles, [Head Role].[Current Post]

FROM [Head Role] INNER JOIN (Academic INNER JOIN [Academic Head Role] ON Academic.[Academic ID] = [Academic Head Role].[Academic ID]) ON [Head Role].[Head Role ID] = [Academic Head Role].[Head Role ID];

Senior Lecturer Query

Full Name

Senior Posts ID

Department

Other Roles

Salary

Additional Payments

Rodrigo Nine

333124

Computer Science

Recruitment Office

30000

TT$5,000.00

Maria Sanchez

333125

Arts

Research Leader

26000

TT$4,000.00

Anna Salerno

333126

Business

Head of Department

35000

TT$5,000.00

Riley Adams

333127

Arts

Course Leader

25000

TT$4,000.00

Ethan Thames

333128

Mathematics

Associate Head of Department

32000

TT$6,000.00

Stuart Rody

333129

Physics

Research Leader

22000

TT$8,000.00

SELECT Academic.[Full Name], [Senior Posts].[Senior Posts ID], [Senior Posts].Department, [Senior Posts].[Other Roles], [Senior Posts].Salary, [Senior Posts].[Additional Payments]

FROM (Academic INNER JOIN [Academic Data] ON Academic.[Academic ID] = [Academic Data].[Academic ID]) INNER JOIN [Senior Posts] ON [Academic Data].[Academic Data ID] = [Senior Posts].Salary;

Head of Mathematics Query

Full Name

Department Name

Grades

Dates of Post Held

Jimmy Karr

Mathematics

B

2007-09

Emma Roland

Mathematics

B

2007-09

Derrick Lanley

Mathematics

B

2007-09

SELECT Academic.[Full Name], Department.[Department Name], Posts.Grades, Posts.[Dates of Post Held]

FROM Department INNER JOIN (Posts INNER JOIN Academic ON Posts.[Posts ID] = Academic.[Post ID]) ON Department.[Department ID] = Academic.[Department ID]

WHERE (((Department.[Department Name])="Mathematics"));

During the development of the database the assumptions I have made, when analyzing the system are, when creating the database it saves the continuous changes that are made whether it is a change made in a table or creating a new table it continuously saves everything, so the lost of information is less. It is best to use a database management system than having these records on paper where it hard to search for a particular academic name.

Using a database gives users a more quick approach when using it and developing it is easy to as table's structure are already there. It is just to add the information to go in the columns and rows. Also when the database would be built it would be easy for users to navigate through the information stored on the database, within seconds just looking for a specific entry.

The database is very sufficient enough to store all records as it is convenient to have things in place and to have quick access to the records stored in the database.

Using the queries was a great approach to have all the layout of specific data that would be need to show. The queries gives greater data access to the users as it displays of certain criteria that the user wants to see.

In the database there could be academics with the same last name but once they have their own academic ID, the academic names would not pose to be any problem, because they would have their own identification number. And there also other ways that the database can tell if there is two academic with the same last name.

When building a database it is very time consuming and has to be carefully designed, that is why the entity related diagrams were drawn to show the entities and attributes of the entities and their relationship with each entity that is involved within the database system. The entity had two steps, which for the first step it had the seven entities and then the second entity required to show the many to many relationships. The third entity related diagram was to showcase the primary keys and foreign keys that are identified for each table. Once these entities and attributes were identified it is easy for the tables to be built and develop the database system.

The database system reduces the form of redundant data through the normalization of tables. The normalization process is very important for relational databases, and having done the normalization process, it allows the tables to get rid of all duplicated information to have the tables in an orderly manner without lots of repetition that can be found in the database system tables.

Also I noticed that the data when entered there is less error that occurs and if there is one found on the database system it can be easily changed to the accurate information.

The database using the data dictionary was of assistance to show how the layout of all the entities and to show their attributes and displaying all the relationships that there is in the database system. The data dictionary had the information on each of the representative, where it gave a clear idea of the information in the database systems how they should be.

CONCLUSION

The conclusion of the assignment has drawn to a step by step approach to creating the entity related diagrams which was a start and great help in creating the step 3 of the entity related diagram identifying all the primary keys and foreign keys. The data dictionary was created so it will have a better understanding and to build the database system easier, with all the entities, relationships and attributes. The normalisation of tables helped in reducing the duplication of data and to make the tables in a normalized form. The database system was created with all the entities, relationships and attributes and having all the primary keys and foreign keys identified.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOK

* 2008, Database Design and Development, International Advanced Diploma in Computer Studies (IADCS), UK, NCC Education Limited.

URL

· 2010, http://databases.about.com/cs/specificproducts/g/er.htm, [1st-12-09 ]

· 2008, http://www.geekgirls.com/database_dictionary.htm, [3rd-12-09 ]

· 2002, http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B10501_01/server.920/a96524/c05dicti.htm, [15th-12-09 ]

· 2003, http://philip.greenspun.com/panda/databases-choosing, [3rd-01-10 ]

· 2010, http://www.databasedev.co.uk/primary_foreign_keys.html, [3rd-01-10 ]

· 2009, http://db.grussell.org/section008.html, [6th-01-10 ]

· 2009, http://devzone.advantagedatabase.com/dz/webhelp/Advantage9.1/advantage_concepts/advantage_functionality/advantage_data_dictionary.htm, [8th-01-10 ]

· 2010, http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/D/database_management_system_DBMS.html, [10th-01-10]

· 1998, http://www.cs.sfu.ca/CC/354/zaiane/material/notes/Chapter7/node1.html, [12th-01-10 ]

· 2009, http://pages.cs.wisc.edu/~dbbook/openAccess/thirdEdition/solutions/ans3ed-oddonly.pdf, [25th-01-10]

· 2010, http://it.toolbox.com/blogs/database-solutions/investigating-the-workload-in-database-systems-to-improve-throughput-30309, [31st-01-10 ]

* 2008, http://www.buzzle.com/articles/advantages-of-relational-databases.html, [2nd-02-10 ]

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.