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Not permitted activity or misuse by authorized database users, database administrators, or network/systems managers, or by unauthorized users or hackers (e.g. incorrect access to sensitive data, metadata or functions within databases, or inappropriate changes to the database programs, structures or security configurations);
2. Malware infections causing incidents such as unauthorized access, leakage or disclosure of personal or proprietary data, deletion of or damage to the data or programs, interruption or denial of authorized access to the database, attacks on other systems and the unanticipated failure of database services;
3. Overloads, performance constraints and capacity issues resulting in the inability of authorized users to use databases as intended;
4. Physical damage to database servers caused by computer room fires or floods, overheating, lightning, accidental liquid spills, static discharge, electronic breakdowns/equipment failures and obsolescence;
5. Design flaws and programming bugs in databases and the associated programs and systems, creating various security vulnerabilities (e.g. unauthorized privilege escalation), data loss/corruption, performance degradation etc.;
6. Data corruption and/or loss caused by the entry of invalid data or commands, mistakes in database or system administration processes, sabotage/criminal damage etc.
Many layers and types of information security control are appropriate to databases, including:
. Access control
. Integrity controls
. Application security
Access control refers to exerting control over who can interact with a resource. Often but not always, this involves an authority, who does the controlling. The resource can be a given building, group of buildings, or computer-based information system.
Access control is, in reality, an everyday phenomenon. A lock on a car door is essentially a form of access control. A PIN on an ATM system at a bank is another means of access control. The possession of access control is of prime importance when persons seek to secure important, confidential, or sensitive information and equipment
Auditing is the monitoring and recording of selected user database actions. It can be based on individual actions, such as the type of SQL statement executed, or on combinations of factors that can include user name, application, time, and so on. Security policies can trigger auditing when specified elements in an Oracle database are accessed or altered, including the contents within a specified object.
Auditing is used to:
1. Enable future accountability for current actions taken in a particular schema, table, or row, or affecting specific content
2. Deter users (or others) from inappropriate actions based on that accountability
3. Investigate suspicious activity
For example, if some user is deleting data from tables, then the security administrator might decide to audit all connections to the database and all successful and unsuccessful deletions of rows from all tables in the database.
4. Notify an auditor that an unauthorized user is manipulating or deleting data and that the user has more privileges than expected which can lead to reassessing user authorizations
5. Monitor and gather data about specific database activities
For example, the database administrator can gather statistics about which tables are being updated, how many logical I/Os are performed, or how many concurrent users connect at peak times.
In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding messages (or information) in such a way that eavesdroppers or hackers cannot read it, but that authorized parties can:374. In an encryption scheme, the message or information (referred to as plaintext) is encrypted using an encryption algorithm, turning it into an unreadable ciphertext (ibid.). This is usually done with the use of an encryption key, which specifies how the message is to be encoded. Any adversary that can see the ciphertext, should not be able to determine anything about the original message. An authorized party, however, is able to decode the ciphertext using a decryption algorithm, that usually requires a secret decryption key, that adversaries do not have access to. For technical reasons, an encryption scheme usually needs a key-generation algorithm, to randomly produce keys.
There are two basic types of encryption schemes. private-key encryption and public-key encryption. In private-key schemes, the encryption and decryption keys are the same. Thus communicating parties must agree on a secret key before they wish to communicate. By contrast, in public-key schemes, the encryption key is public: that is, anyone (friend or foe) has access to the encryption key, and can encrypt messages. However only the receiving party has access to the decryption key and thus is the only one capable of reading the encrypted messages. Public-key encryption is a relatively recent invention: historically, all encryption schemes have been private-key schemes.
In computing, data integrity refers to maintaining and assuring the accuracy and consistency of data over its entire life-cycle, and is an important feature of a database or RDBMS system. Data warehousing and business intelligence in general demand the accuracy, validity and correctness of data despite hardware failures, software bugs or human error. Data that has integrity is identically maintained during any operation, such as transfer, storage or retrieval.
All characteristics of data, including business rules, rules for how pieces of data relate, dates, definitions and lineage must be correct for its data integrity to be complete. When functions operate on the data, the functions must ensure integrity. Examples include transforming the data, storing history and storing metadata.
In information technology, a backup, or the process of backing up, refers to the copying and archiving of computer data so it may be used to restore the original after a data loss event. The verb form is to back up in two words, whereas the noun is backup.
Backups have two distinct purposes.
The primary purpose is to recover data after its loss, be it by data deletion or corruption. Data loss can be a common experience of computer users. A 2008 survey found that 66% of respondents had lost files on their home PC.
 The secondary purpose of backups is to recover data from an earlier time, according to a user-defined data retention policy, typically configured within a backup application for how long copies of data are required. Though backups popularly represent a simple form of disaster recovery, and should be part of a disaster recovery plan, by themselves, backups should not alone be considered disaster recovery.
 One reason for this is that not all backup systems or backup applications are able to reconstitute a computer system or other complex configurations such as a computer cluster, active directory servers, or a database server, by restoring only data from a backup.
Since a backup system contains at least one copy of all data worth saving, the data storage requirements can be significant. Organizing this storage space and managing the backup process can be complicated undertaking. A data repository model can be used to provide structure to the storage. Nowadays, there are many different types of data storage devices that are useful for making backups. There are also many different ways in which these devices can be arranged to provide geographic redundancy, data security, and portability.
Application security encompasses measures taken throughout the application's life-cycle to prevent exceptions in the security policy of an application or the underlying system (vulnerabilities) through flaws in the design, development, deployment, upgrade, or maintenance of the application.
Applications only control the use of resources granted to them, and not which resources are granted to them. They, in turn, determine the use of these resources by users of the application through application security.
Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) and Web Application Security Consortium (WASC) updates on the latest threats which impair web based applications. This aids developers, security testers and architects to focus on better design and mitigation strategy. OWASP Top 10 has become an industrial norm in assessing Web Applications.