Database Architecture For Mobile Data Tracking System Computer Science Essay

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Abstract-As per the recent market surveys the mobile subscribers reached 100 billions by this June 2010 in India. Mobile operator are also increased, recently several new operators have emerged all over India. SIM cards being brought for customer convince at very low cost and even mobiles at very cheap prices. The security of mobile usage been thrown to low level. A subscriber can use 'N' number of SIM cards from various operators in various mobiles utilization in present system. The IMEI number of a mobile is stored in operator's database, if subscriber's change to another operator in the same mobile, the same IMEI number is not storing in current provider's database, because of lack in mobile operator database centralized. In case, if mobile is lost the subscriber has no chance for lodging compliant with mobile operator to track his mobile and mobile data and also he will be miss his mobile IMEI number. In this paper, we proposed intelligent database architecture will have database synchronization of all the mobile operators' database. In this system, SIM card will start working by synchronization along with authentication of operator's database and gets updated in both ways.

Key words: SIM, IMEI, IMSI, HLR, VLR


In the last several years, Personal Communications Systems (PCS) have been widely deployed in India. Breadth of service and ubiquity of Personal Communications Networks require enrich security to meet the requirements of privacy, authentication. In India mobile service providers are increasing day by day as shown in table 1.Operators covered for India include: Reliance Communications Ltd., Vodafone Essar Limited, Bharti Airtel Limited, Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), and Idea Cellular Limited TATA DoCoMo, Aircel [1].

As per the recent market surveys the mobile subscribers reached 100 billions by this June 2010 in India. Mobile operator are also increased, recently several new operators have emerged all over India (Example Uninor, Vedeocon, TATA DoCoMo etc). SIM cards being brought for customer convince at very low cost (Rs.1/-per SIM card) and even mobiles at very cheap prices.

Indian Telecom


Total telephone subscriber base

621.28 M



Fixed-line user base

36.96 M

Wireless user base (GSM+CDMA)

584.32 M

Monthly additions (Wire line + Wireless)

20.31 M

Monthly additions (Wire line)


Monthly additions (Wireless)

20.31 M

Broadband subscribers

8.75 M

Table 1: Mobile Subscriber Statistics

1.1 IMEI Database

The GSM Association maintains a unique system known as the IMEI Database (IMEI DB). The IMEI Database is a global central database containing basic information on serial number (IMEI) ranges of millions of GSM and 3G devices that are in use across the world's GSM networks [2]. The IMEI is a 15-digit number that is used to identify the device when it is used on a GSM mobile phone network.

If your phone is lost or stolen, you may find it difficult to remember all the contact details you had stored in your phone and SIM card. In this paper, the proposed intelligent synchronized database system is to retrieve the details easily. You can find the IMEI number of your phone by entering '*#06#' on the phone's keyboard.

1.2 Subscriber Identity Module

SIM cards securely store the service-subscriber key (IMSI) used to identify a subscriber. The SIM card allows users to change phones by simply removing the SIM card from one mobile phone and inserting it into another mobile phone. SIM cards store network specific information used to authenticate and identify subscribers on the network, the most important of these are the Mobile Number, IMSI, Authentication Key (Ki), Local Area Identity, Operator-Specific Emergency number, Service Provider Name, Service Dialing Number and Value Added Service.

Exists, provides wide encryption capabilities to SIM card:

e.g. Public Key Infrastructure, extensible Authentication and normal SIM authentication. The SIM card can supply network authentication services.

This solution extends the possible use of the GSM networks authentication for wireless networks. A possible categorization of services [3] is shown on figure1.

The basic level, what we call Nice to know is designed to provide enough information for personalization services and with the help of the SIM card, the user can choose seamless authentication.

The Middle Level, Need to know provides a higher level of knowledge about the users identity thus enabling access to extra features. Others will require SIM plus an additional knowledge based authentication.

The third level, Have a know, integrates the all authentication algorithms.

For giving better result, in this paper, we propose intelligent database architectures and the Data Synchronization for all the service providers will bring benefits to all the key players in the mobile industry. As the number of different providers to increase, so we can manage difficulties of their entire database and this will be increase the productivity of service providers.


Antisocial elements are using mobiles for their activities, the mobiles are bought from various vendors and by using fake identify proofs they are getting SIM cards from various providers, the proposed system will verify for subscriber identity for both mobile and SIM. It is not compulsory that a mobile is purchased on the same name as SIM card, but enforces the law and rule, and even the proposed system also suggests that when a mobile is transferred to some other person its transfer certificates also to be obtained, as the other can miss use the mobile leading its original owner to fall into trouble. For example, if I got a car in 2009 and sold it to some other person in 2010 I need to transfer the vehicle on the name of the person who sought to bought my car, if I did not do that in mean time, and the person who has bought car from me used the car for some anti social activities and been caught to police, the final trouble is going to be faced by me as the car is not yet transferred to that person.

Mobile and SIM miss usage can easily filtered with the proposed system. The mobile vendors are also advised to follow some instructions while a new mobile is sold. The buyer's information has to be collected like in the case of SIM card. Obviously the buyer will get a new SIM on his/her name only. The proposed system will always check for the SIM database for user profile and with the help of mobile IMEI number, the mobile identity is also known.

In case if the SIM is lost or damaged, the new SIM with same number being brought from same provider will automatically retrieves IMEI numbers from its providers database.


In this paper, we proposing to integrate the all service providers database as shown in figure 2.

The proposed system hereby is huge, multidimensional, complex, dynamic and correlative database, massive data transmission is limited by network transmission speed, the storage capacity and bandwidth.

The proposed system will have database synchronization of all mobile operators' databases and SIM card having capacity of storing 'N' different IMEI numbers of mobiles where the SIM card is being placed. The SIM card will start working by synchronizing with operator's database and gets updated in both ways.

The proposed intelligent synchronized database working is as follows.

3.1 Change Detection

In Mobile networks the database of one operator will be individually working, no centralized database among operators is established so far. If a subscriber switches from one network provider to another, authentication of the subscriber is required and will take same process as previous.

The solution can be easily derived by synchronizing all operators database to single point of contact database, where the subscriber's information can be easily transmitted from one to another.

It is becoming very essential in today's environment like subscribers information is decentralized among different operators. No proper proof of a single subscriber having different SIM cards from several operators. Even a subscriber can have several mobiles and will be commonly switching between mobiles using different operators SIM cards. The synchronization is the best method of having a centralized database connected to individual operator's database.

The centralized database concept is concentrated on updating and synchronizing some part of Subscriber's and Mobile information with all the provider's individual databases. Like storing IMEI numbers of mobile in centralized database with the help of SIM card placed in the mobile. When subscriber switches from one operator to another, the IMEI number helps in identifying the existing subscriber information and will inform to the switched operator's database.

3.1.1 Central database concept

Without a centralized database to store the data, you need some way of application to talk to each other. The centralized database will have connections with individual operator's database and is exposed to each other all of the time. The common database application at central database will be brought forward to talk to each other of individual databases. A central database providing the single source of truth makes synchronizing the data a lot easier.

The synchronization of data needs to be executed frequently in a day. Executing synchronization per day will have to loose certain updated information like VLR positions in a user roaming environment, change in database of SIM card like contact numbers, etc.

3.2 Data Transmission

The update information units are small in size so that it can be easily synchronized with database every time without consuming much time. If the units are too small, and too many are changed at once, the synchronization can take forever. The address book will have only a fixed number of contacts and SIM, IMEI and other Numbers. When the database of SIM is modified a simple Boolean flag will raise and will notify the central database server to get synchronized. If the database is modified in outside operator's application, first it gets informed to central database, which intern gets modified by the other operators SIM database.

3.2.1 Data Transmission separately

The amount of data need to be synchronized will be analyzed first, then it will be stored at nearest HLR database in regular time intervals, basing on the network load and traffic the HLR will then gets synchronized with central server. If it seems that network connection is unreliable to get synchronization complete, each chunk of data rather than whole will be copied to central server. When the synchronization gets completed the central server will check the amount of data need to synchronized and amount synchronized, if both are same then the process ended successfully.

3.2 2 The changes are submitted all at once

The network connection some times seems to be very reliable and some times not and even may be dropped in middle, even the total amount of data need to be synchronized in not large, each unit of that data when synchronized with central database server will be advantageous and reliable. As the proposed system architecture defines the amount of data stored in the SIM card and central server is very less, so data when modified will get synchronized with central server by unit wise. There is always the fear of data theft. Personally, if there is a need for a secure transmission, tunneling the communication over SSH will solve the solution.

3.3 Change Control

The process of synchronizing one operator's database with central server starts and ends with Boolean values 0 and 1. When database synchronization starts with one operator's database its stage will be set to 1, hence it is not possible to alter the data at the other end at the same time.

We are introducing the concept of merging data with the help of central database server. Basing on the request made by the user the merging of data happens on one way. The two communications may cause data collisions which will lead to data loss.

3.4 Update Verification

If the application uses some form of checksum to determine what data has changed, then it may need to request each of these checksums from the other end of the synchronization. If there are a lot of potential units, this could be a large amount of data in and of itself.

Remember that the checksum or modification date needs to be compared even if the data has not changed to confirm that it has not changed. If the application has complete control over the data, then a Boolean modification flag along with a modification date can go a long way in reducing the density of this communication.

3.5 Benefits to Mobile Operators

For mobile operators, the major benefit of Data Synchronization is that it can increase employee productivity by giving staff real time access to contacts and all other SIM data. Operators are in a key position to benefit by offering such as service for their subscribers and corporate customers. This system will help to authenticate and retrieve the user profiles.

The above steps are the work done based on fuzzy logic predications and rules. By using Fuzzy database we can retrieve the data easily from central server. It is more flexible than traditional database querying.


Fuzzy queries are given more flexibility to access and store data in synchronized database for all the service providers. In proposed system, fuzzy database querying is an automatic correction of errors while transferring SIM cards from one mobile to another and even storing, retrieval of the data from the synchronized database by several users and operators frequently. It also system supports avoiding the empty responses and a qualitative distinction among the answers. The proposed system will also behave as human and authenticate the system while users are adding new profiles to the database. Here, we are showing the basic operations of such system [8] [9] i.e. fuzzy databases queries for store and retrieving the data.


<query>:=SELECT <list of fields> FROM < List of tables>WHERE < fuzzy quantifier>

<sequence of subconditions>;<sequence of subconditions> ::=<subcondition> |<subcondition> OR <sequence of subconditions><subcondition> ::=<fuzzy quantifier> <important coefficient> <sequence of atomic conditions><sequence of atomic conditions> ::=<atomic condition> |<atomic condition > AND <sequence of atomic conditions><atomic condition> ::=<attribute> = <fuzzy value> |<attribute> <fuzzy relation><attribute>|<attribute><fuzzy relation><number>|

<other forms obeying access syntax>

In general, the simple block of SQL in fuzzy database is written as:

SELECT <n or t > <attribute> FROM <relation> WHERE<fuzzy condition>

where, the user should be able to choose the output either by specifying the number n of desired responses or a threshold tÑ” [0, 1] for t-cut of fuzzy relation.


In this paper, Architecture contains three entities [4] [5]: a mobile Subscriber, Visiting Location Register (VLR) and Home Location Register (HLR). Mallik's SIM card contains a secret authentication key KM and unique "International Mobile Subscribers Identity" and A3 is symmetric encryption algorithm is used. The steps to be follow as shown in figure3.

„hMobile Equipment starts up; it obtains the IMSI from the SIM card, and passes this to the mobile operator requesting access and authentication. The Mobile Equipment may have to pass a PIN to the SIM card before the SIM card will reveal this information.

. The Operator network searches its database for the incoming IMSI and its associated KM

. The operator's network then generates a Random Number (RAND) and signs it with the KM associated with the IMSI, computing another number known as singed Response (SRES_1).

„hThe operator network then sends the RAND to the Mobile Equipment, which passes it to the SIM card. The SIM card signs it with its KM, producing SRES_2 which it gives to the Mobile Equipment along with encryption key K C. The Mobile equipment passes SRES_2 on to the operator network.

„hThe operator network then compares its computed SRES_1 with computed SRES_2 that the mobile equipment returned. If the two numbers match the SIM authenticated and the Mobile Equipment is granted access to the operators' network. KC is used to encrypt all further communications between the Mobile Equipment and the network.

Mobile User





Figure3: SIM authentication using IMSI

5.1 Simulation on Intelligent Authentication

Authentication is a cornerstone in the security of any system. Authentication provides assurance for the claimed or detected identity of an entity in the system, i.e. it verifies weather the identification of this entity correct. The traditional authentication methods require much user interaction in the form of manual logins, logout and file permissions. We introduce the fuzzy logic in this mechanism and it will work as intelligently. The proposed intelligent authentication mechanism is providing more flexibility and robustness, customizability and scalability.




Figure 5: Intelligent Authentication process

The Proposed intelligent Authentication Handling Process is shown in Figure5.

The Inference Engine performs two kinds of tasks. First it gives a level of confidence when a person authenticates himself. It makes user of the authentication policies as well as contextual information to assign the confidence level. Secondly, it evaluates queries from applications about weather a certain entity is allowed to access a certain resources. It makes user of applications specific access control policies.

5.2 Fuzzy Logic & Fuzzy representation

5.2.1 Fuzzy Logic

Fuzzy Logic provides a simple way to arrive at a definite conclusion based upon vague, ambiguous, imprecise, noisy, or missing input information.

Fuzzy set theory provides a formal mathematical framework for a systematic of fuzzy data. A fuzzy subset A of X is defined as:

A = {(mA(x)/x |x Ñ” X} and mA(x)

[0, 1] where mA(x) is the membership function

5.2.2 Fuzzy Representation for Authentication system

A shortcoming of using probability is that specific values need to be devised and given to the specific events in the system. Fuzzy Logic overcomes part of this problem by providing a set and a degree of membership in that particular set. Fuzzy logic is a key approach in situations where one wants to make a transition from a very precise but uncertain proposition to less precise but strictly true proposition.

In order to calculate net confidence when multiple authentication methods are used, without assigning precise probability values, fuzzy sets can be defined for the various possible confidence levels. We define a fuzzy set to designate the degree of confidence in authentication mechanism.

For example, we assume the degree of confidence is represented in a scale with the following categories:

{Very Low, low, medium, high, very high}

This is a fuzzy set is depicted in Figure 6.

Degree of Confidence


We utilize fuzzy logic to provide finger-grain representation of confidence in an identified or authenticated entity.

For the finding approximate value a single rule has the following form:

"if X if Ci then Y is Sj" where Ci and Sj are fuzzy sets over X an Y respectively.

Rules for building confidence based on devices and mechanism user for authentication can defined in the above format. Given n rules, R1 to Rn, and an observation A, ideally we would like to conclude to a fuzzy set, and from there try to get a crisp value:

(R1, R2, R3.., Rn; A)


Where B is the fuzzy set representing the conclusion.

Fuzzy Logic is behaving gently and identifies all type certificates for authentication in the system.

5.2.3 Advantages of the proposed Authentication technique

This technique is highly efficient due to intelligence used and no further information has to be supplied the subscriber (MS) while making a call. The characteristics of this authentication scheme are.

1)This mobile subscriber as well as network authentication technique enjoys the advantages of fuzzy theory, so it is an unique one.

2)Fuzzy Logic is effectively employed to the server and subsequently it takes part to authenticate correct subscriber as well as network.

3)Authenticity is decided by the subscribers talking characteristics and distance of the subscribers from the base station or the network.

4)Flexible simple fuzzy operations are performed on fuzzy set for authentication decision.

5)This authentication technique ensures result with in a real time basis.


In this paper, we have analyzed the proper authentication for tracking the mobile system for GSM roaming users. We have proposed intelligent synchronized database architecture for reducing the cost of mobile data tracking while we replace SIMs from one mobile to another mobile and other data. This scheme is helped for more flexible querying and storing precise data into database. In our future work, we will spread out this technique for real time mobile data bases.