Data Structure And Computer Architecture Computer Science Essay

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It is defined as the study, design. development, implementation, support or management of computer based information systems particularly software applications and hardware applications. It can be used in the application in the business as it can be used to convert ,store,protect, process transmit and security retrieve information.

Q3 What Characteristics of software make it different from other engineering products?

Ans.Software is a general term primarily used for digitally stored data such as computer programs and other kinds of information read and written by computers. Today, this includes data that has not traditionally been associated with computers, such as film, tapes and records. The term was coined in order to contrast to the old term hardware; in contrast to hardware, software is intangible, meaning it "cannot be touched". Software is also sometimes used in a more narrow sense, meaning application software only. It is what we can call a set of programmes which are made in accordance while keeping in mind the needs of the customer. The difference between software and other engineering products is that the other engineering products such as machines and something else cannot be change its working or characteristics while made once but the software can be updated according to the needs of its user.

Q4What are different addressing modes available?

Ans. Types of Addressing Modes

Each instruction of a computer specifies an operation on certain data. The are various ways of specifying address of the data to be operated on. These different ways of specifying data are called the addressing modes. The most common addressing modes are:

Immediate addressing mode

Direct addressing mode

Indirect addressing mode

Register addressing mode

Register indirect addressing mode

Displacement addressing mode

Stack addressing mode

To specify the addressing mode of an instruction several methods are used. Most often used are :

a) Different operands will use different addressing modes.

b) One or more bits in the instruction format can be used as mode field. The value of the mode field determines which addressing mode is to be used.

The effective address will be either main memory address of a register.

Immediate Addressing:

This is the simplest form of addressing. Here, the operand is given in the instruction itself. This mode is used to define a constant or set initial values of variables. The advantage of this mode is that no memory reference other than instruction fetch is required to obtain operand. The disadvantage is that the size of the number is limited to the size of the address field, which most instruction sets is small compared to word length.

INSTRUCTION

OPERAND

Direct Addressing:

In direct addressing mode, effective address of the operand is given in the address field of the instruction. It requires one memory reference to read the operand from the given location and provides only a limited address space. Length of the address field is usually less than the word length.

Ex : Move P, Ro, Add Q, Ro P and Q are the address of operand.

Indirect Addressing:

Indirect addressing mode, the address field of the instruction refers to the address of a word in memory, which in turn contains the full length address of the operand. The advantage of this mode is that for the word length of N, an address space of 2N can be addressed. He disadvantage is that instruction execution requires two memory reference to fetch the operand Multilevel or cascaded indirect addressing can also be used.

Register Addressing:

Register addressing mode is similar to direct addressing. The only difference is that the address field of the instruction refers to a register rather than a memory location 3 or 4 bits are used as address field to reference 8 to 16 generate purpose registers. The advantages of register addressing are Small address field is needed in the instruction.

Register Indirect Addressing:

This mode is similar to indirect addressing. The address field of the instruction refers to a register. The register contains the effective address of the operand. This mode uses one memory reference to obtain the operand. The address space is limited to the width of the registers available to store the effective address.

Displacement Addressing:

In displacement addressing mode there are 3 types of addressing mode. They are :

1) Relative addressing

2) Base register addressing

3) Indexing addressing.

This is a combination of direct addressing and register indirect addressing. The value contained in one address field. A is used directly and the other address refers to a register whose contents are added to A to produce the effective address.

Stack Addressing:

Stack is a linear array of locations referred to as last-in first out queue. The stack is a reserved block of location, appended or deleted only at the top of the stack. Stack pointer is a register which stores the address of top of stack location. This mode of addressing is also known as implicit addressing.

Part-B

Q5 How will you differentiate b/w Arrays and Stacks? Explain by giving an example.

Ans. An array is a systematic arrangement of objects, usually in rows and columns. Specifically, it may refer to several things.

Generally, a collection of data items that can be selected by indices computed at run-time, including:

Array data structure an arrangement of items at equally spaced addresses in computer memory

Array data type used in a programming language to specify a variable that can be indexed

A stack is a last in, first out abstract data type and data structure. A stack can have any abstract data type as an element, but is characterized by only two fundamental operations: push and pop. The push operation adds to the top of the list, hiding any items already on the stack, or initializing the stack if it is empty. The pop operation removes an item from the top of the list, and returns this value to the caller. A pop either reveals previously concealed items, or results in an empty list.

A stack is restricted data structure, because only a small number of operations are performed on it. The nature of the pop and push operations also means that stack elements have a natural order. Elements are removed from the stack in the reverse order to the order of their addition: therefore, the lower elements are typically those that have been in the list the longest

Q6 How a translator is different from a Compiler?

Ans. A compiler is a computer program that transforms source code written in a computer language(the source language) into another computer language (the target language, often having a binary form known as object code). The most common reason for wanting to transform source code is to create an executable program.

The name "compiler" is primarily used for programs that translate source code from a high-level programming language to a lower level language (e.g., assembly language or machine code). A program that translates from a low level language to a higher level one is a decompiler

Q7 Out of Linear and Binary Search ,which one is preferred where and why?

Ans. Binary search is preffered over linear search because linear search is used for finding a particular value in a list that consists in checking every one of its elements, one at a time and in sequence, until the desired one is found

Its worst case cost is proportional to the number of elements in the list; and so is its expected cost if all list elements are equally likely to be searched for. Therefore, if the list has more than a few elements then binary search is preferred.

A binary search is an algorithm for locating the position of an element in a sorted list It inspects the middle element of the sorted list: if equal to the sought value, then the position has been found; otherwise, the upper half or lower half is chosen for further searching based on whether the sought value is greater than or less than the middle element. The method reduces the number of elements needed to be checked by a factor of two each time, and finds the sought value if it exists in the list or if not determines "not present", in logarithmic time. A binary search is a dichotomic divide and conquerr search algorithm.It is used for finding the telephone address for a given collection of name,address.

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