Data Protection Tools Enhanced Security Computer Science Essay

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The major study of this project is based on the security, which has become one of the crucial issues for data communications. It's in both wired and wireless networks. There have been many other works carried out in the past about the designing of cryptography algorithms and system infrastructures. This work especially proposes an algorithm known as dynamic routing algorithm. The algorithm would be capable enough to randomize the delivery paths in the data transmission.

The algorithm is very easy to implement and it is also easily compatible with the already existing routing protocols. The routing protocols used in the wired networks is routing information protocol (RIP), where as the routing protocol used in wireless networks is Destination Sequenced Distance Vector Protocol (DSDV)( C. Perkins and P. Bhagwat, 1994, p234). For so many years there have been various types of security enhanced methods have been proposed just in order to provide security to the data transmission over the public networks. There have been other existing methods such as, cryptography algorithm, system infrastructures and even security enhanced routing methods. In order to overcome the drawbacks of the existing methods, the present work proposes a dynamic routing algorithm which enables to improve the security of the data transmission.

The main objective of the already existing technologies such as cryptography algorithms, are to overwhelm the threats to the networks and data transmission over internet like, spoofing, eavesdropping and hijacking of sessions. IP Security (IP Sec) and Secure Socket Layer (SSL) are the most popular designs of the cryptography based methods. In many of the systems and platforms, these are the most compatible methods that are supported and very easy to implement. The security level of the data transmission has been drastically increased using these methods. However, by using these methods, there is a significant overhead (G. Apostolopoulos, V. Peris, P. Pradhan, and D. Saha, 2000). Thus, because of the overhead introduced on the gateway, the host performance is very badly affected. Also, the effective network bandwidth is been drastically affected. For example, in IP Sec, for a system with Intel Pentium II with Linux IP stack alone, the overhead increases from 5 cycles per byte to 58 cycles per byte. This is the case when advanced encryption standard (AES) is adopted for encryption or decryption. Another method to secured data transmission is to dynamically route the packets that contain the data between the source and destination.

There has been many other proposal of secured routing protocol for the secured data transmission from one end to the other end i.e. from source to destination and this method is based on multiple path deliveries. This method involves to introduce extra control messages in order to determine the multiple paths between the source and destination and it's done in an online fashion.

This work especially proposes an algorithm known as dynamic routing algorithm. The algorithm would be capable enough to randomize the delivery paths in the data transmission. The algorithm is very easy to implement and it is also easily compatible with the already existing routing protocols. The routing protocols used in the wired networks is routing information protocol (RIP)( G. Malkin1994), where as the routing protocol used in wireless networks is Destination Sequenced Distance Vector Protocol (DSDV).

SECTION 2: RESEARCH METHODS AND APPROACHES

For the past many years, there have been different types of security enhanced methods for the secured data transmission. These methods have been successfully implemented over the public networks and also over the internet. There are many methods such as the designs of cryptography algorithms, system infrastructures and the routing methods that are security enhanced.

Cryptography algorithms have different processes of steps. These steps are basically used to encrypt and decrypt messages or the data packets in the cryptographic system. By this process it enables the security of the data transmitted by not allowing any third person to access it. This process mainly makes use of the encryption that allows the communication between one ends to the other end by not authorizing the other third parties from understanding the communication. The encryption process mainly alters the plain text that is readable to an unreadable text. Thus the decryption process takes place at the other end to restore the original data. Encryption and decryption takes place only based on the cryptography algorithms.

The main objective of the already existing technologies such as cryptography algorithms, are to overwhelm the threats to the networks and data transmission over internet like, spoofing, eavesdropping and hijacking of sessions. IP Security (IP Sec) and Secure Socket Layer (SSL) (R. Thayer, N. Doraswamy, and R. Glenn,1998) are the most popular designs of the cryptography based methods.

In many of the systems and platforms, IP Security (IP Sec) and Secure Socket Layer (SSL) are the most compatible methods that are supported and very easy to implement. The security level of the data transmission has been drastically increased using these methods. However, by using these methods, there is a significant overhead. Thus, because of the overhead introduced on the gateway, the host performance is very badly affected. Also, the effective network bandwidth is been drastically affected.

For example, in IP Sec, for a system with Intel Pentium II with Linux IP stack alone, the overhead increases from 5 cycles per byte to 58 cycles per byte. This is the case when advanced encryption standard (AES) (C. Kaufman, R. Perlman, and M. Speciner, 2002) is adopted for encryption or decryption. Another method to secured data transmission is to dynamically route the packets that contain the data between the source and destination.

In order to improve the security enhanced data transmission there have been other methods proposed such as data transmission based on multiple path deliveries (W. Lou and Y. Fang, 2001). In this method the multiple paths are determined by an online method. Due to which there is the necessity of introducing extra control messages.

Any methods that involves online path searching, there is a need of good amount of extra control messages in accordance to find out the multiple paths over the internet. Where as, in the method where the offline patch searching of multiple paths is used, it will be difficult for the networks that are configured with dynamic changing configuration.

This research work specially targets in implementing a routing algorithm that is dynamic and will not need to add any further extra control messages. In the existing wired and wireless networks, the distributed routing information is outspread, based on this information the enhanced routing algorithm will be explored.

In any data communications, the data transmission will have a set of delivery paths between the source and its destination. However, in due course of this research work, it's been considerably taken into account that the 'randomization' of the specific delivery paths. For example, if two consecutive packets of data have been transmitted, then the similarity of the data path will be very thin. In other words, it simply means that the common links between the delivery paths is reduced. Thus, protecting the data transmission to be secured every time when ever the data is transmitted.

The algorithm is very easy to implement and it is also easily compatible with the already existing routing protocols. The routing protocols used in the wired networks is routing information protocol (RIP), where as the routing protocol used in wireless networks is Destination Sequenced Distance Vector Protocol (DSDV) within in the existing infrastructures. By using the proposed algorithm, it is not necessary for the above mentioned protocols to further implement extra control messages. The proposed algorithm will be provided with an analytic study and the results would be verified by the set of simulations. Hence, the capability of the proposed work 'Data Protection Tool with Enhanced Security' will be justified.

Existing System:

In the network every node is given a routing table and a link table using Hello protocol.

Construction and Maintenance of routing tables are revised based on the well-known Bellman-Ford algorithm.

Existing System Disadvantage:

The discovery of paths in an offline method might not be suitable for networks with a dynamic changing configuration which has been used in existing system.

Proposed System:

The proposed algorithm implements popular routing protocols, such as

Routing Information Protocol (RIP) for wired networks.

Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV) protocol for wireless networks.

Those based on RIP, each node maintains a routing table.

If the proposed algorithm is implemented over RIP with equal cost links, then the resulted path set would be the same as that has been generated by an equal-cost multi path protocol based on RIP.

Proposed System Advantage:

The data protection tool with enhanced security could be used with cryptography- based system designs to further improve the security of data transmission over public networks and internet.

SECTION 3: INITIAL LITERATURE REVIEW

Communication plays a vital role in today's day to day life. There have been many technological advances that have revolutionized the communications. It has seen an un-imaginable and drastic changes and advanced developments in the communications era. It is a simple process in which the message or data is sent by the sender in a package and routed to the receiver thru some medium. Once the message has been received by the receiver, then the receiver send back the acknowledgement to the sender.

The major study of this project is based on the security, which has become one of the crucial issues for data communications. It's in both wired and wireless networks. There have been many other works carried out in the past about the designing of cryptography algorithms and system infrastructures. This work especially proposes an algorithm known as dynamic routing algorithm. The algorithm would be capable enough to randomize the delivery paths in the data transmission. The algorithm is very easy to implement and it is also easily compatible with the already existing routing protocols. The routing protocols used in the wired networks is routing information protocol (RIP), where as the routing protocol used in wireless networks is Destination Sequenced Distance Vector Protocol (DSDV).

Software Descriptions:

The Java Language

Java is of two things. It is a programming language and a platform. It is also known as a high level programming language. Java comprises of the following; it's simple, object oriented, interpreted, distributed, secure, robust, portable, high performance and dynamic.

Each Java program is both compiled and interpreted. The compiler can translate a Java program into an intermediate language called Java byte codes; the platform-independent codes interpreted by the Java interpreter. Each Java byte code instruction is parsed and run on the computer with the help of an interpreter. Compilation happens just once; interpretation occurs each time the program is executed. This figure illustrates how this works.

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For the Java virtual machine (Java VM), the machine code instructions are considered as the Java byte codes. Also, these Java byte codes enables the write once and run anywhere principle. Any platform that has a Java compiler, the Java programs can be compiled. In other ways, the same Java program can run on Windows NT, Macintosh and Solaris.

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RIP: Any protocol in the networks uses a specific routing algorithm. Routing Information Protocol is the one that uses the distance-vector routing algorithm. This protocol can mainly be used in local area networks (LAN) and wide area networks (WAN). Initially RIP was introduced in RFC 1058(1988). Later it has seen many changes and developments leading it to RIP v2 in RFC 2453.Routing Information Protocol has been developed in such a way that it is now even adapted to use with IPv6 and is named as RIP Next Generation, in short RIPng.

In the present work, the proposed algorithm implements Routing Information Protocol for wired networks. In this case, each node maintains a routing table. Also if the algorithm is implemented over RIP, with equal cost links then the resulted path set would be the same as that generated by an equal cost multipath protocol based on RIP.

DSDV:

Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector Protocol is the latest protocol that can be used in wireless networks or in other way known as Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET). By using DSDV protocol, it ensures that each mobile device or station to advertise its own routing table to its surrounding neighbors or mobile stations, it can be easily done by broadcasting its entries. As this updates can be changed automatically at times, so it is necessary for each and every mobile station updates or broadcasts the routing table at regular intervals. By enabling this, the protocol ensures that every mobile station knows about the other mobile stations and if its own route is breaks, then it can send a ROUTE REQUEST to the neighbor mobile station and the neighbor mobile station sends back a ROUTE ACK to acknowledge the request.

In a wireless network, as the broadcasting is limited to a particular range depending on the physical characteristics of the medium. This is varied as of the wired networks as there is a specified range of reception. Every time the mobile station broadcast their data, it contains the new sequence number and the destination's address, the number of hops to reach the destination and it also contains the sequence number of the destinations information that it has sent. In the routing tables that are transmitted, it also includes the physical address and network address.

EXISTING TECHNOLOGY:

The main objective of the already existing technologies such as cryptography algorithms, are to overwhelm the threats to the networks and data transmission over internet like, spoofing, eavesdropping and hijacking of sessions. IP Security (IP Sec) and Secure Socket Layer (SSL) are the most popular designs of the cryptography based methods. In many of the systems and platforms, these are the most compatible methods that are supported and very easy to implement. The security level of the data transmission has been drastically increased using these methods.

However, by using these methods, there is a significant overhead. Thus, because of the overhead introduced on the gateway, the host performance is very badly affected. Also, the effective network bandwidth is been drastically affected. For example, in IP Sec, for a system with Intel Pentium II with Linux IP stack alone, the overhead increases from 5 cycles per byte to 58 cycles per byte. This is the case when advanced encryption standard (AES) is adopted for encryption or decryption. Another method to secured data transmission is to dynamically route the packets that contain the data between the source and destination.

CONCLUSION:

This work especially proposes an algorithm known as dynamic routing algorithm. The algorithm would be capable enough to randomize the delivery paths in the data transmission. The algorithm is very easy to implement and it is also easily compatible with the already existing routing protocols. The routing protocols used in the wired networks is routing information protocol (RIP), where as the routing protocol used in wireless networks is Destination Sequenced Distance Vector Protocol (DSDV).

The data protection tool with enhanced security could be used with cryptography- based system designs to further improve the security of data transmission over public networks and internet.

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