Customized Geographic Information System Storage Computer Science Essay

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A Geographic Information System is an organization of software and hardware for storing, retrieving, mapping and analysis of geographic data. A geographic map is a system which stores, represents features present on earth surface & analyzes them. The demand of any world map is to represent a round earth on a flat surface. Cloud computing is defined as a dynamically scalable shared resources which are virtualized and accessed over a network. It is shared internally or with other customers. This paper mainly focuses on the customization of Geographic Information system Storage approach in Web-based Cloud Services.

Keywords: Cloud Computing, Geographical Information Systems, Map Server, Spatial Data Mining, Spatial Maps.


GIS is Geographical Information System.GIS is modeled to seize, repo site, operate and examine different types of spatial data. In the simplest terms, GIS is the merging of cartography statistical analysis and database technology [1].

A GIS combines geographic data, hardware and software.GIS represents the geographic data in the form of charts, maps and globes. GIS allows us to answer queries easily by observing the data in the form of a geographic map.

Spatial analysis with GIS

Analysis of geospatial data is an actively transforming field. Geographical Information System packages which include standard built-in facilities, plug-ins is growing actively [2]. In most of the cases these packages are accommodated by the actual software suppliers and in the remaining cases these packages are provided by third parties [3].

Mining of Geographical Information System

Application of mining techniques to geographical data is called GIS Data Mining. Data mining is the extraction of hidden previously unknown patterns from large amount of databases.GIS mining is widely used in environmental monitoring. GIS-based decision is made using GIS data mining. This type of application has the characteristic of spatial correlation of data measurements which needs the use of expertise algorithms for efficient analysis of data [3].

Top Five Benefits of GIS

Industries of different sizes in every field are benefitted by GIS. Vision towards economic values and strategic values of GIS has been increasing [4]. The advantage of GIS comes under five basic areas:

Money is saved and efficiency of the system is improved

Improved making of decisions

Communication is improved

Record keeping is improved

Analyzing Geographically

The spatial Approach

Geographical data when paired with GIS helps us to have a clear knowledge on earth. So that we can apply geographic knowledge to the human activities [5].The spatial procedure - an innovative way of thinking and problem solving that combines geographical data. The spatial approach helps us to create geographical information by measuring geographical data, classifying this data, determining and forming various methods and their relationships.

The spatial approach helps us to apply this information to the approach we sketch, scheme and alter ate the world. GIS is an uprising field.GIS has emerged as a active field to organize complicated spatial environment [5]

II. Map Server

A map can be viewed as an area which is a symbolic description highlighting relationships among elements of that geographical area i.e. objects, regions and themes [6]. Majority of the maps are not dynamic, accuracy in geometry and are 2-dimensional observations of 3-dimensional space and few of the maps are dynamic, interactive and three-dimensional.

Types of Maps

Climate maps

Economic or resource maps

Physical maps

Political maps

Road maps

Topographic maps

Map Server is an open source platform for publishing spatial data and interactive mapping applications to the web [7]. Using Map server we can build geographically enabled internet applications. It can be executed as a CGI program or via Map Script which supports several programming languages

Map server is a popular project. The purpose of map server is to display dynamic spatial maps in the internet[8].Maps server has many features like capability to run on different environments like windows, Linux etc, assist for scripting languages and supports different development environments like PHP, Python, Java, Ruby and .NET. Map server is a Common Gateway Interface that acts inactive on the Web server [9].

Map Server can be extended and customized through Map Script or templating. It can be built to support many different input data formats of vector and raster . It can generate a multitude of output formats. Most pre-compiled Map Server distributions contain most all of its features.

III. Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is the utilization of hardware resources and software resources that are produced as a service in a network [9].Cloud Computing is an internet based development. It uses computer technology. Cloud Computing is an uprising IT development field[20]. The cloud is a computing service that charges you based only on the amount of computing resources we use. Key characteristics include agility, cost, device and location independence, multi tenancy, reliability, scalability, security and sustainance. There are six different types of cloud computing [14]. They are Web-based cloud services, SaaS (Software as a Service), Platform as a Service, Utility cloud services, managed services, Service commerce.

Rather than using fully developed applications Web-based cloud services utilize certain web service functions.

Advantages of cloud computing include cost efficient, unlimited storage, backup recovery, automatic software integration, easy access to information, quick deployment [9]. Cloud Computing increases the velocity using which we can deploy application with lower costs. Cloud Servers is both persistent and highly elastic.

Cloud Components

In a simple, topological sense, a cloud computing solution is made up of several elements: clients, the datacenter, and distributed servers. Each element has a purpose and plays a specific role in delivering a functional cloud-based application. Rack space Cloud server is backed by Open Stack Cloud platform. Based on the requirements it is free to develop software. Small business and large business enterprises are suitable with cloud computing solutions [14]. Rack space cloud server solves all types of cloud problems that involve cloud hosting, managed hosting & Hybrid hosting.

Cloud computing is a pay per use model. Cloud computing is used for enabling available, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable resources [9]. Cloud computing is defined as a dynamically scalable shared resources accessed over a network. It is shared internally or with other customers. It is an internal network. Resources are virtualized [20].

Service models:-

There are different service models. They are as follows:

1. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)

Providers offer computers (as physical or more often virtual machines)

Egg:-Rack space Cloud

2. Platform as a Service (PaaS)

Providers provide a computing platform (a solution stack as a service)

Egg:-Google app engine

3. Software as a Service (SaaS)

Providers install and operate application software in the cloud


4. Storage as a Service (STaaS)

Service providers' rents space in their storage infrastructure

Egg:-Rack space Cloud Storage, Amazon S3

5. Database as a Service (DTaaS)

Providers provide hosted and managed database as a service

Egg:-Mongolab, Rack space Cloud Database

Cloud Service providers:-Amazon,Verizon,IBM,,CSC,Rackspace,Google,Bluelock,Microsoft,Joyent[9].

Cloud Rack Space:-

Cloud server sizes are determined by the amount of physical memory reserved for particular instance. Cloud server ranges from 256MB to 30GB. For storing the Map server we have used 1 GB RAM, Disk Space as 40GB, and Public Network as 30 Mbps and Internal Network Speed as 60 Mbps.

IV. Spatial Maps

Position and shapes of environmental characteristics as well as events occurring in the environment are defined by spatial data. Determining this information is critical.

Advantages of Spatial Maps

We can observe extreme benefits by using maps and Geographical Information Systems

It is a way to store geographical information [11].

Using maps we can easily recognize and analyze patterns of spatial data.

They are effective in presenting information and communication findings

The GIS offers many advantages over paper maps. Paper maps are used to manage huge amounts of data very faster and easily. Paper maps require less number of individuals, less amount of time and more money

V. Dengue Disaster Representation:

Dengue virus and dengue hemorrhagic fever are amongst the most important challenges in tropical diseases due to their expanding geographical distribution, increasing outbreak frequency, hyperendemicity and evolution of virulence [13]. Artificial Intelligence (AI), with its various subfields, has a long history of knowledge extraction, representation, and inference in medicine.

The field of computer-assisted dermatology has thus benefited greatly from advances in knowledge representation techniques and machine learning algorithms [14]. Clinical dermatology is mainly a visually dominated discipline. The recognition of signs and symptoms as well as their interpretation of patterns typical for specific diseases remains the core task for diagnosis. During the last decade computer-assisted applications have proven to be of value for the diagnosis of various forms of skin cancer, especially cutaneous melanoma, Dengue, Malaria, Polio, etc. Geography is a combined discipline. Analysis of geographic data includes multiple areas

Geography is a centralizing discipline. Analysis of geographical data includes data about many disciplines. GIS information which includes health maps is necessary for health related areas [13].This is motivated by many factors.

1. Every pattern includes a peculiar variable subset from the original data and the available combinations of attributes are many.

2. A potential pattern inside a subspace may be of 3. For a specific shape, its parameter space is still larger

4. Patterns differ from location to location [14].

VI. Disaster Representation in Map Server

Information Systems enable us to capture up to date effects due to disaster. Spatial data analysis does not have the capabilities for determining the huge volumes of geographic data is identified [15]. Currently our focus is on epidemic management through geographic maps. The system is to find the data, process the data and interpret the data (Health Companion) as a basis for action. Spatial Map for disaster identification is designed. Some of the geospatial data characteristics build challenges [15] and some of the characteristics that make geospatial data as a problem has been reported in many other articles [16]

VII. Results

Map showing Eluru as Eluru (1) which means that Eluru is affected by the epidemic disease Dengue

Map showing Guntur and Vijayawada as Guntur (5) and Vijayawada (7) which means that Guntur and Vijayawada is affected by the epidemic disease Dengue

VIII. Conclusion

Visualization technology and spatial data mining are the two different methods of analysis of spatial data. Map server is a popular open source project. Using map server we can display dynamic spatial maps over internet. For analyzing, manipulating, storing and capturing of different types of spatial data we have Map Server. It is very useful to combine them together to form a visual interactive data mining model to support massive spatial data analysis and assistant spatial decision support. Hence Map server is stored in the internet by the usage of Rack space Cloud Computing

IX. References

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