Cryptography And Data Security Computer Science Essay

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In my opinion, attempting to break into computing system without authorization should be illegal and restricted from doing that. It can be classified as hacking and it is unethical action to access or obtain any information thus it will not resolve anything but only will cause additional issues such as fines and sent to prison. Attempting to break into computer systems tends to happen when the person is seeking for revenge, payback or to gain access to information, or such as an intruder.

There are two terms in computing system that we should be aware of which is hackers and cracker. In early days, hackers were categorized as the joy of programming because they are good and creative programmer who wrote very clever piece of programs. In general, these hackers are only interested in learning and intellectual challenges and thrill of doing that. Moreover, they have no intention of disrupting or stealing information that can cause damages. It should be illegal in our country because many damages or even threats can happen. Hackers will be easily stealing the data's and information's of our country and sells it off to the enemies or 3rd parties. In this same way, these people can earn lots of money and turn our country's reputation and images down.

On the other hand, cracker in early days, are the "bad guys" who seek to crack or trespassing information from computers, typically to do any malicious things such steal credit card information or even crash the computer systems. They can be creation or writing a virus, worm or Trojan to attack and slow down the entire system. Most of the crackers, they can access or install a "backdoor" as a secret pathway which allows them to "remote control" to access the computer over the Internet. This technique is very advance until it has the power of collecting the history of the user's and the full information's regarding any transactions or personal accounts numbers. But to this new era of globalization and advance in technology, the word "hacker" neither "cracker" is used interchanging and known as intruders, the biggest threat and bug over the computing system.

Why not? In some cases, hackers are legal to certain companies to detect security issues in their websites and software. Hacking can be said that legal if the hacker uses for learning purposes about the security and it's their own capabilities without changing anything that belonged to the user or removing anything. Breaking into computer system without authorizations is not necessary only by hackers, but there are other well equipped and specialized in networking and security to keep updating the entire system, check the errors, run the system efficiently, encrypt the important messages and keep the private key safely so that the computing system defense will be stronger.

Furthermore, there are topics on the illegal way of hackers intrudes the entire computing system. It happens to be that breaking into computing system without authorization is illegal. Why? The only answer is that these hackers have no authorization and permission to access that certain website. Some hacker break into the system because only they can do and expose the flaws that the system can be break into. Many crimes and cases arises when most of the hackers, are IT professionals, or unemployed graduates who tends to hack for fun and post any dirty stuffs in the system. Most important features of someone who hacks, is their "mindset", a set of beliefs that they has establish. Hackers usually brag about their conquests on message boards or instant messaging programs, competing with fellow hackers is to who is the best among them.

Neither is legal or illegal, hackers has always their points that our social responsibilities to share information and that it is information hoarding and disinformation that are the crimes. It is important that we examine the differences between the standards of hacker, systems managers, user, and the public. As it is stated in our government, there are always crimes regarding cyber theft and numbers of hackers are increasing year by year, thus punishment has been enforced to control it. There are always chances for this expertise in networking or security fields to practice on good way of hacking or learning the computing system in future. A lot of people out there see hackers as an outlaw ideal and want to be hacker themselves. Lacking the technical knowledge and the patience nor curiosity needed to acquire it to break into people's programs without authorizations.

Question 2

Let me start off by explaining what DES, AES, and RSA cryptography is. DES is data encryption standard is being used widely method of data encryption with the use of private key, also known as secret key that was judged so difficult to break into by the U.S government that it was restricted for exportation to other countries. For each message give, the key is selected at random from among these number of keys. In DES, both receiver and the sender need to know and must know to use the same private key. In this encryption scheme, DES encrypts 64 bits data using 56 bits key. Other than that, it was that there was some modification that has been made to DES thus; Triple DES was the replacement for that. In order to use DES in different cryptographic application, four modes of operation were built; Electronic Code Book (ECB), Cipher Feed Back (CFB), Cipher Block Chaining (CBC), and Output Feed Back (OFB).

Move on to next cryptography system which is AES. What is AES stands for? What does it make difference to DES? AES stands for advanced encryption standard, an encryption algorithm for locking sensitive but unclassified material by

U.S government agencies. It became the de facto encryption standard for commercialize dealings in the private sector. AES may as well use all algorithms to be used in altered ways to perform encryption. It depends on the different situations to use the varieties of methods. AES encryption is based on the secret or private key. AES is much stronger and faster than Triple DES. The algorithm is classified to be fee free for use worldwide and offer sanctuary to protect and enhance the data for the next 20 to 30 years. AES is easy to implement in a hardware or software as well as in limited environments and at the same time provides good defenses against various malicious attacks.

Finally, we come to the last encryption scheme which is RSA cryptography. In 1977, Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Len Adlemen established the public key encryption scheme that is now known as RSA after they named it after their initials. The method uses modular exponentiation, which can be done efficiently by a computer even when the module and exponent are hundreds of digits long. The main point using RSA algorithms is only that is based on the fact that there is no effective way to factor very large numbers with lots of long digits. In these days, RSA algorithm has become the in effect for industrial strength encryption, especially for data to be sent over the Internet. Moreover, this technology is being powerful that U.S government has restricted shipping it to foreign countries. RSA involves a public key and a private key. The public key is known to everyone and is used to encrypt messages. Messages encrypted with the public key can only be decrypted by the use of private key.

It is possible that manufacturer develop an "all in one" product that could perform, for example, DES, AES, and RSA cryptography because each and every encryption scheme has their own methods and strategy to protect the message and at the same time it makes the encryption stronger. Key management systems allow you to create keys and keep them stronger. Many security professionals believe that it is important the proper creation, management, and protection of their encryption keys. There already manufacturers that incorporate the entire encryption types together. But it is totally dependent upon what types of structures the cryptanalyst is looking for. Cryptanalyst it the person who studies encryption and decrypt messages in hope to find the hidden meaning.

Question 3

Encryption can be breakable, and can be unbreakable. A regularly key would make and encryption definitely unbreakable. When the changes happen, there are some errors which can't be avoided that leads to unbreakable. It is believed that NIST has the system that can perform an unbreakable encryption, transmission and decryption. As in our mind, there will be always this question, if someone can decrypt message, then someone else will be able to decrypt it.

The only proven unbreakable encryption method is One Time Key encryption. One time key encryption is a very simple yet completely unbreakable. I have been used for decades for encryption purpose. The one time key encryption method is binary addition stream cipher and decryption by an "exclusive OR" (XOR) addition.

There are few preconditions in proving stream ciphers which are the key must be as long as the plaintext, the key must be totally random that can't be generated by any algorithm that takes as input a shorter key, and the key must be only use once and only one message, the key is never used for any other purpose or otherwise exposed to interception.

Moreover, one time key encryption has the popular scientific explanation. It uses the "Brute Force" attack that means every possible combination of key bits must be used to decrypt the cipher text. It also consists of unlimited computing power and time. A brute force attack would be very expensive for a plain text of reasonable size. For users, it will be difficult to guess the right plaintext, however, every meaningful string the same length as the original plaintext data would also appear as potential plain text string. Thus, trying all the possible keys doesn't help the attacker at all, since all possible plaintexts are equally likely decryptions of the cipher text.

On the other hand, a higher security cipher with a longer key is used for occasional of new keys used for the cipher system that is used for the actual protection of plaintext. If key were be too exchanged more frequently, instead of taking into account how difficult the cipher being used is to break, use new keys to keep safe from attack, no unambiguous decryption of the text encrypted under only one key would possible.

However, if a plaintext has no non-random distinguishing characteristics, there is no way to determine if a decryption key being tried is really accurate , does not apply to public key systems. There is no conventional secret key in a system like RSA. There is a private key, which is very difficult to conclude form the public key, but it is still a fact, if one had only enough computer power available, the public key strictly determines what private key must be.

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