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When develop a new server or upgrading an existing one, the initial hardware configuration requirements and application usage needs. While experience can make then work more accurate, the configuration requirements are still based on assumptions of the number of factors, the maximum volume of data, and the type of processing required. A sizing activity should be performed prior to the purchase of the system to more accurately determine the specific business requirements and its environment. The major performance characteristics are determined by the hardware configuration. When make new or upgrading a system, these initial decisions are the most important ones in determining the system's performance. Even though system tuning can help identify problems and alleviate bottlenecks, it cannot compensate for a poorly configured system.
In this report I will discuss and create a network for a Life Insurance Company and. For the whole company I have to configure a server which must be related with main office and four other agent office also 2 new agents, but I will make the network for current and future use.
Networking principles with system types and topologies:
Networking is a process of linking two or more computer (node) device together where the main purpose of sharing data.
Types of Network:
Generally we network system are divided is several different ways.
Local Area Network (LAN): Local Area network is isolated network. Generally, It is build in a physical location. such as office, home etc. Computers are connected to each other by a small server and also connected to the wide area network (Internet). This types of networks are very use full for sharing data likes files, small or big document, play network games etc.
Metro Politian Area Network(MAN) :
Metropolitan area network is a large computer network where computers are connected with each other from different geographical location. Its structure and built process are quite similar with LAN the only difference its spans an entire city or a selected are like college or university campus or a commercial area. We can get a shared network connection form MAN.
Wide Area Network (WANs):
Wide area network is similar to a Local area network but here all other device connected to each other by fiber-optic cables, telephone line or a satellite links.
Bus: Every node or device are individually linked up to successive other device or other node . It's a very simple network but it's has sum troubleshooting network issues . such as if a node is not working then how can anyone find the error node. Other way it has data redundancy issues.
Ring: It quite similar to bus network topologies. It has no termination like bus topologies. The main reason is that this topologies has no end it related to each other like a circle.
this network has some fault such as difficulty of adding a new node to a token ring network.
In this network each and every node maintains an totally individual connection to a switch, where all other nodes are connected. It has a direct connection with switch to node. the weakness are need more wire to setup a network.
In this topology every node connected with each other node. It generally used in wireless network. It need a large amount of overhead which very difficult to manage+
This is simply a topology referring to the case where more than one topology is utilized. It is the combination of star and ring topology.
Evaluate the impact of current network technology, communication and standards:
OSPF: It is a routing protocol generally used for larger network either a single network or a group network. It is designed by Internet Engineering Task Force. It can also used as a Gateway Protocol.
FTP: File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is mainly a standard protocol of Network which is used to transfer data from client to host or one server to another server . If user or admin want to upload a file on a website he or she needs a username, password and host address.
SMTP: Simple mail transfer protocol is like a media which transfers e-mail. SMTP always work with POP3 service.
TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol is a set of a protocol stack. Basically it is tow different protocol. TCP/IP is closely related with FTP, SMTP, HTTP.
Protocols enable the effective utilisation of different networking systems:
Network Protocols are ensure proper utilisation of different network system.
OSI model Layer 2 protocol is data link protocol which handles the physical and logical connections to the packet's destination using a network interface card (NIC). Layer 3 Protocol called Internetwork Protocol (IP) it is also called network layer protocol it work for routing, directing datagrams from one network to another. IP protocol always analysis larger datragrams and identify each and every host with a 32-bit IP address.
Layer 4 protocol are TCP, UDP. Transmission Control Protocol (Tcp0 establishes connections between two hosts on the network through sockets which are determined by the IP address and port number. one the other side provides a low overhead transmission service, but with less error checking.
Discuss the role of software and hardware components:
Software: All Network software consists of the programs and protocols which required to connect computers together. Their primary purpose are data inter connect each other, data sharing.
Application sharing: For application sharing all computer use same platform to connect and manage computer. If a network share application software platform to connect then it can reduce network cost.
Hardware or Peripheral sharing:
Network software also share hardware such as phone, fax, printer etc. A printer connected with ser with server and all other computer can share that computer.
Management and Security:
Network software provide some mechanism to maintain proper security of data and its can make backup copy of valuable date. It can monitor and make a digital report on resource utiliaation and efficiency.
Operating System: Windows or Linux system.
Network Interface card (NIC):
A router is used to route data packets between two networks. It reads the information in each packet to tell where it is going. If it is destined for an immediate network it has access to, it will strip the outer packet, readdress the packet to the proper ethernet address, and transmit it on that network. If it is destined for another network and must be sent to another router, it will re-package the outer packet to be received by the next router and send it to the next router.
AÂ network switchÂ is a small hardware device that joins multiple computers together within oneÂ local area network (LAN). Technically, network switches operate at layer two (Data Link Layer) of theÂ OSI model
It is a hardware device that linking two or more network segments within one logical network with the same protocol. It can filter frames. It also reduce network traffic to all network.
It is a process to join tow networks together. By the help of gateway and TCP/IP one network between two work as a entrance of other network.
Server types and selection requirement:
For the given scenario I would prefer a window server and here I want to clear my intension by full filing server selection requirement.
So If any admin want to select a server types then admin must follow, server, proxy servers, web server, mail server, FTP server, SMTP server. Here I try to mention server and its work
Server: A Server designed to get request or to process requests from other device or node(client) and deliver or process data to other node or client over a local network, or the wide area network.
Now a days we find plenty of servers around us. So, I try to figure out some common server types:
Proxy Servers: A proxy server like a middle man between a client and a real server. Here client means a web browser such as Internet explorer or chrome. When a client make a inquiry then web browser its try to solve it, otherwise web browser forward the query to the real server. In this way a proxy server reduce search time.
A proxy server also used to filter request. A network admin used it to control unauthorized web access. Such as: many company block facebook, online game site etc
Mail Servers: A mail server used for delivers e-mail over a network or over the internet. This types of servers receive e-mails from other nodes or users and send the mail to correct node or client.
Web server generally a server which commonly used to host websites. Its deliver web page with content to client site and all the content are plain HTML documents or a image.
Application Servers: Application server generally called appserver. It is a software which controlled all application between users and an server.
FTP Servers: File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is mainly a standard protocol of Network which is used to transfer data from client to host or one server to another server . If user or admin want to upload a file on a website he or she needs a username, password and host address.
Server types selection is an important step for a new network. To select a server for office or a home is not easy its seems quite complicated.
So an administer should make his own criteria to select server type. So, I try to set some criteria.
Operating systems (OS)
CPU type and speed
Drive types, space, and speeds
Intel(Processor), HP (Network Printer)
Discuss the inter-dependence of workstation hardware with network components.
Design a networked system to meet a given specification:
Answer: Design of a computer network systems first think about a central device which could be a switch or a router, A central server, a pc for every users, hard ware components .
A Network can be defined as a group of computers and other devices connected in some ways so as to be able to exchange data.
-Each of the devices on the network can be thought of as a node; each
node has a unique address.
-Addresses are numeric quantities that are easy for computers to work
with, but not for humans to remember.
-Some networks also provide names that humans can more easily
remember than numbers.
Domain Name System (DNS)
Mnemonic textual addresses are provided to facilitate the manipulation of internet addresses.
DNS servers are responsible for translating mnemonic textual Internet addresses into hard numeric Internet addresses
Packet switching -In modern networks, data are transferred using and sent from one packets -Messages are broken into units called computer to the other.
-At the destination, data are extracted from one or more packets and used to reconstruct the original message.
-Each packet has a maximum size, and consists of a header and a data area.
-The header contains the addresses of the source and destination computers and sequencing information necessary to reassemble the message at the destination
Printer 18.104.22.168Life Insurance company
Agent 6 22.214.171.124
Agent 2 126.96.36.199
Agent 5 188.8.131.52
Agent 4 184.108.40.206
Agent 3 220.127.116.11
Life Insurance Company Network Structure
Main Router, Office and Agents
Main office and agents
1. Windows 7 operating system
2. Internet connection
3. Anti virus
4. Other third party software
Evaluate their existing Network:
IP Address: No
Interface: 1 Main office, 4 Agents office and 2 New agents office but not interconnected by network
Component Used: This Network used some specific Hardware & Software.
Future Network Design:
Given IP Address:
New Network Features:
A server and a shared printer which is available for all users.
Set the system up so that the different agents are on different subnets.
The users need to be able to access a Server printer.
The all department need to be able to access the share materials.
Given IP: 18.104.22.168
Subnet Mask: 255.255.0.0
Binary Value of Subnet Musk:
255 255 0 0
11111111 11111111 00000000 00000000
The network need 7 subnet. So, if I use 3 bit for making subnet then the binary value is
11111111 11111111 11100000 00000000
255 255 224 0
In this process the network get 6 subnet. But I use 4 subnet for four departments.
Main office: 22.214.171.124
Agent 1: 126.96.36.199
Agent 2: 188.8.131.52
Agent 4: 184.108.40.206
Agent 5: 220.127.116.11
Agent 6: 18.104.22.168
Design a maintenance schedule to support the networked system:
Admin should check all the software issues problem. Admin can use different types of tools to analysis, migration, monitoring security and administration work. This tools help admin to identify the problem within a short time. It's also recommend some solution to fix problem. This types of tools provide : DNS name, NetBIOS name, IP address, SNMP name and address.
Admin can use LAN monitoring software to check regularly on given schedule basis. Some good software are available in market. It's has remote access feature so admin can access from different geographical location to monitor his network. These software generate total traffic report used by network. Create auto report about any intrusion attempts on router. Virus activity with firewall.
A Network maintenance check list.
Must be note Anti - virus software name and version number
Collect a scan report
Check anti -virus communication with agent or host machine.
Take daily backup.
Try to check system by third party scan software.
Note backup software name and version number.
Note current amount of data being backed up.
Note backup media size.
Check all configured.
Note version number of microsoft update.
Check remote desktop configuration.
Workstation Maintenance :
Use strong password for logging and check is it working properly or not.
Configure internet browser security level on default level.
All time used latest Microsoft update.
Turn off automatic update.
Turn on virus protection
Un-check security center alert.
Turn off Desktop cleanup wizard every 60 days.
Taking the time to plan the design and hardware configuration and also
file distribution are well worth the effort. The pre-configuration activities that take place
before the system is installed are important determinants on how new built system will
perform. As data requirements grow, planning the I/O subsystem and file distribution
becomes even more important. Modifying them after an I/O bottleneck has been identified
is more difficult than initially setting them up correctly. If user use the system carefully then system can reduce use of extra memory. It can also reduce the amount of problem and increase the overall performance rate of the system.
When new design system is running and giving result user regular jobs to testing the impact of system. Defragment system hard disks and take care the whole network system.