Computing Is Now Not Limited To Desktops Computer Science Essay

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Computing is now not limited to desktops and laptops, it has found its way into mobile devices like Tablet Pc and even cell phones. But what has not changed for the last 50 years is the input device, the good old QWERTY keyboard. Virtual Keyboard uses sensor technology and artificial intelligence to let users work on any surface as if it were a keyboard. Virtual Devices have developed a flashlight-size gadget that projects an image of a keyboard on any surface and let's people input data by typing on the image. The Virtual Keyboard uses light to project a full-sized computer keyboard onto almost any surface, and disappears when not in use. Used with Smart Phones and PDAs, the VKEY provides a practical way to do email, word processing and spreadsheet tasks, allowing the user to leave the laptop computer at home.

Virtual Keyboard is just another example of today's computer trend of 'smaller and faster'. Computing is now not limited to desktops and laptops, it has found its way into mobile devices like palm tops and even cell phones. But what has not changed in over 50 years is the input device, the good old QWERTY keyboard. The virtual keyboard technology is the latest development. The virtual keyboard technology uses sensor technology and artificial intelligence to let users work on any flat surface as if it were a keyboard. Virtual Keyboards lets you easily create multilingual text content on almost any platform of software for PC, Mac, cell phone, or tablet pc even on some web pages. VKEY is a handy, convenient easy to use application that is a perfect solution for cross platform text input.

The main features are Platform -independent multilingual support for keyboard text input, with built in language layouts and settings, copy & paste. Operations support just as in regular text editor with no change to existing system language settings and it's easy user friendly interface and design, and it's small file size. Now I will tell you a little about the regular QWERTY keyboard. The letters QWERTY is the most common keyboard layout on the English language computer and Typewriter keyboard. It takes the name from the first six letters seen in the far left of the keyboards top row of letters.

The Basic Operation of a Manual QWERTY Keyboard

1. When a key is pressed, it pushes down on a rubber dome sitting beneath the key. A conductive contact on the underside of the dome touches (and hence connects) a pair of conductive lines on the circuit below.

2. This bridges the gap between them and allows electric current to flow (the open circuit is closed).

3. A scanning signal is emitted by the chip along the pairs of lines to all the keys. When the signal in one pair becomes different, the chip generates a "make code" corresponding to the key connected to that pair of lines.

4. The code generated is sent to the computer either via a keyboard cable (using on-off electrical pulses to represent bits) or over a wireless connection. It may be repeated.

5. A chip inside the computer receives the signal bits and decodes them into the appropriate key press. The computer then decides what to do on the basis of the key pressed (e.g. display a character on the screen, or perform some action).

6. When the key is released, a break code (different than the make code) is sent to indicate the key is no longer pressed. If the break code is missed (e.g. due to a keyboard switch) it is possible for the keyboard controller to believe the key is pressed down when it is not, which is why pressing then releasing the key again will release the key. (http://www.freewebs.com/keyboardfb/Characteristics.html)

The problems of basic QWERTY Keyboards

It is now recognized that it is important to be correctly seated while using a computer. A comfortable working position will help with concentration, quality of work and reduce the risk of long-term problems. This is important for all who use computers, and especially so for those with disabilities. The increased repetitive motions and awkward postures attributed to the use of computer keyboards have resulted in a rise in cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) that are generally considered to be the most costly and severe disorders occurring in the office. Lawsuits for arm, wrist, and hand injuries have been filed against keyboard manufacturers allege that keyboarding equipment is defectively designed and manufacturers fail to provide adequate warnings about proper use to avoid injury. As early as1926, Klockenberg described how the keyboard layout required the typist to assume body postures that were unnatural, uncomfortable and fatiguing. For example, standard keyboard design forces operators to place their hands in a flat, palm down position called forearm pronation. The compact, linear key arrangement also causes some typists to place their wrist in a position that is skewed towards the little fingers, called ulnar deviation. These awkward postures result in static muscle loading, increased muscular energy expenditure, reduced muscular waste removal, and eventual discomfort or injury. Researchers also noted that typing on the QWERTY keyboard is poorly distributed between the hands and fingers, causing the weaker ring and little fingers to be overwork.

Now here are some things about the virtual keyboard Virtual Keyboard is just another example of today's computer trend of "smaller and faster". Computing is now not limited to desktops and laptops, it has found its way into mobile devices like palm tops and even cell phones. But what has not changed for the last 50 years is the input device, the good old QWERTY keyboard. Alternatives came in the form of handwriting recognition, speech recognition, abcd input (for SMS in cell phones) etc. But they all lack the accuracy and convenience of a full blown keyboard.

Speech input has an added issue of privacy. Even folded keyboards for PDAs are yet to catch on. Thus a new generation of virtual input devices is now being paraded, which could drastically change the way we type. Virtual Keyboard uses sensor technology and artificial intelligence to let users work on any surface as if it were a keyboard. Virtual Devices have developed a flashlight-size gadget that projects an image of a keyboard on any surface and let's people input data by typing on the image.

The device detects movement when fingers are pressed down. Those movements are measured and the device accurately determines the intended keystrokes and translates them into text. The Virtual Keyboard uses light to project a full-sized computer keyboard onto almost any surface, and disappears when not in use. The translation process also uses artificial intelligence. Once the keystroke has been decoded, it is sent to the portable device either by cable or via wireless connections.

The Virtual Keyboard uses light to project a full-sized computer keyboard onto almost any surface, and disappears when not in use. Used with Smart Phones and PDAs, it provides a practical way to do email, word processing and spreadsheet tasks, allowing the user to leave the laptop computer at home. The technology has many applications in various high-tech and industrial Sectors. These include data entry and control pane applications in hazardous and harsh environments and medical markets.

Projection key boards or virtual key boards claim to provide the convenience of compactness with the advantages of a full-blown QWERTY keyboard. An interesting use of such keyboards would be in sterile environments where silence or low noise is essential like operation theatres. The advantage of such a system is that you do not need a surface.

3.2 Virtual Keyboard Technology

This system comprises of three modules:

 

 

Components of a Virtual Keyboard

1. The sensor module

2. IR-light source and

3. The pattern projector.

Sensor module:

  Fig 3.2: Sensor Module

The Sensor Module serves as the eyes of the Keyboard Perception technology. The Sensor Module operates by locating the user's fingers in 3-D space and tracking the intended keystrokes, or mouse movements. Mouse tracking and keystroke information is processed and can then be output to the host device via a USB or other interface.

Electronic Perception Technology:

Electronic perception technology enables ordinary electronic devices to "see" the world around them so they can perceive and interact with it. Now everyday electronic devices in a variety of markets can perceive users' actions, gaining functionality and ease of use with virtual key boards.

 

http://htmlimg3.scribdassets.com/2s1rg9ttz48zm05/images/11-1d268d2c28.jpg

 

Virtual Keyboard The tiny electronic perception chips and embedded software work by developing a 3D "distance map" to nearby objects in real-time. This information is factored through an on-chip processor running imaging software that translates the image into defined events before sending it off-chip for application-specific processing. It's an action that is continually repeated, generating over 30 frames of 3D information per second. Electronic perception technology has a fundamental advantage over classical image processing that struggles to construct three-dimensional representations using complex mathematics and images from multiple cameras or points of view. This single chip "contour mapping" approach results in a high reduction of complexity, making it possible to embed the application independent processing software directly into the chips themselves - so they may be used in the most modestly-priced, and even pocket-sized electronic devices.

IR-light source

:

http://htmlimg3.scribdassets.com/2s1rg9ttz48zm05/images/12-3fd7f4a96a.jpg

The pattern projector:

The Pattern Projector or optional printed image presents the image of the keyboard or mouse zone of the system. This image can be projected on any flat surface.13Nehru College of Engineering And Research Centre

http://htmlimg3.scribdassets.com/2s1rg9ttz48zm05/images/13-4a565106ee.jpghttp://common.ziffdavisinternet.com/util_get_image/1/0,1425,sz=1&i=15995,00.jpg

 

Virtual Keyboard The projected image is that of a standard QWERTY keyboard, with all the keys and control functions as in the keyboard. The Projector features a wide-angle lens so that a large pattern can be projected from relatively low elevations. A printed image, with replaceable templates allows system flexibility, permitting most any kind of keyboard configuration for greater functionality. In some types of virtual keyboards, a second infra-red beam is not necessary. Here the projector itself takes the inputs, providing dual functionality. A sensor or camera in the projector picks up the finger movements, and passes the information on to the sensor modules.

http://palmaddict.typepad.com/photos/uncategorized/virtual_keyboard1.jpg

Here are some Applications

1. High-tech and industrial Sectors

2. Used with Smart phones, PDAs, email, word processing and spreadsheet tasks.

Virtual Keyboard

3. Operation Theatres.

4. As computer/PDA input.

5. Gaming control.

6. TV remote control.

7. CONCLUSION

Virtual Keyboard uses sensor technology and artificial intelligence to let users work on any surface as if it were a keyboard. Projection key boards or virtual key boards claim to provide the convenience of compactness with the advantages of a full-blown QWERTY keyboard. The company's Virtual Keyboard is designed for anyone who's become frustrated with trying to put information into a handheld but doesn't want to carry a notebook computer around. Canesta appears to be the most advanced in this class of technology. Different types of virtual keyboards suit different typing styles. Thus virtual keyboards will make typing easier, faster, and almost a pleasure.

Sources

http://palmaddict.typepad.com/photos/uncategorized/virtual_keyboard1.jpg

. http://www.newscom.com/cgi-bin/prnh

2. www.canesta.com Virtual Keyboard

3. www.procams.org

4. www.billbuxton.com/3state.html

5. www.smarttech.com

6. www.3m.com/us/office/meeting/product_catalog/wd.jhtm

http://koluwer.blogspot.com/2011/06/innovation-of-canesta-virtual-keyboards.html

http://www.freewebs.com/keyboardfb/Characteristics.html

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