Computer Usage And 3d Multimedia Learning Application Computer Science Essay

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During this phase, many important matters related with this application were studied such as adaptive techniques, learning style, science syllabus for Standard Four students and existing system. The information gained from literature review is applied in the system design and system development phase.

3.3 Requirements Gathering

This phase involve distribution of questionnaires and conducting interviews in order to understand user requirements. Standard Four students, Standard Four Science teachers and parents were involved in this phase.

3.3.1 Study of Existing Systems

Review on existing systems enables to identify the system functions and features that should be incorporated in the application. Strenght and weakness of the existing systems used as guide in system design and development.

3.3.2 Interview

There are two kinds of preliminary requirement that has been done. The first one is the fact-finding analysis, using several sources like pamphlets, catalogs, magazines, books, newspaper, journal and conference proceedings, Internet webpage and education CD-ROMs. The second one is the requirement analysis through questionnaire and structured interviews (Preece n et.al, 1994). Only the requirement part will be highlighted in this chapter as the fact-finding analysis has been discussed in chapter 2.

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Analysis is the first phase in Instructional Design Modeling (Jamaludin Harun n et.al, 2001) technique. To get the preliminary requirement about syllabus and computer usage on primary school student, a questionnaire was distributed to the 52 respondents. The respondent consists of 48 parents and 4 primary school teachers from Subang Jaya and Shah Alam. While for the primary school student, structured interviews were done to get the data requirement about computer usage, solar system and three dimensional (3D) graphics and simulation.

3.1.1 The Questionnaire And Structured Interview Participants

Questionnaires are often used to get the information and opinions from large number of people (Preece and et.al, 1994). In this research, the questionnaires were distributed through paper. The purpose of the questionnaire was to get the preliminary data on users' knowledge on computer usage especially for the primary school student. 24 samples of parents were from Subang Jaya SS 19 residents with standard 5 children and the other 24 were from Shah Alam residents with standard 5 children. The other four are primary school teachers from Subang Jaya SS 19 and Shah Alam Seksyen 11 primary school.

3.1.2 The Questionnaire Design

The questionnaire in this chapter was designed to gather data about user knowledge computer usage and 3D multimedia learning application. The design of questionnaire used in this research is summarized as below:

The design of this preliminary data gathering uses simplest form of questionnaire, multi choice questions with answers (Faulkner, 1998) like 'Yes', 'No' and 'Not Sure'. Please refer the Appendices to see the complete form of preliminary data gathering.

In this research, the questions used were closed questions, (Preece and et.al, 1994; Faulkner, 1998) rather than using open question. Even though open questions are good for gaining information on a large basis but they can produce too much data that is very difficult to analyze because of its diversity. In this case, closed questions were chosen because they were simple and easier to analyze the data especially when using software like SPSS.

The questions in the questionnaire begin with general questions, followed by the more detailed question.

The questionnaire for each part was only on two sides of A4 paper. This is to avoid user feel uncomfortable and time wasting when they answer the questions.

The questionnaire has been tried out by the author in order to find out any difficulties might arise in providing answers. It took just about 2 minutes to fill in the form. Three steps were done before the questionnaire was distributed to the respondents. The first step was creating the questions that related to the topic. The second step was checking the grammar and flow of the questionnaire. Lastly, the questionnaire was organized in a suitable form and distributed to the selected respondents.

3.1.3 The Structured Interview Design

Structured interview with predetermined questions set in structured (Jamaludin Harun and et.al., 2001; Preece and et.al., 1994), will not explore one's attitudes and the interviewer just have to tick the answers of the prepared questions. It is the proper way to get the data requirement from the primary school student because not all of them understand the questionnaire. The interview sessions involved verbal conversation and this made the students comfortable and eager to answer the questions. The structured interview was designed to gather data about Primary School student requirement on the adaptive 3D multimedia learning application. The design of structured interview used in this research summarized as below:

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The interview includes multi choice questions. It also gives multiple answers and user can give more than one answers per question. Please refer the appendices to see the complete form of the structure questions about 3D application.

The questions used are closed questions and the interviewer just has to tick the answers in the answer sheet.

The first parts in the questions are about the primary school students' knowledge on computer usage. The second part of the questions is about science subject in the form of 3D and multimedia. The final part of the questions is about their acceptance of the application in learning the subject.

The structured interview questions contained in two side of A4 paper. This to avoid the student feels uncomfortable and bored during the interview session.

The structured interview questions are based on the students' environment. The questions created have to be related with the prototype. Then, the grammar and flow of the questions were checked. Lastly, the questions were organized in suitable form for a structured interview and the interviews were conducted for primary school student.

3.1.4 Result, Analysis and Discussion on the Preliminary Data Gathering from Questionnaire

3.1.4.1 Computer Usage Category

3.1.4.1.1 Result

Questions

Answers

Percentage (%)

Do you have computer/notebook at home?

Yes

No

90.4

9.6

Do you have Internet access at home?

Yes

No

76.9

23.1

Do you allow your child/student to study using computer without your supervision?

Yes

No

38.5

61.5

Do you allow your child/student to study using the Internet at home?

Yes

No

42.3

57.7

Do you think that children/student should use computer/notebook to study?

Yes

No

86.5

13.5

Do you think it is necessary for children/student to have computer/notebook?

Yes

No

28.8

71.2

Do you think children/student study using computer are more effective than study the traditional way? (reading books and doing exercises)

Yes

No

80.8

19.2

Do you think your children/student should know how to use the computer/notebook?

Yes

No

82.7

17.3

Table 3.1 : Answers and percentages of computer usage

Graph 3.1 : Percentages of respondents have computer / notebook at home

Graph 3.2: Percentages of respondents that have access to the Internet at home

Graph 3.3: Percentages of respondents that agreed on children use computer/notebook in learning

Graph 3.4: Percentages of respondents that agreed study using computer are more effective than traditional way

Graph 3.5: Percentages of respondents that agreed on children should know to use the computer/notebook

3.1.4.1.2 ANALYSIS

A survey using questionnaire was carried out on parents and teachers from Subang Jaya and Shah Alam to access their knowledge and awareness about adaptive 3D multimedia learning application. The survey was done using multiple-choice questions. The participants questions are as shown in table 3.1 Four questions that got the highest percentage of 'Yes' will be discussed.

Referring on Table 3.1 and Graph 3.1, the result has shown that 90.4% of the respondents have computer or notebook at home. The mean is 1.10.

76.9% of the respondents also have Internet access at home because Internet is widely used nowadays for email and surfing websites. The mean for this question is 1.30.

From Table 3.1 and Graph 3.3, 86.5% of the respondents support the student in using computer or notebook to study because of the interactive and fun way of learning compared to the plain book reading. The mean for this question is 1.16.

80.8% of the respondents agree that student study using computer are more effective than traditional way like reading books. The mean for this question is 1.23.

Based on Graph 3.5, 82.7% of the respondents think that student should know how to use the computer or notebook because most of them already learn the basic of computing at school. The mean for this question is 1.20.

Range of Age

Frequency

Percentage (%)

24 - 29

30 - 49

50 and above

Total

10

41

1

52

19.2

78.8

1.9

100.0

Table ?: Respondents of the survey

3.1.4.1.3 DISCUSSION

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From the result and analysis of Table 3.1 and Graph 3.1, it shows that most of the parents and teachers have their own computers or notebook at home.

3.1.4.2 THREE DIMENSION AND MULTIMEDIA LEARNING APPLICATION

3.1.4.2.1 RESULT

Questions

Answers

Frequency

Percentage (%)

Do you know what is three-dimension (3D)?

Yes

No

15

37

28.8

71.2

Have you ever let your child/student used any multimedia learning application in 3D?

Yes

No

23

29

44.2

55.8

Do you think children/student know how to use the multimedia application?

Yes

No

17

35

32.7

67.3

Do you think 3D is better than 2D in teaching science subject?

Yes

No

43

9

82.7

17.3

Can 3D multimedia learning application improve your child's/students' understanding?

Yes

No

38

4

73.1

26.9

Do you think your child / student knows how to navigate the 3D application?

Yes

No

Not sure

22

23

7

42.3

44.2

13.5

Have your child/student watched any 3D animated cartoon? E.g.: Ice Age, Upin dan Ipin, Shrek, Cars and etc.

Yes

No

47

5

90.4

9.6

Which they like to watch most? (3D or 2D)

3D

2D

30

22

57.7

42.3

3.1.4.2.2 ANALYSIS

3.1.4.2.3 DISCUSSION

3.1.5 RESULT, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION ON THE PRELIMINARY DATA GATHERING FROM STRUCTURED INTERVIEW

3.1.5.1 COMPUTER USAGE

3.1.5.1.1 RESULT

Questions

Answers

Frequency

Percentage (%)

Do you know what is a computer or notebook?

Yes

No

Not Sure

Have you ever used a computer? Play games or surf the internet

Yes

No

Do you know what Windows is?

Yes

No

Do you know how to switch on the computer or notebook?

Yes

No

Do you use the internet access at home?

Yes

No

Do you know how to use the computer or notebook?

Yes

No

Yes

No

3.1.5.1.2 ANALYSIS

3.1.5.1.3 DISCUSSION

3.1.5.2 THREE DIMENSIONAL MULTIMEDIA LEARNING APPLICATION

3.1.5.2.1 RESULT

Questions

Answers

Frequency

Percentage (%)

Do you know what is three dimension (3D) ?

Yes

No

Have you ever let your child/student learn any 3D multimedia learning application?

Yes

No

Do you think your child/student know how to use the multimedia application?

Yes

No

Do you think science subject should be taught in 3D animated?

Yes

No

Have you ever watched 3D cartoon? Eg: Toy Story, Ice Age, Cars, Bolt, Shrek and lots more.

Yes

No

Not Sure

Do you like watching 3D movies?

Yes

No

Which do you prefer to watch? 3D or 2D movies?

3D

2D

Would you like to learn science in 3D using computer or notebook?

Yes

No

Which do you prefer to use, books or 3D multimedia learning application?

Yes

No

Do you understand by reading books?

Yes

No

3.1.5.2.2 ANALYSIS

3.1.5.2.3 DISCUSSION

3.1.5.3 EARTH AND THE UNIVERSE

3.1.5.3.1 RESULT

Questions

Answers

Frequency

Percentage (%)

Do you know what is Earth?

Yes

No

Do you allow your child to study using the internet at home?

Yes

No

Have you learned the Earth and the Universe chapter in school?

Yes

No

Do you understand what you have learned? Can you explain what you have learned?

Yes

No

Not Sure

Have you ever learned about the Earth in 3D form?

Yes

No

6.

Yes

No

7.

Yes

No

3.1.5.1.2 ANALYSIS

3.1.5.1.3 DISCUSSION

3.2 DESIGN SPECIFICATION

3.2.1 MODULES IN "EARTH AND THE UNIVERSE"

There are three modules in the solar system prototype. The modules are Simulation, Information and Help module.

Figure 3.1 : Example of Interface of Side View Module (beginner mode)

Simulation module is a module where users can learn the planets location, how it rotates and animation of the earth and the moon. Figure 3.1 is the overview of the interface. On the left side of the application is the navigation window. Student can click on buttons.

Figure 3.2 : Example of Interface Simulation Module (advance mode)

Figure 3.3 : Example of Interface Information Module (beginner mode)

Figure 3.4 : Example of Interface Information Module (advance mode)

Figure 3.5 : Example of Interface Help Module

Users can proceed to Help module anytime if they want to know about each button provided in the application. Please refer to Figure 3.5 for interface overview.

3.2.2 STRUCTURE OF "EARTH AND THE UNIVERSE"

INTRODUCTION

QUIZ

Adaptive Personalization

SOLAR SYSTEM FOR ADVANCE USER

SOLAR SYSTEM FOR BEGINNER USER

SIDE VIEW

HELP

TOP VIEW

SIDE VIEW

TOP VIEW

INFO

QUIZ

INFO

Figure ? : Structure of Adaptive 3D Multimedia Learning Application

The structure defines the methods in which users can navigate through the application. Please see Figure 3.7 for the overview. The introduction page is the main page that contains the application title and user mode selection. From the introduction, the system will bring user to user selected mode page either novice user module or expert user module.

3.2.3 STORYBOARD OR SCREENSHOT OF "EARTH AND THE UNIVERSE"

A storyboard is an expression that would be contained in the program such as how menus screen would look like, pictures (still and moving) to be shown, audio and text will accompany the images, either synchronously or hyperlink. While Jamaludin Harun (Jamaludin Harun and et.al, 2001) stated that storyboard is the rough overview of the screens of certain application in elaborating to the user about the design of the system. Tools like color pencil, paper, and suitable software can be used to create the storyboard. In addition, a storyboard is a series of sketches that describe the content of a sequence of multimedia screens. The simple storyboarding contains a frame for screen layout sketching and a space below the frame for making comment (Hofstetter,2001).

STORYBOARD PAGE MODULE NO: 0 PAGE N0:1

3.3 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION

Requirement and basic specification for development and implementation on PC are categorized in software and hardware. Software requirement are stated in Table ? and hardware requirement are in Table ?

3.3.1 HARDWARE SPECIFICATION

No.

Requirement

Minimum Specification

1

Computer

Processor : Intel Pentium II

Speed : 166 MHz

Hard Disk : 4.1 GB

Memory : 64 MB EDO RAM

CD-ROM DRIVER :32x

CD-ROM WRITER : 12x

Monitor : 14" SVGA Color

Mouse and Mouse Pad

Table ? : Software Specification

3.3.2 SOFTWARE SPECIFICATION

No.

Requirement

Specification

1

Analysis and Design of the system

SPSS 10.0 for Windows

Microsoft Word 97

Visio 6.0

2

Development of the system

Adobe Director 11

Adobe Photoshop CS

3D Studio Max

3

Literature Review

Mozilla Firefox

Internet Explorer

4

Operating System

Windows 2000

5

Project Planning

Microsoft Project 98

6

Report Writing

Microsoft Word 97

Microsoft Excel 97

Table ? : Software Specification

3.4 CONTINGENCY DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION PLANNING

The Contingency Development Planning was prepared in order to face possible risks that might happen in developing the system. The table ? shows contingency planning.

No.

Issue

Alternative

1

Software for system development especially authoring software is not suitable or system developer cannot master the software.

Get other authoring software such as Adobe Flash

2

Lack of software and hardware

Borrow from other people or organization

Table ? : Contingency Planning