Computer Software Operating Systems Computer Science Essay

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This assignment explains about operating system and this report contains information about computer software operating system, purpose of operating system and their different types of function as well as features. It has information about different types of operating system and compares two different types of operating system.


What is an operating system?

Operating system is software that consisting of programs and data, that runs on computer and it also guide the computer software and hardware resources of the system. Hardware function has input and output and memory allocation. The operating system act as intermediary between application program and the computer hardware and although the application code is usually executed direct by hardware and it will frequently call the OS and it will be interrupted.

The popular modern operating systems for personal computer are Mac OS X, Microsoft windows, Ubuntu and Linux. The applications software needs an OS to work, and users need the applications software to interact with the hardware connect with OS.


Purpose of an operating system

Operating system is the structure that allows you to be in touch with computer hardware in a joint way. If you without operating system you would not be able to tell computer to anything and it would any instruction to follow. This is why it is important for a computer to have an operating system. In early days without OS so much problems where faced like accessing or getting output takes two days. To make it much more able OS is used. The OS gives the border through which you work with the system. It passes your command to the program. The Operating System also keeps the different programs processes running perfectly.

Features of an Operating system


A real-time operating system is a multitasking operating system planned for applications with fixed deadlines Real-time operating systems are used to control machinery and industrial systems and it has fast response. The important part is real time operating system also control the resources of the computer so that particular operations finish in correctly at the same amount of time.

Single user/ Single task

A single-user is a type of operating system (OS) that is improve and planned for use on a computer or similar machine and one user can do one thing at a time and it is useful for low spec systems.

Single user / Multitask

Multitask is operating system that one user can perform many tasks at a time and it is common for current PC systems.


Multi-user are titles that explain operating system or application software that allows joined access by multiple users of a computer. The time-sharing systems are multi-user systems. There is an example of UNIX servers where there is multiple remote users have achieved to the UNIX shell prompt at the same time.

User interface

The user interface is a feature of the operating system that maintains the communication between the user and computer. There are many operating systems that also use graphical user interface, that mean it can uses images and icons to communicate with the user. Operating system has once again plays the position of guide to communicate with both the user and also there is language in computer that they both understand.

GUI (Graphic user interface)

Graphical user interface (GUI) is a type of user interface that allows users to join with programs in more ways than typing such as computers; hand-held devices such as MP3 players, portable media players or gaming devices; household appliances and office equipment with images rather than text commands.

Command line

Command line interface is a mechanism for join with a computer operating system or software typing commands to perform specific tasks. Command line interface can generally be designed as rest of syntax and semantics. The syntax is the grammar that all commands must follow. In the case of operating systems (OS), MS-DOS and UNIX each define their own place of rules that all commands must follow.

Function of an operating system

Process management

Processor management involves the setup that all applications and processes get the suitable amount of time from the processor so that it can function properly. It also involves by taking advantage of as many processor cycles as it possibly can to make everything work together properly.

File management

A file management or file browser is computer programs that provide a user interface to work with file systems. The most common operations used are created, open, edit, view, print, play, rename, move, copy, delete properties, search and permissions. They used to explain the functions of computer software that performs basic operations on digital content such as storing, copying, viewing, printing and deleting.

Input and output

Input and Output describes any operation, program or device that transfers data to or from a computer. The input and output helps the user to help with the PC through the monitor, keyboard and mouse. Inputs are the signals or data received by the system, and outputs are the signals or data sent from it. Some devices are basically input-only devices for example, keyboards and mouse and others are primarily output-only devices (printers) and others also provide input and output of data for example hard disks and writable CD-ROMS.

Memory management

Memory management is the process of arrange that each process has the amount of memory needed to finish the task so that processes do not steal memory from each other. It also provides memory space to allow multiple processes to be executed at the same time. It also gives good level of performance for users. They protect each process for example, it don't get data mixed-up between processes.


The kernel is the central part of most computer operating systems. The connection between applications is the actual data processing done at the hardware level. Kernel is responsible to manage the systems resources. The key part of an operating system is a kernel can give the lowest-level thinking level for the resources that has application software and it control to perform its function. It has heart of the operating system and it provides safe access to the computer hardware. The software has low-level and the hardware transfer. It manages the resource availability.

There are types of kernel which are:

Monolithic kernel

Its runs the most of it services in the kernel workspace and used in most Linux system


Its runs most services like networking and file system in user space and it have most safe, but more complex designs.

Hybrid (modified microkernel)

Microkernels have some "non-essential" code in kernel space in order for that code also run more quickly. Windows NT/2000 and Macintosh OS x use hybrid kernels

Different types of operating system


Linux is a type of operating system their development is one of the most famous examples of free and open source software teamwork. Linux is known for its server it can be installed in a large variety of computer hardware for example Watches, Laptops, and even mobile phones.


Ubuntu is a type of operating system based on Linux distribution and is distributed in as free and open source software. It provides an up-to date constant operating system for the regular users with a strong focus and ease of installation.

Windows xp

Windows XP is a line of operating systems produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, and media centres. There are two types of windows one is called windows XP which is suitable for home users and the other one is called windows XP professional which applies for businesses and enterprise clients.


Linux is a type of operating system their development is one of the most famous examples of free and open source software teamwork. Linux is known for its server it can be installed in a large variety of computer hardware for example Watches, Laptops, and even mobile phones. Linux distribution, installed on desktop and laptop computers have increased in recent years. The name Linux came from Linux kernel.

Compares the two different types of operating system

Operating systems have lots of different parts. I will be comparing two types of operating system.

1. Windows xp

2. Ubuntu

Windows xp

Windows xp was produced by Microsoft on personal computers; it includes home and business desktops. Windows xp runs slow and it doesn't work properly, sometimes it shut down suddenly and it also has some old features and functions, so if we want to download new software it wouldn't run properly, windows xp also catches viruses easily.


Ubuntu is a good operating system because it runs faster than Windows xp; it doesn't catch a virus very quickly. It has some new features and functions, if we want to download new software and it would work better than windows xp because it has got proper software to work with it. You can learn many new things and many people like this new system. The users are free to run, copy, distribute, study, change, develop and improve the software.


By comparing the two different parts of operating system, I will prefer to use Ubuntu because it is better than windows xp, it run faster and it also has new features and functions, and it has got new software to learn with it.