Computer And Mobile Phone Network Architectures Computer Science Essay

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Introduction:

Network architecture is the design of a communications network. It is a basic framework for the requirement of a network physical component and their configuration and functional organization.

In telecommunication, the specification of network architecture may include detailed information of services delivered via communications network and represents products, as well as detailed information of rate and billing structures under which services are paid.

Internet Protocol Suite is a term by which network architecture of the internet is mostly expressed, rather than a specific model for nodes in the network, interconnecting networks or the usage of limited types of hardware links.

Types of networks based on physical scope:

There are Common types of computer networks that may be recognized by their scales:

Local area network:

LAN (Local area network) is a network that interconnects devices and computers. Every computer or device on the network is known as a node. It is limited to geographical areas such as home, office building, school, computer laboratory or closely positioned group of buildings. Present wired LANs are mostly like to be based on Ethernet technology.

Basically Typical library network is a branching tree topology and have a controlled access to resources. All the connected devices must understand the network layer 3, because all of them are handling various subnets. The devices present in the library, which are based on 10/100 Mbit/s Ethernet connections to their user device and also having a Gigabit Ethernet connections to the central router are known as "layer 3 switches". These kind of switches only having Ethernet interfaces and must understand IP. It would be more accurate to say them access routers.

Most important benefit of LANs in contrast to WANs. LANs are having their smaller geographic range, no need for leased telecommunication lines and are having higher data transfer rates. Now-a-days Ethernet and other IEEE 802.3 LAN technologies operate at the speed up to 10 Gbit/s. IEEE has projects which are investigating the adjustment of 40 and 100 Gbit/s.

Personal area network:

PAN (Personal area network) is a network which is used for communication among computers and different devices close to one person. PAN may also include wired and wireless devices. Some examples of PAN devices are: video game consoles, personal computers, PDAs, fax machines, telephones, scanners, printers. The range of a PAN network is typically extends to 10 meters. Wired PAN is typically built with USB and Firewire cables connections while in wireless technologies such as infrared communication and in Bluetooth it automatically form a wireless PAN.

Home area network:

A home area network basically based on a residential Local area network which is used to make communications between digital devices that are typically deployed in the home, usually personal computers and other accessories like printers and mobile computing device. It may also be referred to an office area network (OAN). An important function is the sharing of Internet access like; a broadband service through a CATV or DSL.

Wide area network:

A WAN (wide area network) is a network that covers large geographical areas such as; city, country using a communications channel that combines many types of Medias such as telephone lines, cables and air waves. WAN technologies normally function`s at the three layers of the OSI reference model: the physical layer, the data link layer, and the network layer. A Wide Area Network frequently uses broadcast facilities provided by common carriers like; telephone companies.

Metropolitan area network:

A MAN (Metropolitan area network) is a large computer network that usually covers a city or a large campus.

Virtual private network:

VPN (Virtual private network) is a network in which some of the contacts between nodes are passed by virtual circuits in some larger network instead of by physical wires open connections. In this case the data link layer protocols of the VPN are said to be tunneled through using larger network.

Virtual personal network may have best performance or may consist of a definite service level agreement (SLA) between the Virtual Private Network customer and the Virtual Private Network service provider. Generally a Virtual private Network has a topology which is more complex than point-to-point.

Global area network:

GAN (Global area network) is a type of network used for supporting mobile communications through the random number of satellite coverage areas, wireless LAN`s etc. The major challenge in the mobile communications is the successful handing off the user communications from one confined coverage area to the next confined coverage area. In IEEE Project 802, this includes a series of global wireless LANs.

Cloud based Networking:

Cloud-based networking is a new way to crush spread enterprise networks that delivers enterprise-class network experiences around the globe, multi-tenant application that requires no capital investment in networking equipment. Not like outdated hardware-based legacy solutions, enabling enterprises to deploy remote locations in minutes and operate their spread networks through a cloud-based application, cloud-based networking is extremely simple, while providing unparalleled levels of centralized control and network visibility.

Client server model:

The clientâ€"server model of computing is a dispersed application structure that divides tasks or workloads between the suppliers of a resource or service called servers and service consumers called clients. Frequently servers and clients interconnect over a computer network through a separate hardware, but both server and client may exist in the same system. A server machine is a cloud that is running one or more server programs and shares their database with clients. A client does not share any of its database, but requests a server's content or service function. Clients therefore start communication sessions with servers which wait for incoming requests.

Wireless LAN:

(WLAN) wireless local area network connects two or more devices using a wireless distribution method typically spread-spectrum or OFDM radio and usually provides a connection through an access point to a wider internet. This is the great flexibility of this technology and a user can move around within a local coverage area and still be connected to the network.

Fixed Wireless Data: This applies point to point links between computers or networks at two locations. Often using committed microwave or laser beams over line of vision paths. It is often used in cities to connect networks in two or more buildings without physically wiring the buildings together.

Wi-Fi : Wi-Fi is increasingly used as a synonym for 802.11 WLANs, although it is technically a certification of interoperability between 802.11 devices.

Wireless MAN:

MAN (wireless Metropolitan Area Networks) are a type of wireless network that connects several Wireless LANs.

WIMAX is a type of Wireless MAN and is described by the IEEE 802.16 standard.

Wireless WAN:

WAN (Wireless Wide Area Network) are wireless networks that normally cover large outdoor areas. They are made and installed for 2.4 GHz band. These networks can be used to connect offices and their branches or as a public internet access system. It typically relays on the system contains base station gateways, access points etc. In WAN other configurations are the mesh systems in which each access point acts as a relay. When combined with renewable energy systems such as photo-voltaic solar panels or wind systems they can be stand alone systems.

Mobile devices networks:

Development of smart phones and cellular telephone networks regularly carry data in addition to telephone conversations:

GSM (Global system for Mobile Communications): GSM network is divided into three major systems: the switching system, the base station system, and the operation and support system. The cell phone connects to the base system station which then connects to the operation and support station; it then connects to the switching station where the call is transferred to where it needs to go. GSM is the most common standard and is used for a majority of cell phones.

Refrences:

C. Clarke ., 1945 . Overview of wireless communications.

Lachu Aravamudhan,Stefano Faccin,Risto Mononen,Basavaraj Patil,Yousuf Saifullah,Sarvesh Sharma,Srinivas Sreemanthula., 2003 “Getting to know Wireless Communications”.

Geier, Jim., (2001). Wireless LANs.

Ajay Kumar Gupta ., 2010. AirTight Networks.

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