Computer And Information Processing Computer Science Essay

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Backup: Almost all information is saved digitally, including extremely important data. For this reason, proper computer backups are essential. Backups are mainly copies of data that are used to make sure that when the original data is despoiled, the central information can easily be re-established from the backup copies. There are many types of computer backup systems; Full backup, selective backup, and image backup. Full backup is a kind of a computer backup system that saves almost all the original data of a computer hard drive or any additional device. Selective backup only saves the important information. Image backup is the precise identical copy of a computer hard drive or other device.


Compression Agent: This is used to recompress the files on a disk using the compression method specified. A disk can be recompressed using a single compression method or by using different methods for individual files and folders. Files and folders can also stay uncompressed. This will help save disk space.


Disk cleanup: Computer space fills up fast, and being able to quickly make more space is important. Disk cleanup does just that. This is a tool that allows users to clear their disks of needless files. It removes any unused and temporary files from one's computer to make space for new files and programs. Disk cleanup can take a couple seconds to a few hours to remove unused files from the computer. The time depends on how many files are being removed and the speed of the processor.


Disk defragmenter: This is the process of remedying all the information on a hard drive so that it starts at the beginning of the disk and is structured in a chronological nature. It is essential significance to maintaining a properly running computer. The function of a disk defragmenter is to modify the information on a hard disk so that all files are printed from start to end and not spread across the whole disk out of order. Defragmenting a hard drive decreases the quantity of time it takes to access and read a folder. A defragmentation procedure may take anywhere from a few minutes to several hours depending on the number and size of disks on a computer system.


Drive Converter: It transfers you date between your SD memory card and computer. It dives to change from adapter to other types, for example USB adapter to a parallel adapter.


DriveSpace: This is a disk compression utility. This software compresses the data to be stored on the hard drive or floppy, and increases the data as it is interpreted from the drive. It increases the amount of data the user could store on disks. However, DriveSpace makes the computer run more slowly, since decompression happens on the fly with every disk access.


Maintenance Wizard: This helps one get the greatest performance from the system. Maintenance Wizard make your programs operate faster, ensures your hard disk for harms, and free hard disk space. When you start the maintenance wizard, you may choose to express or to use your own custom settings.


Net watcher: This is a utility that can be used to monitor the activities of network clients on a particular system. With Net Watcher, one can see who is connected to the system. What shares one is accessing, and what files they have open. One can also at once terminate a user's access to the system, a share, or a file.


Resource Meter: Resource Meter software demonstrates specific system-related information, generally about how your available resources like memory space or disk space are presently in use. It is a tiny program that operates in the background and lets one be familiar with the amount of resources the system is using at a specified time. It exhibits as a sign in the System Tray and is color coded.


Scan Disk: This is a windows utility used to check the hard disk for errors and to correct problems that are found. These errors often occur when Windows locks up and must be restarted.


Scheduled Tasks: It is a component of Microsoft Windows that provides the capacity to schedule the launch of programs at pre-defined times or after specific time periods. It can be used to schedule tasks on the local or remote system to which one is connected.


System Monitor: Is hardware or software system used to examine resources and performance in a computer system. These systems are frequently used to keep track of system resources or the quantity of free RAM. In addition, they are used to exhibit things such as free space on one or more hard drives, the temperature of the CPU and other important components, and existing rates of upload and download. Other likely displays may contain date and time, computer name, username, hard drive, and fan speeds.

Question 2:

Windows 98 is a widely-installed product in Microsoft's evolution of the Windows operating system for personal computers. It has many features that have enhanced its growth. These features include the following:

Multiple Monitors:

Windows 98 now supports multiple monitors. Multiple monitors are devices for typical home and business use, but are a vital obligation for professional content formation. It is frequent to have all the software such as page layout, pre-press, illustration, animation and other graphics work on one screen and the artwork in progress on a screen by itself. It is frequent to have music and video on one complete monitor for each source and destination in use.

Web integration:

The windows 98 includes all of the improvements from windows desktop update, an internet explorer 4 components, desk bands, channels, ability to minimize foreground windows, single click launching, back and forward navigation buttons, favorites, and address bar in windows explorer.

Operating System:

The Windows 98 operating system delivers enhanced system performance and easier system protection. Specific performance enhancements include quicker application loading, additional hard disk space, faster shutdown, and multi-monitor support. Windows 98 provides increased, fixed support for peripheral devices and the new port standard.

Faster shut down:

Windows 98 take less time for shutting down than windows95, and windows 98 is faster and easier to use.

Background Properties:

Windows 98 allows you to set files as your desktop background. This feature has made the windows 98 desktop background look enhanced.

New accessibility tools:

Windows 98 includes two latest convenience tools. These include the accessibility Configuration Wizard and a low-end screen magnifier. The accessibility helps people get used to Windows' options to their needs, and a low-end screen magnifier assists people with modest vision impairments and those working on unknown machines.

New backup utility:

You can take a copy of your files or data (backup) easier and faster in windows 98.

DVD reader:

Windows 98 can read the DVD format and it supports digital sound's for movies and has better stereo.

Windows Maintenance Wizard:

The Windows Maintenance Wizard was intended to make the PC more self-manageable. Windows Maintenance Wizard helps by deleting needless files, making sure a hard disk is properly functioning and by launching applications up to 36 percent faster.

Features of Windows Maintenance Wizard include disk cleanup followed by disk defragmenter and scan disk.

Internet explorer 4.0:

The internet explorer 4.0 comes included with windows 98. This version of internet explorer has a variety of new features like channels that are easy to use and has faster access.

Question 3:

The internet is computer based worldwide information system. It is composed of many interconnected computer networks. The internet has brought an alteration in many features of life. Nowadays one can access the internet easily. The internet has developed to give numerous benefits to mankind.

The access to information is a highly significant use of the internet. Students now have access to libraries around the globe. Before, students had to spend hours in the libraries, but now at the touch of a button, students have enormous amounts of information in front of them.

Communication is an area where the internet is used for many motives as it is low cost, easy and fast. Communication takes place in the types of emails, video chats, chats, and video conferences. E-mail is a significant communications service available on the Internet. Email has speeded up business communication on all levels. Typically, it takes hardly any seconds for an e-mail to land at its destination. This is a mainly successful way to communicate with a group because one can transmit a message or document to everyone in the group at the same time.

Internet-telephony is an additional frequent communication service made possible by the creation of the internet. Internet telephony software fundamentally offers free telephone calls anywhere in the globe.

One of the fastest- growing types of internet communication is instant messaging, or also known as IM. An IM communications service allows you to create a private chat room with another person in order to communicate over the internet. One of the reasons that IM has develop into being popular is because, unlike e-mails, if a person wants to reach another individual and they are come online, a message become visible instantly in a window on their monitor. IM is growing in reputation in the business world. Employees of a firm can have immediate access to managers and co-workers in diverse offices and can reduce the money on phone calls when information is required instantly. IM can save time for employees and can reduce the sum of cash a business uses up on communication.

Interviews can even be performed online through video conferencing. Video conference gives the same effects as real life interviews. Video conferencing is a conference among two or more members at diverse sites by using computer networks to transmit audio and video data. Each member has a microphone, a video camera, and speakers connected on their computer. As they speak, their voices are delivered to each other and whatever images appear in from of the video camera appear in a window in the other participants monitor.

Advertising on the World Wide Web is a form of support for expressed purpose of delivering marketing messages to attract customers. It is expected to be the most effective form of advertising. Companies can reach a broad audience for a little fraction of customary advertising budgets. This allows customers to research and acquire products and services at their own expediency.

Social Impact

The internet has enabled completely new types of social interaction, activities, and organizing because of its basic features. Social networking websites such as Facebook, Myspace, and Friendster have created new and more ways to socialize and interact. These sites allow users to add information to pages, to add pictures, common interests and to connect with others. There are also sites that allow people to view videos and photographs. An example of this is YouTube.

The internet also provides an area of leisure activity such as multiplayer gaming. This establishes communities where people of all ages and origins take pleasure in the world of multiplayer games.

Many people also make use of the Internet to access and download music, movies and other things for their enjoyment. In addition, the World Wide Web is used by many people to access news, to check the weather and sports reports, and to arrange and book vacations.


The internet can also be used to sell products. A major advantage of selling via internet is the ability to reach anyone. You can reach customers that speak different languages. This is possible due to the fact that the language carrier is removed and translation software is used. When using the internet to sell products or services, one can operate from any computer in the world. Selling without the internet limits one to operate only from a fixed place.

When selling via internet, one may take advantage of interactive and multimedia channels. These allow for immediate response time. One also has the option to remain anonymous which allows for privacy which would not normally have outside the internet. Having a product on sale to the public 24/7 is an incredible benefit of the internet.

Center of learning

With the internet you can learn to do anything or perfect a skill you already have. There are many websites where you can see an instructional video or read step by step on how to do whatever it is you would like.

Question 4:


Pipelining is a particularly effective way of organizing parallel activity in a computer system. The basic idea is very simple. A set of data processing elements connected in series, so that the output of one element is the input of the next one. The elements of a pipeline are often performed in parallel or in time-sliced fashion. It is divided in stages. Each stage completes a part of an instruction in parallel. The stages are connected to form a pipe. Instructions enter one end of the pipe, progress through the stages, and exit at the other end.


The system clock coordinates the errands in a computer, like loading date before manipulating it. The system clock is a circuit that sends out a uninterrupted stream of accurate high and low pulses that are all closely the same length. Every modern PC has multiple system clocks. Each of these vibrates at a specific frequency, normally measured in MHz


Parallel processing is the ability to carry out multiple operations or tasks simultaneously. Parallel processing makes programs run faster because there are more engines running it. With the help of parallel processing, a number of computers can be performed at once at a shorter rate.