Comparison Of Windows And Linux Computer Science Essay

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Due to ease of use, resulting less work and lower staff costs Microsoft claim that its product have an overall lower total cost of ownership than open source programs of Linux

An argument on the cost effectiveness of linux administrators and Microsoft administrators. Usually Linux administrators are somewhat paid higher salaries than windows administrators. Most skilled Linux administrator can look after more computers than the latter.

According to the Total Cost of Ownership final conclusion that we can say is total cost of ownership is less in Linux compared to Windows.

"Both Linux and Windows provide a GUI and a command line interface. The Windows GUI has changed from Windows 3.1 to Windows 95 to Windows XPand is slated to change again with the next version of Windows, the one that will replace XP. Windows XP has a themes feature that offers some customization of the look and feel of the GUI.

The KDE Plasma Desktop - A number of desktop environments are available, of which GNOME and KDE are the most widely used. By default, they use the Metacity and KWin window managers respectively, though these can be replaced by other window manager, such as Compiz Fusion.

A sample Windows HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_PowerShell"Power Shell session - The Command Prompt exists to provide direct communication between the user and the operating system. A .NET-based command line environment called Windows HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_PowerShell"Power Shell has been developed. It varies from Unix to Linux shells in that, rather than using byte streams, the Power Shell pipeline is an object pipeline; that is, the data passed between cmdlets are fully typed objects.

Installation

"Windows Linux Notes Ease of Installation on Windows Server 2003 and prior, the installation is divided into two stages; the first, text-mode; the second graphical. On Windows Vista and newer, the installation is single stage and graphical. Some older versions require third party drivers most distributions intended for new or intermediate users provide simple graphical installers.

Linux distributions were said to be difficult for the average user to install. However, easy-to-use installers were becoming common on the major distributions already by the beginning of the twenty-first century. The main Linux distributions include graphical package managers which assist the user in searching for packages and installing them graphically. When package managers are used the user saves time as there is no need of surfing to web pages, downloading the appropriate packages, and installing them; the package manager handles all downloading, installing, resolving of dependencies, and conflict resolution.

Today, most distributions have simplified the installation and offer a "Live CD" system allowing users to boot fully functional Linux systems directly from a CD or DVD with the option of installing them on the hard drive. This enables a user to evaluate a distribution for either software or hardware compatibility with no permanent modification to their computer.

The Windows install process and most general-use Linux distributions use a wizard to guide users through the install process. Windows often comes pre-installed while a Linux distribution has to be chosen and installed, but one can argue that the installation of Linux nowadays is no more difficult than configuration of a pre-installed Windows"

Accessibility and usability

"User Focus - Windows Linux Notes user focus mostly consistent Inconsistencies appear primarily through back ports. Software ported from newer operating systems to older ones. For example, software ported from Vista to XP must follow the Vista guidelines, those of the newer system.However; Microsoft continually pushes for consistency between releases with guidelines for interface design. The latest are Windows Vista User Experience guidelines. Their focus is on consistency and usability, but with increased concern for safety in new versions. Third-party applications may or may not follow these guidelines, may have their own guidelines, or may not follow any rules for interface design. The quality of graphical design varies between desktop environments and distributions. The two biggest desktop environments have clearly defined interface guidelines, which tend to be followed consistently and clearly. These provide consistency and a high grade of customizability in order to adapt to the needs of the user. Combining well-functioning usability and safety. However, inconsistencies may appear, since GNOME-based programs, following different guidelines, look notably different from KDE programs, although there are workarounds for making both look similarly, There are other environments window managers, usually targeting professionals or minimalist users, featuring some very powerful programs with rudimentary, minimalist graphical front-ends, focusing much more on performance, small size and safety. Window Maker and the Black box environments are such examples. Some other environments fit between the two models, giving power, eye candy and simplicity. Some graphical environments are targeted to mouse users only others to keyboard users only, others to either. Certain graphical environments are also designed to be as resource-conservative as possible, so as to run on older machines"

Performance

"Windows Linux Notes Process Scheduling NT-based versions of Windows use a CPU scheduler based on a multilevel feedback queue, with 32 priority levels defined. The kernel may change the priority level of a thread depending on its I/O and CPU usage and whether it is interactive raising the priority of interactive and I/O bounded processes and lowering that of CPU bound processes, to increase the responsiveness of interactive applications.

Linux kernel 2.6 once used a scheduling algorithm favoring interactive processes. Here "interactive" is defined as a process that has short bursts of CPU usage rather than long ones. It is said that a process without root privilege can take advantage of this to monopolize the CPU, when the CPU time accounting precision is low. However, Completely Fair Scheduler, now the standard scheduler, addresses this problem. Memory Management or Disk Paging Windows NT family (including 2000, XP, Vista, Win7) most commonly employs a dynamically allocated page file for memory management. A page file is allocated on disk, for less frequently accessed objects in memory, leaving more RAM available to actively used objects. This scheme suffers from slow-downs due to disk fragmentation (which hampers the speed at which the objects can be brought back into memory when they are needed. Windows XP and later can defragment the page file, and on NTFS file systems, intelligently allocate blocks to avoid this problem. Windows can be configured to place the page file on a separate disk or partition. However, this is not default behavior, because if the page file is on a separate partition, then Windows cannot create a memory dump in the event of a Stop Error. On the NT family, executed programs become part of the paging system Programs cannot normally access each other's address space. It is possible to configure the operating system to have no additional paging file

The Windows 3.1x family does not have true virtual memory and uses a simpler swapping scheme easily leading to more swapping to disc and therefore more disc fragmentation. Virtual memory support and strict memory protection is limited on the Windows 9x family for the 32-bit processes

Most hard drive installations of Linux utilize a "swap partition", where the disk space allocated for paging is separate from general data, and is used strictly for paging operations. This reduces slowdown due to disk fragmentation from general use. As with Windows, for best performance the swap partition should be placed on a hard drive separate from the primary one. Linux also allows to adjust "swappiness" e. g. the amount of data it needs to buffer (this is not equivalent to adjusting the virtual memory size). Windows does not support."

Support

"Windows Linux Notes Community support Microsoft Developer Network (MSDN), Microsoft TechNet: Resources for IT Professionals and multitudes of user driven support forums are available at no charge. Additional support is available by 3rd party services. Most support is provided by advanced users and developers over online forums, and other free community based venues. Professional support is available, but most commonly only utilized by large-scale businesses and server dependent organizations. There are paid local Windows techs.

Most OEM's offer support along with their products, which include both hardware and software technical support.

Phone support By Microsoft or OEM. Usually for fee Red Hat, Canonical, Novell and other major distributors have support available as well for a fee. Documentation A wealth of information is available free online, or in books, as well as on Microsoft's own support page. Most documentation is available online, either in FAQ] form or Wiki pages on developers websites. Detailed documentation for specific commands, programs, functions, libraries, files, and file formats are available through the manHYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manual_page_(Unix)" pages, which are accessed through the command line, or through graphical viewers. Large applications often come with separate documentation. Some major distributions have books written by 3rd party authors, mainly for server admins or application development. Source code is available for all free software"

Cost

For desktop or home use, Linux is very cheap or free, Windows is expensive. For server use, Linux is very cheap compared to Windows. Microsoft allows a single copy of Windows to be used on only one computer. Starting with Windows XP, they use software to enforce this rule (Windows Product Activation at first, later Genuine Windows). In contrast, once you have purchased Linux, you can run it on any number of computers for no additional charge.

Fig 1.2

Linux operating system

Fig 2.2

Windows operating system

Task -03

Description on Thin Client

This refers to software or a program that relied deeply on a definite computer to do major works of it. When the network server computer does the work thin client can act as an interface. The machines which cannot carry out the functions in the thin client, these designed only to surf internet receive mails and send mails

Advantages and disadvantages of networking

Advantages

When the work stations connected with the network users can access the shared resources so that can do the work easily saving time

Cost of hardware equipment can be reduced in a network environment by sharing hardware. As a example like when having one printer for a computer network

we can gain centralized control over the work station in a network environment by maintaining a sever

employees are enable to access on computer networks which is touch on common data base and web severs

Disadvantages

Network equipments such as routers, hubs, switches and cables get high initial cost of implementation.

When it is connected to a network a stand alone machine becomes more variable to security threats.

There can be misplace of users data or the information due to the network failures.

Unless the network designed properly, network traffics can increase and reduce the performance of the network

Network Support Infrastructure

A network infrastructure includes the physical hardware use to transmit data electronically such as router, switches, gateways, bridges, and hubs

Routers- Routers can accommodate more than one machine to get connected with the internet. Routers are capable of finding the shortest path between 2 computers in a wide area network

Gateways- allows networks with different architectures (protocol) to communicate with each other

Bridges - these are devices that connect two or more Local Area Networks. These devices filter network traffics and they are simple and efficient traffic regulators

Switches - switches are smarter than hubs. Switches transfer data only to the connections which need data.

Hubs - these are device which helps to connect individual devices on the Ethernet network. Basically this operates by gathering signals from each individual network devices

Comparison of network solutions

Cisco Systems

These networking solutions provide secure foundation. Cisco systems include services such as routers and switches. These switches enable users to add applications to the networkand connect on the identical networks such the devices like computers and the printers

And The routers on this type help user to prevent from security threats while keeping the users information secure and aggressive firewalls to the users computer VPN (Virtual private networks).this type of solutions help user to improve security and customer service improves the users lower cost

Net gear Systems

These types of network solutions include, the wireless connectivity, business class switches, advanced security and high quality software products. Net gear Systems provide wired connectivity and the wireless connectivity for telecommunication networks and for remote mobile workforce's Net gear networking solutions agree easy access to the internet and showing files among computers and peripherals and among various computers to users.

Task -04

Fig 1.4

Accessing the web site to download thinstation ISO

Fig 2.4

Fig 3.4

Fig 4.4

Installation of the downloaded thinstation.exe file into the computer

Fig 5.4

Accepting the license agreement

Fig 6.4

Location to be installed

Fig 7.4

Starting to copy files

Fig 8.4

Fig 9.4

Complete of wizard

Fig 10.4

Once the installation is over we had to locate the thinstation-2.2.2 folder and get the .ISO file which was burned into the Bootable CD.

Fig 11.4

Fig 12.4

Fig 13.4

Using the software called PowerISO the image was burned into the CD ROM

Fig 14.4

Fig 15.4

Burning the CD

Fig 16.4

Above shows the appearance of the files inside the bootable CD after the burning process is over

After changing the boot sequence settings using the BIOS Utility,the thin client was booted from the CD ROM.

Fig 17.4

Shown above is the first boot screen of Thinstation Operating System

Fig 18.4

Fig 19.4

Booting up

Fig 19.4

Fig 20.4

Fig 21.4

References

Task 02

(06.08.2010)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_Windows_and_Linux

http://www.michaelhorowitz.com/Linux.vs.Windows.html

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